Open Journal of Animal Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2161-7597 / 2161-7627
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 440
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, József Prokisch
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 532-542; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.114036

Abstract:
A simple method for assessment of the toxicity and antidote effect of selenium nanoparticles with Paramecium caudatum is presented. Light microscopy in combination with computerized video tracking is employed for the determination of the survival time of P. caudatum. Up to 800 mg/L, selenium nanoparticles are not acutely toxic. With respect to a potential antidote effect, the lethality of silver nanoparticles, silver nitrate, sodium hydrogen selenite, and sodium selenite to P. caudatum was decreased and survival time was extended upon pre-treatment with selenium nanoparticles. Taken together, these findings suggest that administration of selenium nanoparticles attenuates exposure to toxicants. Selenium nanoparticles could be a good functional additive for food management in animals.
Cecilia Loza, José Gere, María Soledad Orcasberro, Alberto Casal, Mariana Carriquiry, Paula Juliarena, Efren Ramírez-Bribiesca, Laura Astigarraga
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 440-457; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.113031

Abstract:
A grazing experiment was undertaken to assess the effects of two levels of herbage mass (HM) on herbage DM intake (DMI), fat and protein corrected milk yield (FPCM), grazing behaviour, energy expenditure (HP), and methane emissions (CH4) of grazing dairy cows in spring. Treatments were a low HM (1447 kg DM/ha; LHM) or a high HM (1859 kg DM/ha; HHM). Pasture was composed mainly of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) and lucerne (Medicago sativa), offered at a daily herbage allowance of 30 kg DM/cow, above 5 cm. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 2 × 2 Latin Square design in two 10-day periods. Despite the differences in pre-grazing HM between treatments, OM digestibility was not different (P = 0.28). Herbage mass did not affect DMI or FPCM. Grazing time was not different between treatments, but cows had a greater bite rate when grazing on LHM swards. However, HP did not differ between treatments. Daily methane emission (per cow), methane emission intensity (per kg FPCM) and methane yield (as percentage of gross energy intake) were not different. The lack of effect of the amount of pre-grazing HM on energy intake, confirms that the difference between HM treatments was beyond the limits that impose extra energy expenditure during grazing.
Timketa Dagne, Yesihak Yusuf Mummed, Mohammed Yusuf Kurtu, Mengistu Urgea Leta, Travis Gene O’Quinn, Jessie L. Vipham
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 139-156; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.112011

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine proximate composition and profile of fatty acid of beef from Arsi, Borana and Harar Cattle breeds in Ethiopia. A total of 39 bulls with three age categories were used for the study. The bulls were purchased from mixed crop livestock system (Arsi and Harar cattle breeds) and Ranch (Borana cattle breed). Complete randomized design was used for the study. Longissimus dorsi muscle was used to evaluate proximate composition and profile of fatty acid. The result of the study indicated that mean of percentage of dry matter, ash, crude fat and crude protein were ranging 22.43 - 24.26, 0.32 - 1.28, 4.32 - 7.88, 17.21 - 22.76, respectively. At age younger than 3 years, Harar bulls contain more crude fat compared to Arsi bulls while the vice versa was true for crude protein. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was higher than saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the three breeds studied across all age categories. However, significantly higher (P 0.01) PUFA and lowest (P 0.05) SFA found in Harar breed whereas the opposite hold true for Arsi bulls. Ratio of n-6: n-3 in the muscle of bulls under the study was ranged from 2.10 to 2.57. Concentration of PUFA and MUF in muscle of the three breeds were significantly affected (P 0.05) by age. From the study it was concluded that Arsi, Boran and Harar bulls under the three age categories contained more than 3% minimum crude fat that is required to insure palatability of the beef. The higher concentration of PUFA over SFA in all breeds across age categories indicated that the meat from these cattle breeds has less risk hazard to human health. However, a strategy needs to be developed to increase the ratio of n-6: n-3 to the nutritional recommendations by the World Health Organization which is 4:1 to 5:1. Moreover, the cause of the difference in proximate composition and profile of fatty acid between breeds under the study at different age categories needs to be investigated.
Alexandria P. Snider, Derek J. McLean, Alfred R. Menino
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 175-196; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.112014

