Open Journal of Animal Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2161-7597 / 2161-7627
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 399
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Tsafack Boris Necdem, Kana Jean Raphaël, Yemdjie Mane Divine, Ebile Dayan Agwah, Ngouana Tadjong Ruben, Donfack Mikael, Tchouan Deffo Gilchrist, Kengni Noubissie Josiane, Teguia Alexis
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 514-527; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103032

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Tilahun Debela, Mengistu Urge, Getnet Assefa, Zeleke Mekuriaw
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 313-335; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.102019

Abstract:
A survey was conducted in Agalo Meti, Bambasi and Mandura districts of Kamashi, Assosa and Metekel zones of Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State, respectively. The aim of the study was to assess production characteristics, productive performances and producer’s traits preference of goats. A total of 177 households who have goat flock and experience in goat production were purposively selected. Data was collected through respondent interviews using structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and field visit. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and reported using descriptive statistics. Indices were used to present ranking. Farming is characterized by mixed-crop livestock production system and livestock are kept under traditional extensive management system. Greater number of goats than other livestock species were owned in the area. The indigenous goats reared in the area include Arab, Felata and Gumuz. The mean goat flock size per household was 9.81 ± 1.08, 8.31 ± 1.16 and 8.71 ± 0.88 in Agalo Meti, Bambasi and Mandura district, respectively. Goats were primarily kept for generating income (indices = 0.43), followed by saving/insurance (0.34), and meat for home consumption (0.18). About 58% of the producers sell goat skins, whereas (42%) did not-sold through the formal market chain. Natural pasture and indigenous browse species were the major feed resources. About 89.3% of the respondents housed their goats in a well-shaded separately constructed house. The herding practices of goats include: free-roaming all year round (67.8%) and restricted herding (32.2%) during the cropping season. The major constraints for goat production were infectious and parasitic diseases (0.45), inadequate veterinary services (0.39), predators (0.091), marketing problem (0.03) and poor management (0.01). Arab, Felata, and Gumuz goats give first birth at the age of 13.65 ± 0.40, 12.90 ± 0.29 and 12.54 ± 0.43 months, kidded at every 8.52 ± 0.41, 7.85 ± 0.25 and 7.67 ± 0.22 months and produce 0.52 ± 0.03, 0.61 ± 0.02, and 0.51 ± 0.01 liter of milk, respectively. Uncontrolled natural mating is the dominant breeding system, and bucks and does run together throughout the year. Size, growth rate, body conformation and age were the preferred traits in selecting bucks, whereas does were selected based on size, multiple birth, milk yield and kidding interval. Therefore, in order to utilize the current growing demand for goat meat at local and international markets, improving the production environment, particularly health and nutrition, genetic and production technologies is necessary.
Matthew J. Ward, Steven R. Chipps
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 337-345; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103020

Abstract:
Adjustments to rearing practices should be justified with increases in production, stocking success, or angler satisfaction. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) production was assessed between hatchery ponds where fish were restricted to an invertebrate diet or received supplemental fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) forage during 2015. At harvest, age-0 bass yield was 4.5 times greater and average fish length was 38 mm longer, in the pond that received fathead minnow. In 2016, a second study evaluated the timing of minnow supplementation that included earlier stockings of small fathead minnow (30 mm) minnows. With earlier supplementation, bass yield was 2.3 times greater and fish averaged 14 mm longer at harvest. Bass survival was approximately 38% higher during 2015 when supplementation occurred and 25% higher during 2016 when minnow supplementation began earlier. Our findings show invertebrate forage was probably limiting bass production in hatchery ponds and supplementing with appropriately-sized fathead minnows increased age-0, largemouth bass production.
J. E. Hergenreder, T. L. Harris, J. O. Baggerman, A. D. Hosford, M. Branine, B. J. Johnson
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 402-413; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103025

Gerardo Antonio Gagliostro, Liliana Elisabet Antonacci, Carolina Daiana Pérez, Luciana Rossetti, Martín Tassone, Verónica Frossasco, Favio Terreno, Alvaro Ugartemendia
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 468-492; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103029

