Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2223-4721 / 2076-0299
Published by: Bangladesh Journals Online (JOL) (10.3329)
Total articles ≅ 1,348
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Latest articles in this journal

Nurkhaniza Kaman, Azlina Ishak, Juliawati Muhammad
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, Volume 21, pp 191-195;

We present a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in a 72-year-old male patient who has multiple ulcerated painless nodules over the left side of his chest and on his upper and lower left limbs for three years. He was initially diagnosed to have nodular vasculitis based on early repeated biopsies. Despite the patient’s good compliance with his prednisolone medication, no significant clinical improvement was observed. Another biopsy, which was arranged after two years of treatment for nodular vasculitis, supported the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. Itraconazole was initiated, and all the lesions showed a remarkable response toward the treatment. The delay in finding the correct diagnosis unnecessarily exposed the patient to the side effects of steroid and caused the disease to worsen. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 191-195
Hussein Ahmad, Meryem Guvenir, Emrah Guler, Ayse Arikan, Kaya Suer
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, Volume 21, pp 101-104;

Background: Over the past 20 years, studies have indicated that the increasing spread of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) demonstrates the need for adequate information about their epidemiology. This study was conducted in order to investigate the resistance rate of MRSA which were isolated from the Near East University (NEU) Hospital, North Cyprus. Methods: MRSA was isolated and identified by using selective media and the Phoenix BD 100 system (software version 6.01A) was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and identification. The antimicrobial susceptibility results were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standarts Institute (CLSI) and the resistance rates of MRSA isolates to antibiotics were examined retrospectively. Results: The highest number of samples were from the departments of chest disease (24%) followed by dermatology (21.3%) and cardiology (18.7%). Out of 75 MRSA strains,; 29.7% from blood, 25.3% from wound, 14.7% from nasal swabs, 10.7% from aspiration fluids, 9.3% from sputum, 6.7% were from urine, 4.0% from IV catheters culture samples. All strains of MRSA were 94.7% sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin.Conclusions: The obtained results revealed that preventative measures should be implemented in order to minimize the bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 101-104
Nagalakshmi Cs, Shaheen B Shaikh, Santhosh Nu
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, Volume 21, pp 19-23;

Background: COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading communicable disease worldwide. It varies widely in its spectrum of manifestations, from being mild self-limiting disease, to fulminant disease, often leading to complications and death. Diabetes is an important co-morbidity linked to severity of infection by SARSCoV- 2, which predisposes them to severe pneumonia. Poor glycaemic control is associated with worse outcomes. The disease burden of COVID-19 is continuously increasing, and with a high prevalence of diabetes, it is all the more important to understand the vital aspects of COVID-19 infection in diabetic population. Hence, we try to provide close insights into its pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, recommendations on management and prevention and possible avenues for improving disease outcomes. Methods: PubMed database and Google Scholar were searched using the key terms ‘COVID-19’, ‘SARS CoV- 2’, ‘Corona’ and ‘diabetes’. Full texts of the retrieved articles were accessed and referred. Three main mechanisms which influence COVID-19 disease manifestation in diabetics include: (a) Entry of virus via ACE-2 receptors (b) Action through Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4, and (c) Elevation of glucose concentration in airways by elevated blood glucose.ACE-2 is expressed in alveolar epithelial cells, heart, renal-tubular and intestinal epithelia and pancreas. S-Glycoprotein on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 binds to this ACE-2 and undergoes a conformational change. This allows its’ proteolytic digestion by host cell proteases TMPRSS2 and Furin, leading to internalization of virus. Viral entry into cells triggers an inflammatory response by T-helper-cells and at times, a ‘cytokine storm’, resulting in organ damage. Apart from diminishing neutrophil chemotaxis and reducing phagocytosis, by which diabetes predisposes individuals to infections, there are several specific factors with respect to SARS-CoV2: (i) Increased ACE-2 expression (ii) Raised Furin (iii) Diminished T-cell functioning, and (iv) Increased IL-6 levels. Movement restrictions, increased stress due to social isolation and lack of physical activity further complicates the issue. It is therefore, much essential to raise awareness among front-line workers. Finally, the current situation emphasizes the need for more clinical investigation and define best practices for optimum outcomes. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 19-23
Fitri A Nurani, Nadia Rs Rejeki, Tanti Setyoputri, Putri K Wardani, Fatkhan B Ridwan, Suparmi Suparmi, Pasid Harlisa
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, Volume 21, pp 84-89;