Abstract:
Health status of donor cows during superovulation is important to ensure optimal embryo quality at time of collection. Because nutritional and metabolic status impact embryo quality some form of nutritional supplementation is often provided before and during superovulation. OmniGen-AF® (OG) feeding has been shown to assist in the maintenance of animal health through regulation of metabolic status and balance and supporting aspects of immune function. We observed feeding donor cows OG decreased percent degenerate embryos recovered following superovulation increased serum progesterone concentration and improved in vitro embryo development. Evaluation of OG feeding on markers of metabolic function and inflammatory and immune function in beef cattle embryo donors are reported here. Similarly, cow metabolic and inflammatory response with repeated superovulation protocols is not known. Biomarkers to monitor and evaluate cow health during superovulation may provide management options to improve embryo recovery and quality. Twenty-four Angus cross-bred cattle were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, fed 0 or 56 g/hd/day for 49 days and superovulated with 200 or 400 mg Folltropin V (FSH). Blood was collected weekly for analyses. The protocol was repeated on all cows 90 - 120 d later with cows reassigned to their original groups. No differences (P > 0.10) were observed due to OG feeding or FSH dose on metabolic and inflammatory markers. Replicate exerted a significant effect where serum concentration of albumin, IL1β, IL6, PGE2 and leptin were lower (P < 0.05) in Replicate 1 compared to 2. There was also a similar pattern of change in several of the metabolic and inflammatory markers during the superovulation protocol where concentrations were higher at the time of estrus and ovulation. Taken together, physiologic changes during the estrous cycle and the number of superovulation protocols can modulate metabolic markers and inflammatory response.
Michael Andrew Parsley, Mark Elder Wilson, Thomas John Gall, Mark Richard Malcolm Ballard
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 197-207; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.112015

Abstract:
Research findings for supplementing boar stud diets with fish oils are inconsistent. This study was designed to address three possible causes of performance variation of boars to fish oil supplementation: stability of the fatty acid source, level of inclusion and breed of boars tested. Three groups of 87 boars each, from two genetic lines (PIC 337 and PIC 800), were assigned to treatment based on age, mean sperm production (previous 12 weeks), and body condition score. All boars received a corn-soybean meal diet with a commercial fish oil supplement providing 1.83 g/boar/day of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a preconditioning diet. On 10-Aug., 2020, the DHA source was changed to a stabilized starch imbedded source of refined fish oil (Salmate®), providing 1.83 g/b/d for the test diet. Two additional levels providing 2.38 and 2.94 g/b/d of DHA were fed for a 9 week pretreatment period and during the test period. Salmate® fed at 2.38 g/b/d of DHA resulted in a reduction in the number of rejected ejaculates (P 0.045) by 7.5% and 6.4% compared to the lowest and highest inclusion rates, respectively. There were no treatments by genetic line interactions. A retrospective study of semen production and quality of 77 boars on the Salmate® diet containing 1.83 g/b/d DHA was done to compare to the original source of DHA at the same inclusion level. There were no differences in semen quality parameters between the 2 lipid sources. Ejaculate volume increased from 177.9 ml to 233.4 ml (P 0.001) and total sperm cells per ejaculate increased from 69.7 × 109 to 82.0 × 109 (P 0.001) due to substitution of Salmate®. Adding Salmate® at 2.38 g/b/d resulted in a lower number of rejected ejaculates per boar by 7.5% and 6.4% vs. 1.83 and 2.94 g/b/d, respectively, and boars fed Salmate® at 1.83 g/b/d produced 17% more doses than the competing product.
Peter Williams, John Clark, Kelly Bean
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 231-237; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.112018

