Open Journal of Animal Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2161-7597 / 2161-7627
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 405
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Yaliska Moreno González, Jesica Iorio, María Florencia Olmeda, Dino Curletto, Daniel Scandolo, Martín Guillermo Maciel, Alejandra Cuatrin, Rafael Alejandro Palladino, Carolina Pérez, Eloy Eduardo Salado
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 761-781; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.104050

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplying calcium salts of linseed oil (Ca-FA) rich in omega-3 (α-linolenic acid) on the production and chemical composition of milk and its nutraceutical value in dairy cows in early lactation. The trial lasted 12 weeks (2 weeks for adaptation to lipids and 10 weeks of data collection). A total of 36 Holstein dairy cows with 58.0 ± 17.0 days in milk (DIM), 594.1 ± 92.4 kg BW, 2.6 ± 1.5 parity and 38.9 ± 9.3 kg milk day-1 were used in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were: 1) Omega-3 (O3): 5.2 kg DM day-1 of concentrate including 0.7 kg DM of Ca-FA + 13.5 kg DM day-1 of partial mixed ration (PMR) + 12 kg DM day-1 of alfalfa pasture (Medicago sativa) and 2) Control (C): diet similar to O3 but lipid supplementation was replaced by cracked corn grain so that the diets were isoenergetic. No treatment effect was detected (P > 0.05) for any milk production and composition variables, except for urea in milk that was slightly higher in O3 (P = 0.02). The treatment × week interaction was significant (P ·day-1 and 3.86% vs. 3.23% for fat yield and content, respectively). Total DMI and PMR were similar (P > 0.05) between treatments. Concentrate intake was higher (P 0.05) in rumen environment parameters. Supplementation with Ca-FA reduced (P 18:3n-3) increased (108%, P kg·day-1) improved the healthy value of the milk.
David Fokom Wauffo, Fernand Tendonkeng, Emile Miégoué, France-Gina Djoumessi Tobou, Camara Sawa, Mama Mouchili, Gilles Azangue Jiope
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 782-791; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.104051

Abstract:
In order to contribute to the improvement of guinea pig nutrition through the use of unconventional vegetable protein sources (Moringa oleifera seeds), experimental trials were carried out at the Animal Production and Nutrition Research Unit (URPRONAN) of the University of Dschang in April 2018. Moringa oleifera seeds from North Cameroon were divided into three treatments: the first consisted of whole Moringa oleifera seeds (MO-whole), the second of Moringa oleifera seeds soaked in cold water for 24 hours (MO-water) and the third of peeled Moringa oleifera seeds (MO-peeled). The seeds belonging to these three treatments were analyzed for the determination of the chemical composition before being incorporated into the different concentrates. Each concentrate was then granulated and combined with Pennisetum purpureum to make up the different rations. 40 English Guinea pigs with an average weight of 350 ± 50 g were used to evaluate the ingestion and digestibility of each ration. During the digestibility test which lasted 17 days (10 days of adaptation and 07 days of data collection), each ration was repeated on 10 Guinea pigs. The main results showed that the total tannin and phenol contents decreased significantly (p Moringa oleifera seeds soaked for 24 hours or pulped can be used in guinea pig feed as an alternative source of protein.
Matthew J. Ward, Steven R. Chipps
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 337-345; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103020

Abstract:
Adjustments to rearing practices should be justified with increases in production, stocking success, or angler satisfaction. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) production was assessed between hatchery ponds where fish were restricted to an invertebrate diet or received supplemental fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) forage during 2015. At harvest, age-0 bass yield was 4.5 times greater and average fish length was 38 mm longer, in the pond that received fathead minnow. In 2016, a second study evaluated the timing of minnow supplementation that included earlier stockings of small fathead minnow (30 mm) minnows. With earlier supplementation, bass yield was 2.3 times greater and fish averaged 14 mm longer at harvest. Bass survival was approximately 38% higher during 2015 when supplementation occurred and 25% higher during 2016 when minnow supplementation began earlier. Our findings show invertebrate forage was probably limiting bass production in hatchery ponds and supplementing with appropriately-sized fathead minnows increased age-0, largemouth bass production.
Semiu F. Bello, Mabel O. Akinyemi, Rasheed B. Fatai, Muslim K. Ewuola, Ridwan O. Ahmed, Favour Oluwapelumi Oyelami, Fisayo T. Akinyemi, Babatunde Shittu Olasege
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 278-286; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.102016

