Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry

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ISSN / EISSN : 2161-7406 / 2161-7414
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 111
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Aymen Hussien Ahmed, Mohsen Mahmoud Mostafa
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojic.2022.121001

Abstract:
New solid complexes derived from the reaction of aroyl hydrazones, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde benzene sulphonyl hydrazone (HNB), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde p-toluene sulphonyl hydrazone (HNT), with Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ salts have been isolated and characterized using elemental analyses, spectral (UV-vis., IR), molar conductivity and magnetic measurements. The modes of bonding as well as the stereochemistry of the isolated solid complexes were discussed. The results suggested that both HNB and HNT coordinated with the metal ions in a bidentate manner forming a polymeric chain in the case of HNB while monocular complexes were formed in the case of HNT. The amounts of solvent in the solid complexes were determined by TGA measurements. Also, spectral studies of HNT with Co2+ and Fe3+ ions in solution were carried and the ratio of complexes was determined by continuous variation, molar ratio, and slope ratio methods. Moreover, the results suggest the formation of 1:1 (M:L) for Co2+ ions while three species with ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 (M:L) have been observed in the case of Ni2+ and Cu2+. Finally, conductance titration of HNB and HNT with Co2+ ion elucidates the formation of two species with ratios 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) in the case of the Co2+-HNB while 1:1 (M:L) belongs to the Co2+-HNT system.
Rokhaya Sylla Gueye, Nango Gaye, Mamadou Baldé, Adama Diedhiou, Ngoné Diouf, Seck Gorgui Awa, Idrissa Ndoye, Yoro Tine, Matar Seck, Djibril Fall, et al.
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 19-38; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojic.2022.122002

Abstract:
Li-ion batteries (Libs) are a mature technology widely used for energy storage in various electronic devices. Nowadays, this technology has become a leading candidate for the portable electronics market and for electric vehicles due to its good performance. As a result, the demand for Libs containing critical metals, rare earth elements and precious metals is increasing day by day with the accelerated upgrades of consumer electronics, which promotes the supply risk of many mining resources. In addition, the problems associated with the production of end-of-life Lib are increasing on a global scale. Used Libs are e-waste containing significant levels of critical raw materials (such as Co, Li, Mn and Ni) along with harmful substances. Without proper management of Lib waste, these precious metals and toxic substances may end up in nature and cause environmental and public health problems. In order to preserve nature, ensure sustainable resource management and stimulate the circular economy, it has become crucial to properly manage and recycle end-of-life Li-ion batteries. By the way, conventional methods focusing on pyrometallurgical treatments combined with hydrometallurgical treatment are widely studied to recover design metals from Libs waste. It is in this context that we have conducted this bibliographic synthesis, focusing on the efficiency of the solvents employed and their competitiveness for a more environmentally friendly economic management. In this manuscript, recent leaching, solvent extraction, electrodeposition and precipitation strategies to recover precious metals from end-of-life Li-ion battery designs are reviewed and the evolution of these processes is discussed.
Youjuan Zhang, Caiwen Zhang, Jing Chen
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 85-94; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojic.2021.113006

Abstract:
Two new M(II)-radical complexes [M(hfac)2(IM-o-QN)] (M = Ni(1), Zn(2); IM-o-QN = 4'-quinoxalinyl-substituted imino nitroxide; hfac = hexafluoroa-cetylacetonate) have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, element analyses, IR and UV-Visible spectroscopy. X-ray analysis reveal that the structures of both complexes are similar configuration and differently spatial symmetries. The complex 1 crystallizes in the triclinic Pī space group with the respective cell parameters: a = 9.1189(18) Å, b = 9.836(2) Å, c = 18.537(4) Å, α = 75.92(3)°, β= 81.95(3)°, γ = 69.32(3)°, V = 1506.1(5) ޵, Z = 2, whereas the complex 2 is in monoclinic C2/c space group with the respective cell parameters: a = 26.996(5) Å, b = 9.5223(19) Å, c = 23.961(5) Å, α = 90.00°, β= 91.07(3)°, γ= 90.00°, V = 6158(2) ޵, Z = 8. In two new M(II)-radical complexes, the central M(II)(Ni(1) and Zn(2)) ions are coordinated by four oxygen atoms from two hfac and two nitrogen atoms from imino nitroxide radicals to form a distorted octahedron. Additionally, the optical properties and thermal analysis of the two complexes are reported.
Youjuan Zhang, Caiwen Zhang, Jing Chen
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 55-62; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojic.2021.113004

