Open Journal of Animal Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21617597 / 21617627
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 385
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Matthew J. Ward, Steven R. Chipps
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 337-345; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103020

Abstract:
Adjustments to rearing practices should be justified with increases in production, stocking success, or angler satisfaction. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) production was assessed between hatchery ponds where fish were restricted to an invertebrate diet or received supplemental fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) forage during 2015. At harvest, age-0 bass yield was 4.5 times greater and average fish length was 38 mm longer, in the pond that received fathead minnow. In 2016, a second study evaluated the timing of minnow supplementation that included earlier stockings of small fathead minnow (30 mm) minnows. With earlier supplementation, bass yield was 2.3 times greater and fish averaged 14 mm longer at harvest. Bass survival was approximately 38% higher during 2015 when supplementation occurred and 25% higher during 2016 when minnow supplementation began earlier. Our findings show invertebrate forage was probably limiting bass production in hatchery ponds and supplementing with appropriately-sized fathead minnows increased age-0, largemouth bass production.
Ruben Ngouana Tadjong, Kana Jean Raphaël, Yemdji Mane Divine Doriane, Kamkade Yves, Edie Nounamo Longston Wilfried, Teguia Alexis
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 346-361; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103021

Abstract:
From a total of 80 fertile eggs incubated naturally by female ducks, healthy sexed ducklings (n = 64, 32 males and 32 females ducklings) were randomly selected and allotted to four dietary treatments with four replicates, in a completely randomized design in order to evaluate the effect of varying levels of palm kernel meal (PKM) on performance of ducklings. The dietary treatments comprised R0-control ration, R50-50% PKM replacement, R75-75% PKM re-placement and R100-100% PKM replacement of soyabean meal. The main results revealed that the apparent digestive coefficients of dry matter (81.12%), organic matter (83.98%) and NDF (81.10%) were higher with the ration in which 50% (R50-50% PKM replacement of soyabean meal) of soybean was replaced by palm kernel meal. The highest feed intake in male was recorded with the ration containing 75% (R75-75% PKM replacement of soyabean meal) of palm kernel. This same ration (R75-75% PKM replacement of soyabean meal) equally induced the highest live weight and weight gain in females. The experimental design and arrangement is a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with two sexes and four levels of PKM. In males, the control ration without palm kernel meal induced the highest live weight and highest cumulative weight gain. The lowest feed conversion ratio (p 0.05) affected by the incorporation of palm kernel meal into the diet. Urea serum content tends to decrease with the increasing level of palm kernel meal in feed. In conclusion, soybean meal can advantageously be replaced by palm kernel meal at the level of 75% (R75-75% PKM replacement of soyabean meal) in Muscovy duck feed.
Mitiku Eshetu, Ewunetu Bekele, Yosef Tadesse
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 162-181; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.101009

Abstract:
Ethiopia has high livestock population and hence has high potential for hide and skin production. Likewise, in west Shewa Zone of the country there is high hide and skin production. But hides and skins are affected by different types of defects that hampered effective and efficient utilization of these resources. Therefore, a study was conducted in Bako Tibe and Ilu Gelan districts of west Showa zone with the objectives to assess pre- and post-slaughter defects that influence hide and skin qualities. Primary data were collected from sample household heads, middlemen, butcheries, hotel/restaurants and tanneries using semi-structured interview and direct observations. All middlemen, butchery and hotel/restaurants in the study areas were employed for data collection while households were selected using simple random sampling techniques. Results of the study revealed that all household respondents reported absence of extension services on hide and skin management. The maximum pre-slaughter defect observed by households (87.2%), hotel/restaurants (91.3%), butcheries (93.3%) and middle men (90%) were due to ectoparasites. Out of the respondents 64.6%, 40% and 82.6% of respondents from household, butcheries and hotels/restaurants, respectively were slaughtered animals on the ground without stunning. The maximum post-slaughter defects observed during slaughtering by households (95.4%), hotel/restaurants (87.0%), and butcheries (86.7%) were dirt and flay cut. According to the respondents, 38.5 of the households kept hide and skin on the ground before marketing. It was found that the major post-slaughter defects of hide were flesh remnant (94.3%), dirty (74.3%), corduroying (71.4%), and flay cut (65.7%). Moreover, traditional animal husbandry and slaughtering practices, poor storage and preservation methods of raw hides and skins, the absence of slaughtering facility and extension service exacerbated the problem. Therefore, there is an urgent need for good animal management practices, animal transportation and slaughtering, and post slaughter hide and skins management.
Ahmedin Abdurehman Musa, Yesihak Yusuf Mummed
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 219-235; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.101012