Abstract:
Pituitary Specific transcription factor 1 (PIT-1) gene is one of the POU gene family and play key roles in the regulation of muscle development which is important for body weight in chickens. This study was carried out to detect the polymorphism of PIT-1 gene and study its association with body weight in Fulani and Yoruba ecotype of Nigerian indigenous chickens. A total of 100 day-old chicks comprising of fifty chicks of Fulani and Yoruba ecotypes were used for this study. These chicks were genotyped using PCR-RFLP technique and their growth rate was also measured throughout the study. Our results showed two alleles A and B controlling genotypes AA and AB which were significantly associated with bodyweight of the chickens. Interestingly, we found out that AA genotype had the highest frequency of 0.64 and 0.76 compared with AB genotype which had a frequency of 0.36 and 0.24 in the Fulani and Yoruba ecotype respectively. Furthermore, the PIT-1 genotypes (AA and AB) were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with body weight at week 4 and week 12 in Fulani and Yoruba ecotype chicken respectively. PIT-1 gene was polymorphic in Fulani and Yoruba ecotypes of Nigeria Indigenous Chickens.
Ibukun Olukorede Popoola, Oluwabukola Rashidat Popoola, Oluwaseyi Olamide Olajide, Akinyemi Alaba Adeyemi, Queenesther Tolu Alegbejo
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 266-277; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.102015

Tsafack Boris Necdem, Kana Jean Raphaël, Yemdjie Mane Divine, Ebile Dayan Agwah, Ngouana Tadjong Ruben, Donfack Mikael, Tchouan Deffo Gilchrist, Kengni Noubissie Josiane, Teguia Alexis
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 514-527; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103032

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Gerardo Antonio Gagliostro, Liliana Elisabet Antonacci, Carolina Daiana Pérez, Luciana Rossetti, Martín Tassone, Verónica Frossasco, Favio Terreno, Alvaro Ugartemendia
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 468-492; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103029

Abstract:
The aim of the work was to improve the healthy value of milk and cheese fatty acids (FA) by feeding a mix of crude soybean oil sediment (CSOS) combined with fish oil (FO) to grazing dairy cows. The CSOS is a by-product commonly discarded after oil extraction containing 3.3% moisture, 6% total ash and 70.7% oil, locally available, comparatively economic and easy to mix with other feed ingredients. The experiment lasted 55 days from September 30th to November 23th 2018 and was carried out at the dairy farm “Gacef” provider of milk to the dairy industrial plant “Capilla Del Señor” (CDS) located at the Villa María City, Córdoba Province, Argentine. A herd of 80 multiparous Holstein cows producing 24 kg-1 milk·cow-1·day-1 was used. The cows grazed an alfalfa and an oat pasture that represented about 47% of total dry matter (DM) intake supplemented at 8.5 kg DM·cow-1·day-1 with a total mixed ration (TMR) composed (DM basis) by cracked corn grain (35.18%), whole plant corn silage (31.98%), pelletized soyben meal (17.99%), the CSOS supplement (13.85%) and FO (0.99%). The TMR was supplied by halves after each milking time in groupal feeders yielding 1.4 kg·cow-1·day-1 of the CSOS and 0.1 kg·cow-1·day-1 of FO. Before the start of lipid supplementation, milk samples (5) were obtained from the farm-tank representing the standar or reference milk (Ref-Milk). After 21 days of supplementary lipid supply, additional milk samples (5) were obtained representing the modified milk (Mod-Milk). Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition and milk FA profile. At each time, sufficient quantities of both (Ref- and Mod-Milk) were collected for manufacturing six types of cheeses. The results were analyzed through the Student-T test for independent observations. Oil supplementation did not modify (P > 0.05) the chemical composition of milk. Concentration of butyric acid (C4:0) in milk was not affected (P -1 FA and was decreased to 49.67 g 100 g-1 FA in Mod-Milk (P -1 FA in Ref-Milk to 38.13 g 100 g-1 FA in Mod-Milk (+19.07%) whereas polyunsaturated FA (PUFAs) increased (+36.1%) from 4.71 to 6.41 (P -1 FA) for the total concentration of the potentially atherogenic fraction of milk FA (C12:0 to C16:0). The atherogenic index (AI) also decreased (P trans-11 C18:1) in Mod-Milk averaged 7.77 g 100 g-1 FA which represented a 162 % increase (P -1). Concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2) in Ref-Milk averaged 1.47 g 100 g-1 FA and showed an important increase (P -1 FA, +163%). The omega 6/3 ratio resulted lower (P < 0.012) in the Ref-Milk (2.28) compared to the Mod-Milk (2.83). Milk and cheese FA composition were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.0001). The Mod-Cheeses showed similar results in AI, total concentration of SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs compared to the milk of origin. Differences in FA composition between the cheeses made with the Ref- and Mod-Milk were equivalent to those described for milks. It is concluded that supplementation with a blend of CSOS supplement and FO was an effective way to improve the healthy value of dairy products by reducing contents of SFAs, atherogenic FAs and the atherogenicity index with a concomitant increase in VA and CLA. Modifications induced in the Mod-Milk were recovered in the Mod-Cheeses. The results obtained may help to reduce saturated fat intake and fight or prevent incidence of non-communicable, cardiovascular and chronic diseases.
Dashe Dakalo, Bech Hansen Egon, Yusuf Kurtu Mohammed, Berhe Tesfemariam, Eshetu Mitiku, Hailu Yonas, Waktola Amsalu, Shegaw Adane, Dakalo Dashe, Egon Bech Hansen, et al.
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 387-401; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103024