Abstract:
Two new nitronyl nitroxide Cu(II) complexes {[Cu(hfac)2]2(NIT-4PyPh)}2(1) and [Cu(hfac)2][(NIT-3PyPh)2](2)(NIT-4PyPh=2-[4-(4-pyridinylmethoxy) phenyl]-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide,NIT-3PyPh=2-[4-(3-pyridinylmethoxy)phenyl]-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide,hfac=hexafluoroacetylacetone), have been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure analyses show that structures of the two complexes are different. Complex 1 crystallizes in cyclic metal-radical dimer consisting of four Cu(hfac)2 and two NIT-4PyPh ligands; four Cu(II) atoms adopt two coordinated modes. In the ring, each Cu(II) ion is hexa-coordinated by four oxygen atoms of two hfac ligands and one oxygen atom (ONCNO) and one nitrogen atom of the pyridinyl group from two different radicals. Outside the ring, each Cu(II) is penta-coordinated by four oxygen atoms of two hfac ligands and one oxygen atom (ONCNO) from the radical ligand. Complex 2 crystallizes in discrete molecule, while the Cu(II) atom is hexa-coordinated by four oxygen atoms of two hfac molecules and two nitrogen atoms of the pyridinyl group from two radical ligands.
Alvine Loris Djoumbissie, Alain Clovis Tayo Djampouo, Tanyi Rogers Fomuta, Giscard Doungmo, Golngar Djimassingar, Alain Charly Tagne Kuate, Jean Ngoune
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 43-53; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojic.2021.112003

Abstract:
Two novel copper complexes (1,2) with N,O-donor ligands were synthesized by reaction of copper(II) malonates with 3,3’-bis(pyrazolyl)pentane and 4,4’-trimethylenedipyridine in methanol at moderate temperature. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-VIS, IR spectroscopies and powder X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound (1) melts at higher temperature (202°C) than compound (2) (100°C). The IR spectra showed typical vibrations related to C=N and C=C, characteristic of pyrazolyl and pyridine ligands.
Mohsen M. Mostafa
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 111-130; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojic.2021.114008

Abstract:
Novel polymeric Cu2+ complexes derived from the reaction of cyanoacetylhydrazine (CAH; L) with CuCl2?2H2O in different solvents were synthesized and characterized. The isolated solid polymeric complexes were investigated using modern conventional physicochemical and spectral (IR, 1H-NMR, UV-Vis. ESR, Raman), magnetic and thermal studies. The results revealed that CAH behaves in different ways towards the coordination of the Cu2+ ion. The promotion of solvents to the cyano group was discussed on the basis of the solvent and the Cu2+ ion used. Magnetic and spectral studies suggest octahedral geometry is proposed for the Cu2+ complexes. EPR studies indicate the existence of polymeric complexes depending on the results of g-values. The results suggest that the number of copper atoms ranges from three to twelve atoms. The molecular modeling is drawn and some chemical characteristics are calculated such as chemical reactivity and energy components are investigated between the different types of the ligands.
Divine Mbom Yufanyi, Hubert Jean Nono, Amah Colette Benedicta Yuoh, Che Dieudonne Tabong, Wirsiy Judith, Agwara Moise Ondoh
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 63-84; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojic.2021.113005