Introduction: Corn silk or known as herb name stigma maydis is an important medicinal botanical in many traditional medicines worldwide, including jamu, an Indonesia traditional medicine. The exploration of corn silk to treat acne vulgaris is still lacking, therefore the current research was conducted to analyze the activity of ethanolic extract from corn silk (EECS) against 3 acne-related bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of EECS at concentration range of 10 to 100% v/v was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. As comparation, distilled water was used as a solvent control, while 1% clindamycin was used as a positive control. Results: Shinoda’s test showed that flavonoid was detected in the EECS. The higher concentration of EECS exhibited higher diameter of inhibition zone indicating higher antibacterial activity on P. acnes, while the antibacterial activity of S. epidermidis was not increased at similar concentrations of EECS. The antibacterial activity of EECS against S. aureus decreased at the higher EECS concentration (>70%). Conclusion: Taken together, EECS is a potential as a bioactive source to inhibit the growth of acne-related bacteria P. acne, S. epidermidis and S. aureus. Further investigation is needed to explore the corn silk or stigma maydis as a medicinal botanical in jamu targeted to treat acne vulgaris. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 84-89
Norpazila Yaacob, Mohd Nazri Hassan, Faezahtul Arbaeyah Hussain, Rosnah Bahar, Ariffin Nasir, Norsarwany Mohamad, Wan Zaidah Abdullah
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, Volume 21, pp 196-200;

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disease but potentially life threatening clinical syndrome. It is caused by a multisystemic hyperinflammatory process secondary to severe hypercytokinemia with excessive and uncontrolled activation of the immune response. We report a case of familial HLH with no apparent causes in 6 months-old Malay girl presented with recurrent fever associated with severe anaemia and bleeding tendency requiring extensive treatment but refractory to the treatment which lead to mortality due to neutropenic sepsis indicating of poor prognosis of this disease. This familial type of HLH should be suspected in all children after excluding all the secondary causes with collective laboratory features and requiring extensive management as it associated with high mortality. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 196-200
- Pujiati, Dono Indarto, - Susilorini, Diani Retno Widyatuti, Haneda Ilzafira Damayanti, - Reviono, - Soetrisno
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, Volume 21, pp 175-183;

Background: Asthma is a disease of the respiratory tract in the form of chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is one of them characterized by the remodeling of the airways mediated by the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β. In addition there are also several immune cells that play a role such as macrophages, dendritic, neutrophils as producers of IL-12. The presence of the gut-lung axis allows the spread of inflammatory cytokines from the lungs to the intestines and vice versa. Lactobacillus brevis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides have the potential to modulate the immune system through its colonization of the gut. The study aimed to look at the effect of probiotics combined Lactobacillus brevis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides on the expression of TGF-β and IL-12 in the asthma model mouse ileum. Method: This experimental post-test only control group design study used 18 Sprague-Dawley mice. The mice were divided into 3 groups at random: control group (KI), asthma treatment (KII), asthma treatment with a combination of Lactobacillus brevis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (KIII). Sensitization of asthma with OVA through intraperitoneal injection on days 0 and 14 and through inhalation on days 21 -63. Administration of combination probiotics per oral per day on days 21-63 after inhalation of OVA. The ileum network was taken on the 64th day and measured the expression of TGF-βand IL-12 with immunohistochemical methods and analyzed the percentage proportion of TGF-βand IL-12. Data analysis were conducted by One way ANOVA test and continued post hoc tests. Results: The percentage calculation of the proportion of TGF-βin thecontrol group (KI), asthma group (KII), and the combination group of L.brevis and L.mesenteroides (KIII) is 22.4 ± 15.27; 1.6 ± 2.12; 19.4 ± 6.65. While the percentage calculation of il-12 proportion in each group consecutively were 24.3 ± 19.67; 64.63 ± 9.90; 51 ± 16.62. One way ANOVA Test results on the percentage proportion of TGF-βhave a p value of 0.013 (p<0.05) which means there is a significant difference in the entire group. Furthermore, the Post Hoc Games-Howell test was conducted and obtained a p value of 0.003 (p<0.05) between the asthma group (KII) and the combination group of L.brevis and L.mesenteroides (KIII) which means there are significant differences between the two groups. One way ANOVA Test results on the percentage proportion of IL-12 have a p value of 0.011 (p<0.05) which means there is a significant difference in the entire group. Furthermore, the Post Hoc LSD test was conducted and obtained a p value of 0.001 (p<0.05) between the control group Post Hoc analyses was conducted and obtained a p value of 0.002 (p<0.05) with number of errors was 11.353 between the control group (KI) and asthma group (KII) which means there are significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion: The probiotic administration of lactobacillus brevis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides had no effect on the expression of TGF-β and had no effect on il-12 expression in the asthma model mouse ileum. It is necessary to do research on mice with asthma using combinations with other bacteria in order to get maximum effect. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 175-183
Nasir Yusoff, Norrul Aikma Mohamed, Nor Azila Noh
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, Volume 21, pp 129-134;