Abstract:
The study was conducted in West Hararge Zone Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia with the objective to describing the dairy production and reproduction performance, identifying and prioritizing researchable issues which make an impact on the development of dairy sector, identifying factors influencing dairy production, constraints and opportunities and forwarding suggestions for the development of dairy sector. Two districts from midland and lowland agroecology were purposively selected. Moreover, two kebeles were also selected purposively from each district based on dairy cattle population and accessibility. A total of 120 households were selected for survey data collection from the three agroecologies. For the monitoring study, 4 lactating cows in each lactation stage for each rural kebeles as well as for each breed were used. A total of 112 lactating cows were used. The result of the study indicates that the majority (85.8%) of respondents use local breed cow for milk production and the remaining 14.2% of respondents are used cross breed. Average daily milk production was 2.98 litters/day/cow and the average price of one liter milk in the study area at the study period was 23.63 birr. There was a significant difference between the two breeds on the mean age at first calving. Local zebu cow has significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean age at first calving 46.73 ± 0.30 than cross breed cows 31.41 ± 0.53 at the study area. Cross breed cows had significantly shorter (14.44 ± 0.43) months of CI than that of local zebu cow (16.02 ± 0.29). Majority of the respondents ranked feed shortage as the first constraint and also mastitis as the first economically important disease problem.
Addis Fikrie Birhanu, Yesihak Yusuf Mummed, Mohammad Yousuf Kurtu
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 203-218; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.101011

Abstract:
The objective of the study was to determine the level of Bruising and Dark Firm Dry on Arsi, Boran and Harar cattle breeds in Ethiopia. A total of 39 beef bulls from three different breeds (14 Boran, 14 Harar, and 11 Arsi cattle breeds) were used in this study. Based on the present finding, from 39 slaughtered beef bulls 66.7% was bruised and 30.77% produced DFD meat. Harar breed had the highest (39.1%) overall level of bruising while Boran and Arsi had the lowest level. However, Harar breed had the lowest level of DFD (14.29%). Age groups 3 - 6 and 6 - 9 years had the highest level of a bruise (29.70% and 28.10%, respectively) compared to age groups 2 - 3 years. The mean number of bruises per carcass was 1.96 ± 0.25 while the bruise score per carcass was 3.58 ± 0.68. A linear bruise was the most observed (33.33%) shape of a bruise. It was concluded that the level of bruising and DFD was higher compared to some other abattoir studies in other countries which indicated the possible presence of poor handling practice of cattle from farm to abattoir gates. To minimize the incidence of DFD and bruising, it was recommended that proper handling of cattle during loading, transport, unloading, at lairriage and during slaughter need to be practiced.
A. M. Abd El-Hady, Ghada Mostafa El Ashry, O. A. H. El-Ghalid
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 134-151; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.101007

Abstract:
This paper was conducted to monitor the effect of mixed essential oils ([email protected]) as phytogenic extract herbs administration in drinking water on growth performance, hematological, biochemical, immunological statuses and carcass traits of broiler chickens. A total number of 240 unsexed broiler chicks (Cobb-500) strain, were randomly divided to four equal groups, 60 chicks each at seven days of age. The first group drank tap water (control), the second, third and fourth group were drank the same water, adding 1 ml [email protected] per 5, 10 and 15 liter tap water, respectively for 5 week of age. It was cleared from the results that there was a significant improve in feed conversion ratio, red and white blood cell counts, total protein, albumin, globulin, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and a relative reduction in the liver enzymes but in the normal range. However, it was observed that mix essential oils have no significant impact on carcass organs. High levels of the vital parameters, low levels of hepatic enzymes showed that birds health was good and relative improvement in immune system. The relative improvement of the absorption of minerals such as calcium and inorganic phosphorus to the positive role of essential oils. Administration in drank water was occasion, a regular activity of hepatic enzymes which can evidence safety and hepato-protective nature of these oils. Therefore, it is cleared from the results that the addition of these extract herbs in drinking water enhances the health meat, performance and physiological status of broiler chicks, which helps to obtain healthy meat and suitable for human consumption.
Gerardo Antonio Gagliostro, Liliana Elisabet Antonacci, Carolina Daiana Pérez, Luciana Rossetti, Augusto Carabajal
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 182-202; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.101010