Abstract:
The aim of the work was to improve the healthy value of milk and cheese fatty acids (FA) by feeding a mix of crude soybean oil sediment (CSOS) combined with fish oil (FO) to grazing dairy cows. The CSOS is a by-product commonly discarded after oil extraction containing 3.3% moisture, 6% total ash and 70.7% oil, locally available, comparatively economic and easy to mix with other feed ingredients. The experiment lasted 55 days from September 30th to November 23th 2018 and was carried out at the dairy farm “Gacef” provider of milk to the dairy industrial plant “Capilla Del Señor” (CDS) located at the Villa María City, Córdoba Province, Argentine. A herd of 80 multiparous Holstein cows producing 24 kg-1 milk·cow-1·day-1 was used. The cows grazed an alfalfa and an oat pasture that represented about 47% of total dry matter (DM) intake supplemented at 8.5 kg DM·cow-1·day-1 with a total mixed ration (TMR) composed (DM basis) by cracked corn grain (35.18%), whole plant corn silage (31.98%), pelletized soyben meal (17.99%), the CSOS supplement (13.85%) and FO (0.99%). The TMR was supplied by halves after each milking time in groupal feeders yielding 1.4 kg·cow-1·day-1 of the CSOS and 0.1 kg·cow-1·day-1 of FO. Before the start of lipid supplementation, milk samples (5) were obtained from the farm-tank representing the standar or reference milk (Ref-Milk). After 21 days of supplementary lipid supply, additional milk samples (5) were obtained representing the modified milk (Mod-Milk). Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition and milk FA profile. At each time, sufficient quantities of both (Ref- and Mod-Milk) were collected for manufacturing six types of cheeses. The results were analyzed through the Student-T test for independent observations. Oil supplementation did not modify (P > 0.05) the chemical composition of milk. Concentration of butyric acid (C4:0) in milk was not affected (P -1 FA and was decreased to 49.67 g 100 g-1 FA in Mod-Milk (P -1 FA in Ref-Milk to 38.13 g 100 g-1 FA in Mod-Milk (+19.07%) whereas polyunsaturated FA (PUFAs) increased (+36.1%) from 4.71 to 6.41 (P -1 FA) for the total concentration of the potentially atherogenic fraction of milk FA (C12:0 to C16:0). The atherogenic index (AI) also decreased (P trans-11 C18:1) in Mod-Milk averaged 7.77 g 100 g-1 FA which represented a 162 % increase (P -1). Concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2) in Ref-Milk averaged 1.47 g 100 g-1 FA and showed an important increase (P -1 FA, +163%). The omega 6/3 ratio resulted lower (P < 0.012) in the Ref-Milk (2.28) compared to the Mod-Milk (2.83). Milk and cheese FA composition were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.0001). The Mod-Cheeses showed similar results in AI, total concentration of SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs compared to the milk of origin. Differences in FA composition between the cheeses made with the Ref- and Mod-Milk were equivalent to those described for milks. It is concluded that supplementation with a blend of CSOS supplement and FO was an effective way to improve the healthy value of dairy products by reducing contents of SFAs, atherogenic FAs and the atherogenicity index with a concomitant increase in VA and CLA. Modifications induced in the Mod-Milk were recovered in the Mod-Cheeses. The results obtained may help to reduce saturated fat intake and fight or prevent incidence of non-communicable, cardiovascular and chronic diseases.
Ruben Ngouana Tadjong, Kana Jean Raphaël, Yemdji Mane Divine Doriane, Kamkade Yves, Edie Nounamo Longston Wilfried, Teguia Alexis
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 346-361; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103021