Abstract:
There is a growing demand for feed additives that can not only reduce dairy enteric methane emissions but also increase milk production and feed efficiency. Just one product is currently commercially available which accomplishes both of these goals. The purpose of this study was to confirm the performance benefits of the product (Agolin?, Agolin SA, Biere, Switzerland) in high producing mid-lactation dairy cows under United States feeding conditions. Four matched pens of approximately 150 mid-lactation cows/pen and averaging over 50 kg of milk/cow/day were enrolled in a side-by-side study. All pens received a common total mixed diet ad libitum, and the essential oil blend was administered via a concentrated farm pack to provide 1 g/cow/day to cows in the 2 test pens. Milk weights were determined, and samples were collected for compositional analysis over the last 2 days of the pretrial (May 11 and 12, 2020) and end of the trial (July 18 and 19, 2020) periods. Dry matter intake was measured by pen daily for the last 10 days of each feeding period. Milk fat and milk protein yields were greater (P 0.05) for cows receiving added Agolin. There was a tendency (P = 0.06) for energy corrected milk/dry matter intake to be greater for cows receiving the Agolin (1.88) relative to the control diet (1.76). The trial showed that Agolin assisted in improving production parameters of economic importance to dairy producers.
Matthew J. Ward, Brian G. Blackwell
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 50-61; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.111005

Abstract:
Walleye (Sander vitreus) fingerling production can be enhanced when the pond substrate is altered from earthen soils to an exposed liner; however, few differences in water chemistry, prey densities, and food habits have been identified that could potentially explain this production difference. Lack of an explanation led to further comparison of walleye fingerling culture between substrate types during 2016. Two ponds of each type were stocked with 1- to 3-day-old walleye fry, but lined ponds received an additional 104,166 fry/ha and were stocked 1 or 2 days later than earthen ponds (May 10). Walleyes in lined ponds achieved a growth advantage on May 31 (+2.5 mm) and on June 6 (+3.3 mm), but lengths were not significantly different at harvest (June 15). Lined ponds increased walleye yield and number 1.8-fold while not reducing individual fish size at harvest compared to earthen ponds. Walleye food habits were generally similar between pond types with a greater number of zooplankton being consumed through June 6 followed by an increase in larval chironomid consumption at harvest (June 15). After May 30, lined ponds exhibited lower dissolved oxygen and higher ammonia-nitrogen concentrations even though earthen ponds received additional (157 kg/ha) alfalfa (Medicago sativa) meal fertilizer. Also, at this time pH declined abruptly and remained below 8.2 in lined ponds. Moreover, the enhanced production in lined ponds coincided with walleyes that exhibited an increased pelagic (δ13C) signature during the culture period (2‰ to 3.3‰ more negative). Efforts to improve production in earthen-substrate ponds should focus on increasing the pelagic signature of the food web through fertilization strategies which increase ammonia-nitrogen (≈0.3 mg/L) and decrease dissolved oxygen (≈6.5 mg/L) while maintaining a pH between 8.0 and 8.2 during the second half of the rearing interval.
Jamal Abo Omar, Ahmed Zaazaa, Maen Sheqwarah, Bassam Abu Shanab, Wael Qaisi, Jehad Abdallah
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 96-104; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.111008

Abstract:
The nutritive quality of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) residues (GR) was investigated and the effects of partial replacement of wheat straw by GR on nutrients intake, digestibility, and growth performance. Twenty four male lambs, with average body weight (BW) of 40.3 ± 2.5 kg were divided into three groups. Lambs were fed individually for 104 days with concentrate mixture (18% crude protein) and wheat straw as a total mixed ration. Wheat straw was replaced with 0, 100 and 145 g/kg dry matter guar residues. All rations were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The fattening trial lasted 104 days. At the end of week 10 of the trail, a digestion trial was performed using six lambs from each group. The composition of nutrients in the GR was 87%, 8.5%, 56.4% and 40.1% for DM, CP, NDF and ADF, respectively. DM and crude protein (CP) intake were not affected by the inclusion of GR. However, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) intake were lower in lambs fed GR compared to control lambs. At the end of the experiment, lambs fed 100 and 145 g GR/kg DM diets gained more weight (P version (CR). Results from this work suggested that GR had advantages compared to regular roughage (wheat straw) in regard to parameters investigated as well as the significant reduction in fattening diets cost.
Ana Márcia Suarez-Fontes, Juliana Almeida-Silva, Sarah Cristina dos Santos Silva, Letícia Sant’Anna de Souza, Daniele Brum de Souza, Conceição Suarez Fontes de Araújo Lima, Marcos André Vannier-Santos
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 333-353; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.112024