Abstract:
Compared to pasture based sistems, milk produced in confined dairy systems is characterized by a high saturated fat (SF) content with a lower concentration of healthy fatty acids (FA) such as vaccenic (VA, trans-11C18:1), conjugated linoleic cid (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, CLA), α-linolenic (cis-9, cis-12, cis-15C18: 3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6) whose presence in milk and dairy products can be increased by feeding polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). The aim of the study was to determine the differences in milk composition and FA profile between a regular (Reg) milk (Reg-Milk), a Reg-Dambo type cheese (Reg-DCh) and a Reg yogurt (Reg-Yog) with that obtained after including a blend (7:1) of soybean (SO) and fish (FO) oils in the total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating dairy cows. The experiment was carried out at the Talar Farm located at Laguna del Sauce, Maldonado Department, Punta del Este, Uruguay Republic during a period of 30 experimental days using a single production batch of 29 Holstein cows. Within this batch, one group of 8 cows (1.88 ± 0.99 calves) in early lactation (135 ± 19 days postpartum) was selected to individually measure milk yield and composition. During the first 7 days of the experiment, cows were fed a TMR without oil-blend inclusion to obtain the Reg-Milk, Reg-DCh and Reg-Yog. From the 8th day onwards, the oil blend was added to the TMR at 4% DM (1.0 kg oil blend cow-1 day-1) and after 23 days of feeding, the modified milk (Mod-Milk) was analyzed and collected to elaborate the modified Dambo-type cheese (Mod-DCh) and Mod-yogurt (Mod-Yog). Milk yield was recorded daily in the selected 8 cows and milk composition was determined over two consecutive days prior to the start of blend-oil supply (Reg-Milk) and at the end of oil supplementation (Mod-Milk) on days 29th and 30th. Milk-tank samples of Reg-Mi and Mod-Mi were also collected and analyzed for chemical composition and milk FA profile. Cheese and yogurt were assayed for its FA profile. Differences in milk yield and composition and in the FA profile before and after oil-feeding were stated using the Student T-test for paired observations. Milk production (kg·cow-1·day-1) slightly (-6.7%) decreased (P -1 g leading to a lower (P -1·day-1) of fat corrected milk (4%FCM) from 32.83 (before) to 29.63 after oil. Milk protein content (g 100 g-1) increased (P -1·day-1) (P -1 in Mod-Mi as it was observed (P -1). Yield of NFS tended (P -1·day-1after oil supply. Content of atherogenic FA (C12:0 to C16:0) was significantly (P -1 (Mod-Mi) with a concomitant decrease (P -1 FA) of elaidic (trans-9 C18:1) and trans-10 C18:1 FA was low in Reg-Mi (0.22 and 0.34 respectively) but tended (P -1 FA) of VA resulted higher (+110%, P -1 FA) increased (P -1) of α-linolenic were higher (P cis-9 C18:1) content (g 100 g-1) remained unchanged (P < 0.504) averaging 21.99 in Reg-Mi and 22.86 in Mod-Mi. Composition of FA of the Mod-DCh was highly correlated (R2 = 0.999)...
Zachary K. Smith, Peter T. Anderson, Bradley J. Johnson
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 237-253; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.102013