Abstract:
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) activated lactoperoxidase system (LPs) on keeping quality of raw camel milk at room temperature. Camel milk samples were collected from Errer valley, Babile district of eastern Ethiopia. The level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for activation of LPs was optimized using different levels of exogenous H2O2. Strains of LAB (Lactococcus lactis 22333, Weissella confusa 22308, W. confusa 22282, W. confusa 22296, S. Infatarius 22279 and S. lutetiensis 22319) with H2O2 producing properties were evaluated, and W. confusa 22282 was selected as the best strain to produce H2O2. Storage stability of the milk samples was evaluated through the acidification curves, titratable acidity (TA), total bacterial count (TBC) and coliform counts (CC) at storage times of 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hours. The LP activity and the inhibitory effect of activated LPs were evaluated by growing E. coli in pasteurized and boiled camel milk samples as contaminating agent. Results indicated that the W. confusa 22282 activated LPs generally showed significantly (P 2O2 producing LAB and exogenous H2O2 activated LPs in pasteurized camel milk significantly reduced the growth of E. coli population compared to non-activated pasteurized milk. Overall, the result of acid production and microbial analysis indicated that the activation of LPs by H2O2 producing LAB (i.e. W. confusa 22282) maintained the storage stability of raw camel milk. Therefore, it can be concluded that the activation of LPs by biological method using H2O2 producing LAB can substitute the chemical activation method of LPs in camel milk.
Benoit Lekeufack-Folefack Guy, Feudjio-Dongmo Bienvenu, Fomena Abraham, Tene-Fossog Billy, J. Wondji Murielle, Guy Benoit Lekeufack-Folefack, Bienvenu Feudjio-Dongmo, Abraham Fomena, Billy Tene-Fossog, Murielle J. Wondji
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 378-386; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103023

Abstract:
Myxosporidia constitute a major group of fish parasites which have a significant negative impact on wild and cultured fish. The used of DNA in Myxosporidia studies has progressed rapidly over the last twenty years, especially in their identification and characterization as well as determination of species diversity and investigation of their evolutionary relationships. Extraction and isolation of pure and high quality DNA are essential for any molecular study, but constitute a challenge for many laboratories especially in low and middle income countries. Myxosporidia plasmodia filled with mature myxospores were isolated from different tissues of Labeo batesii Boulenger, 1911. DNA from myxosporidia myxospores were extracted using a Livak optimized DNAs extraction protocol. Four particular phases of the original protocol were optimized. Yield and absorbance ratios of extracted DNA were determined using spectrophotometer. DNA samples were used as template for the amplification of the 18S rDNA region and amplicons resolved on 1.5% agarose gel for determination of fragment sizes and purity evaluation. The concentration of extracted DNA from all Myxosporidia species ranged from 4.6 to 26 ng/μl with purity indices ranging from 1.88 to 2.12. We successfully amplified the 1050 bp DNA fragment as targeted. The intensity, thickness and clarity of the bands were evidences of non-degradation of DNA. The optimized Livak protocol is simple, low-cost and manageable. Regarding the quantity, purity and quality of extracted DNA, the optimized Livak protocol is highly recommended for Myxosporidia studies.
J. E. Hergenreder, T. L. Harris, J. O. Baggerman, A. D. Hosford, M. Branine, B. J. Johnson
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 402-413; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103025

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