Abstract:
The term Ecology is derived from οἶκος (Greek “house” or environment), but our habitations usually overlooked in ecology or environmental studies. The expression “at home” usually means safety and comfort, but at home we are under risk of innumerous parasitic/microbial infections and contaminations/ envenomation. During the COVID-19 pandemic we were forced to stay at home, but the virus and other pathogens were also home-delivered. Education for health is highly effective in health promotion, particularly in poor areas. Thus, prophylactic interventions approaching household environment are required. The present activity aims community empowerment and engagement in controlling parasitic diseases and other infections such as Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, arboviruses etc. Inspired on the use of a house maket by Dr. Virgínia Schall to demonstrate Aedes mosquitoes breeding sites. We also employ house makets displaying pathogen vectors breeding/hiding sites. Although some makets can be opened, revealing intradomiciliary milieu, we intended to offer the public a literally “insider” view of this largely overlooked scenery. The “Interactive House”, also known as “House with no viruses and other bugs” is an educative, interactive, ludic device elaborated on an inflatable igloo, with furniture and utensils crafted using reused/recycled or low-cost materials. Live mosquito larvae were placed at peridomicile in water-accumulating plant pot saucer, leaves-clogged gutter, used tire, dog water bowl as well as within the domicile, in the shower drain trap. Evidengue®, crafted in cloth to block mosquito oviposition developed is presented. Participants enjoy taking part in the activity, seem amused, play, laugh and smile while enthusiastically take pictures. This educative activity permits health communication in a ludic interactive way, which may contribute to health promotion in areas with public health problems.
Tassilo Brand, Matthias Miller, Deepashree Kand
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 222-230; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.112017

Abstract:
Introduction of solid feeds in the ration of calves has been shown to increase rumen size and stimulate rumen fermentation. With the initiation of bacterial fermentation in the rumen, the intermediary metabolism moves from a glucose-based to a volatile fatty acid-based metabolism, which releases methane. MootralTM has been identified as a promising plant-derived feed supplement to reduce methane emission in dairy and beef cattle. Therefore, the present study aimed at quantifying and mitigating the methane emissions in calves until the slaughtering age of 28 weeks. The study consisted of 20 Holstein bull calves at a commercial farm, assigned randomly into 2 groups (control n = 10; treatment n = 10), for 2 weeks of adaptation and 8 weeks of sample collection. The calves were fed an increasing amount of milk replacer and ad libitum wheat straw. Mootral was fed once a day to the treatment calves. Methane was measured using GreenFeed units where concentrate feed was offered as bait. The calves were weighed at the start and every four weeks during the experiment. The calves in the treatment group had lower methane emissions (54 g/d) compared to the control group (70 g/d), a reduction of 22.8%. In contrast, carbon dioxide emission and dry matter intake did not differ significantly between the study groups. Moreover, no negative impact on the average daily weight gain and carcass weight was observed in Mootral fed calves. Although the methane emission (g/kg body weight) was lower in treatment than in the control group, the absolute difference between the groups narrowed with increasing age of the calves. The results suggest a need to increase the dose in line with the increased body weight and intake of the calves. In conclusion, Mootral effectively reduced methane in calves. Further trials to determine the optimal dose for calves are warranted, and as well studies to investigate if interventions (such as Mootral) applied at an earlier life cycle stage would have an impact on methane emissions at later stages of cattle’s life, would be of scientific interest.
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