Objective: This study examines the difference of interference effect in high and low neuroticism. Material and Methods: Low and high groups of neuroticism performed the congruent and incongruent Stroop Colour Word task in the Event Related Potential session. The ERP P300 was extracted and analysed. Results: High neuroticism exhibited larger P300 amplitude than low neuroticism in both congruent and incongruent condition. Conclusion: High neuroticism appraises conflict and non-conflict condition under incompatibility manner driven by prefrontal cortical top–down control. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 129-134
Afzan Mat Yusof
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, Volume 21, pp 8-18;

The biology of Cryptosporidium has been studied increasingly since it was recognized as a pathogen of humans more than a century. Its recent recognition as a second leading cause of diarrhoea or cryptosporidiosis immunocompromised patients globally has led many researchers to study on this parasite. Many new technologies such as high-throughput omics and bioinformatics tools have been implemented to investigate this zoonotic parasite in a better approach. The aim of this review article is mainly to briefly describe recent applications of structural bioinformatics in order to reveal the potentiality of a suitable therapeutic target in Cryptosporidium. This review was written based on the search of cited publications in SCOPUS website with the combination of word ‘Cryptosporidium’ with other words like bioinformatics, protein structure, structural biology and homology modeling. The search results then were selected based on the relativeness of updated information needed to be prepared in this review. Several cited publications were used to elaborate the review accordingly despitelimitedreviewupdatesrelatedtoprotein bioinformation of thisparasite. As a conclusion, bioinformatics is a commonly known to be cutting-edge technology that has been recognised for its power to reveal the secret of parasite biology in silico including a neglected parasite, Cryptosporidium. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 8-18
Swamy Ravindra Shantakumar, Huzaifah Bin Sahabdeen, Fawzul Azri Bin Zainal Abidin, Gaajeen Perumal, Naveen Kumar
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, Volume 21, pp 135-139;

Background: The advantageous effect of physical activity stimulated mostly by aerobic exercise known to impact the particular phases of brain activities. Exercise does help to improve physical health and develop an individual’s academic performance. Aim and objectives: The study aimed to observe the relationship between type and duration of exercise on the mental, physical health, and academic performance of undergraduate medical students. Materials and method: Present questionnaire-based study was undertaken on 50students of medical undergraduates studying in their preliminary MBBS curriculum. Results: Among the participants involved in regular exercise, 50% of them prefer jogging, brisk walking, or cycling as a mode of exercise, followed by 31% of participants who prefer to play various games that involve muscular activities. The remaining 19% of the students like to be involved in multiple activities of the gym. 84% of participants with regular exercise practice gave a strong opinion that they are confident enough to face academic assessment challenges. This observation was notably higher prevalence than that of non-exercise students (79%). Conclusion: Individuals who exercise for one to two hours have better physical and mental health status and excellent academic performance. It can also be concluded that students who do regular exercise have higher confidence in academics than those who do not. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 135-139
Ram Kirti Garg, Rajesh Kumar, Bir Singh, Rikki Singal, Kiran Kumar Singal, Ram Gopal Sharma
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, Volume 21, pp 151-157;

Objective: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, gold standard treatment for cholelithiasis, has traditionally been done using 4 ports. We compared four port procedure with newer 3-port cholecystectomy. Methods: Sixty patients were operated by equally dividing them into two groups and using two procedures mentioned in the objective. Results and Discussion: Assessment was carried out using parameters like operative time, cosmetic appearance and complications. Results were similar except operative time which was much less with 4-port procedure. Conclusion: It will require lot of training before three port laparoscopic cholecystectomy can become popular and beneficial compared to four-port procedure. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 151-157
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