Abstract:
Reaction of zinc acetate, potassium thiocyanate and the ligand 3-ampy gave the discrete tetrahedral complex [Zn(NCS)2(3-ampy)2] in which 3-ampy chelates in a monodentate fashion through its pyridine-N atom. It was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, and elemental analysis. Density Functional Theory calculations were performed in order to gain insights into the role of weak molecular interactions in the complex that influence the self-assembly process and crystal packing. X---H (X = H, C, N and S) inter-actions. S-H interactions (30.2%) were found to be the main interactions that hold the molecules in the crystal structure. Furthermore, the thermolysis of the complex was studied in order to evaluate whether it was suitable as a precursor for zinc sulphide.
Dantio Nguela Christian Brice, Ngomo Horace Manga, Bénédoué Serge Arnold, Kouotou Daouda, Abega Aimé Victoire, Ndongo Ndongo Alain Giresse, Che Randy Nangah, Ndi Julius Nsami
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojic.2021.111001

Abstract:
The uptake of tartrazine from its aqueous solution by powdered activated carbon prepared from cola nut shells chemically activated with potassium hydroxide (ACK) and phosphoric acid (ACP) has been investigated using kinetics models. Batch isotherm data were analysed with the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order model as well as the intraparticle diffusion model. For structural elucidation, the materials were characterized using FTIR, XRD and SEM. These analyses revealed that the activated carbons (ACK and ACP) were predominantly mesoporous with several oxygen-containing functional groups dispersed on their surface. The reaction was systematically investigated under various experimental conditions such as contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. For the two adsorbents, the quantity adsorbed of 19.256 mg/g and 18.196 mg/g respectively for ACP and ACK at respective contact times of 5 and 10 min were obtained. The adsorption data were tested with the Langmuir, Freundlich models. Langmuir model was found to best describe the adsorption of tartrate ions with maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 24.57 and 21.59 mg/g for ACP and ACK, respectively. Results analysis indicated clearly that the pseudo-second order kinetic rate model best fitted the experimental data and therefore was the adsorption controlling mechanism for both adsorbents. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic for ACP with increased randomness at the solid solution interface, then exothermic but non-spontaneous for ACK. The results show that these activated carbons could be an alternative for more costly adsorbents for the purpose of tartrate ions elimination.
Phil Lewis Mpampoungou Langama, Jean Jacques Anguile, Albert Novy Messi Me Ndong, Adam Bouraima, Crislain Bissielou
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 131-144; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojic.2021.104009

Abstract:
The aim of this work was to test the adsorption efficiency of copper (II) ions in an aqueous solution on Natural Smectite (NS) and Activated Carbon (AC). The experiments carried out in batch mode made it possible to determine the stirring time, the adsorbent mass, the pH, the initial concentration of copper (II) ions, the isotherms and the adsorption kinetics. It appears that the stirring time was 15 minutes for the AC and 20 minutes for the NS. The adsorption was at maximum for the two adsorbents at optimum pH of 3.5 for a mass of 0.05 g each. The quantity of copper (II) ions adsorbed was 26.6 mg/L for NS and 36.6 mg/g for AC of a concentration of 600 mg/L each. The Langmuir isotherm was the one that best described the adsorption process for the two adsorbents. The adsorption kinetics obtained was that of the pseudo second-order for our two adsorbents. The results obtained showed that these two adsorbents were effective for the adsorption of copper (II) ions in an aqueous solution.
Phil Lewis Mpampoungou Langama, Jean Jacques Anguile, Albert Novy Messi Me Ndong, Adam Bouraima, Crislain Bissielou
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 131-144; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojic.2021.114009

Abstract:
The aim of this work was to test the adsorption efficiency of copper (II) ions in an aqueous solution on Natural Smectite (NS) and Activated Carbon (AC). The experiments carried out in batch mode made it possible to determine the stirring time, the adsorbent mass, the pH, the initial concentration of copper (II) ions, the isotherms and the adsorption kinetics. It appears that the stirring time was 15 minutes for the AC and 20 minutes for the NS. The adsorption was at maximum for the two adsorbents at optimum pH of 3.5 for a mass of 0.05 g each. The quantity of copper (II) ions adsorbed was 26.6 mg/L for NS and 36.6 mg/g for AC of a concentration of 600 mg/L each. The Langmuir isotherm was the one that best described the adsorption process for the two adsorbents. The adsorption kinetics obtained was that of the pseudo second-order for our two adsorbents. The results obtained showed that these two adsorbents were effective for the adsorption of copper (II) ions in an aqueous solution.
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