Abstract:
Beef cattle producers in the North America have a variety of production and marketing options and must choose the best production system for their situation. This review describes considerations involved in choosing between feeding cattle conventionally versus feeding them in programs that prohibit the use of certain technologies. Data from peer-reviewed journals, extension publications, nutritional consultants, governmental organizations, and feed companies were used to construct this review. Most cattle in North America are fed in conventional production systems. Conventional beef production systems typically use steroidal implants, ionophores, and beta-adrenergic agonists to improve animal productivity; as well as feed grade and injectable antimicrobials to control, treat or prevent disease and improve animal health. These technologies have been shown to lower the cost of production, allowing for beef to be competitive in the global protein market. Some consumers have expressed a preference for beef produced without these technologies. These “All-natural” (AN) cattle may bring a premium price in the market. The economic impact of differing productions systems can be described in relation to 1) cost of production, 2) operating costs of the feedlot, 3) price paid for feeder calves, and 4) price received for fed cattle. Conventional production provides the most favorable outcome for factors 1, 2, and 3, while AN production provides the most favorable outcome for item 4. There are also industry wide and societal aspects related to differing beef production systems related to health and safety of beef, land use, and cost of production allowing for a greater share of the global protein market. Technologies used in conventional production are critical tools to North American beef production. Differences in efficiencies between each type of non-conventional production systems must be re-captured in added premiums when cattle are marketed and sold. Premiums for AN cattle are enticing, but the true differences in the cost of production between the AN and conventional cattle must be evaluated in order for a producer to make the correct decision for their operation.
Semiu F. Bello, Mabel O. Akinyemi, Rasheed B. Fatai, Muslim K. Ewuola, Ridwan O. Ahmed, Favour Oluwapelumi Oyelami, Fisayo T. Akinyemi, Babatunde Shittu Olasege
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 278-286; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.102016

Abstract:
Pituitary Specific transcription factor 1 (PIT-1) gene is one of the POU gene family and play key roles in the regulation of muscle development which is important for body weight in chickens. This study was carried out to detect the polymorphism of PIT-1 gene and study its association with body weight in Fulani and Yoruba ecotype of Nigerian indigenous chickens. A total of 100 day-old chicks comprising of fifty chicks of Fulani and Yoruba ecotypes were used for this study. These chicks were genotyped using PCR-RFLP technique and their growth rate was also measured throughout the study. Our results showed two alleles A and B controlling genotypes AA and AB which were significantly associated with bodyweight of the chickens. Interestingly, we found out that AA genotype had the highest frequency of 0.64 and 0.76 compared with AB genotype which had a frequency of 0.36 and 0.24 in the Fulani and Yoruba ecotype respectively. Furthermore, the PIT-1 genotypes (AA and AB) were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with body weight at week 4 and week 12 in Fulani and Yoruba ecotype chicken respectively. PIT-1 gene was polymorphic in Fulani and Yoruba ecotypes of Nigeria Indigenous Chickens.
Lamas Sofia, Franquinho Filipa, Morgado Marlene, Gartner Fátima, Amorim Irina, Sofia Lamas, Filipa Franquinho, Marlene Morgado, Fátima Gartner, Irina Amorim
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 254-265; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.102014

Abstract:
Superovulation is used to stimulate the production and release of large amounts of oocytes in mice by using two hormones that mimic FSH (PMSG) and LH (hCG) effects. Since superovulation can have a negative impact on oocyte and embryo development, this investigation aimed to compare two alternatives for 2-cells embryo collection in order to reduce the number of females and to benefit from the superovulation process. Data from mouse embryo collection from our facility was analyzed to compare the number of 2-cells embryos collected at 1.5 dpc and the number of 2-cells embryos obtained after overnight incubation of 1-cell embryos, collected at 0.5 dpc. Genetically modified mouse strains with a similar background (C57BL/6J, B6*129 and FVB/NJ) were analyzed and for strains at a C57BL/6J and B6*129 background, the number of 2-cells embryos obtained after incubation was significantly higher when compared to the number of 2-cells embryos collected at 1.5 dpc (1.4-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively). C57BL/6J wild type mice had similar results with a higher number of 2-cells embryos when collection was performed at 0.5 dpc followed by incubation (1.4-fold). These results can help the planning of 2-cells embryo harvesting by reducing the number of females needed for this procedure.
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