Abstract:
From a total of 80 fertile eggs incubated naturally by female ducks, healthy sexed ducklings (n = 64, 32 males and 32 females ducklings) were randomly selected and allotted to four dietary treatments with four replicates, in a completely randomized design in order to evaluate the effect of varying levels of palm kernel meal (PKM) on performance of ducklings. The dietary treatments comprised R0-control ration, R50-50% PKM replacement, R75-75% PKM re-placement and R100-100% PKM replacement of soyabean meal. The main results revealed that the apparent digestive coefficients of dry matter (81.12%), organic matter (83.98%) and NDF (81.10%) were higher with the ration in which 50% (R50-50% PKM replacement of soyabean meal) of soybean was replaced by palm kernel meal. The highest feed intake in male was recorded with the ration containing 75% (R75-75% PKM replacement of soyabean meal) of palm kernel. This same ration (R75-75% PKM replacement of soyabean meal) equally induced the highest live weight and weight gain in females. The experimental design and arrangement is a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with two sexes and four levels of PKM. In males, the control ration without palm kernel meal induced the highest live weight and highest cumulative weight gain. The lowest feed conversion ratio (p 0.05) affected by the incorporation of palm kernel meal into the diet. Urea serum content tends to decrease with the increasing level of palm kernel meal in feed. In conclusion, soybean meal can advantageously be replaced by palm kernel meal at the level of 75% (R75-75% PKM replacement of soyabean meal) in Muscovy duck feed.
Kibebew Babege, Mitiku Eshetu, Firew Kassa
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 592-607; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103038

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Dashe Dakalo, Bech Hansen Egon, Yusuf Kurtu Mohammed, Berhe Tesfemariam, Eshetu Mitiku, Hailu Yonas, Waktola Amsalu, Shegaw Adane, Dakalo Dashe, Egon Bech Hansen, et al.
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 387-401; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103024

Abstract:
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) activated lactoperoxidase system (LPs) on keeping quality of raw camel milk at room temperature. Camel milk samples were collected from Errer valley, Babile district of eastern Ethiopia. The level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for activation of LPs was optimized using different levels of exogenous H2O2. Strains of LAB (Lactococcus lactis 22333, Weissella confusa 22308, W. confusa 22282, W. confusa 22296, S. Infatarius 22279 and S. lutetiensis 22319) with H2O2 producing properties were evaluated, and W. confusa 22282 was selected as the best strain to produce H2O2. Storage stability of the milk samples was evaluated through the acidification curves, titratable acidity (TA), total bacterial count (TBC) and coliform counts (CC) at storage times of 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hours. The LP activity and the inhibitory effect of activated LPs were evaluated by growing E. coli in pasteurized and boiled camel milk samples as contaminating agent. Results indicated that the W. confusa 22282 activated LPs generally showed significantly (P 2O2 producing LAB and exogenous H2O2 activated LPs in pasteurized camel milk significantly reduced the growth of E. coli population compared to non-activated pasteurized milk. Overall, the result of acid production and microbial analysis indicated that the activation of LPs by H2O2 producing LAB (i.e. W. confusa 22282) maintained the storage stability of raw camel milk. Therefore, it can be concluded that the activation of LPs by biological method using H2O2 producing LAB can substitute the chemical activation method of LPs in camel milk.
Benoit Lekeufack-Folefack Guy, Feudjio-Dongmo Bienvenu, Fomena Abraham, Tene-Fossog Billy, J. Wondji Murielle, Guy Benoit Lekeufack-Folefack, Bienvenu Feudjio-Dongmo, Abraham Fomena, Billy Tene-Fossog, Murielle J. Wondji
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 378-386; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103023

Abstract:
Myxosporidia constitute a major group of fish parasites which have a significant negative impact on wild and cultured fish. The used of DNA in Myxosporidia studies has progressed rapidly over the last twenty years, especially in their identification and characterization as well as determination of species diversity and investigation of their evolutionary relationships. Extraction and isolation of pure and high quality DNA are essential for any molecular study, but constitute a challenge for many laboratories especially in low and middle income countries. Myxosporidia plasmodia filled with mature myxospores were isolated from different tissues of Labeo batesii Boulenger, 1911. DNA from myxosporidia myxospores were extracted using a Livak optimized DNAs extraction protocol. Four particular phases of the original protocol were optimized. Yield and absorbance ratios of extracted DNA were determined using spectrophotometer. DNA samples were used as template for the amplification of the 18S rDNA region and amplicons resolved on 1.5% agarose gel for determination of fragment sizes and purity evaluation. The concentration of extracted DNA from all Myxosporidia species ranged from 4.6 to 26 ng/μl with purity indices ranging from 1.88 to 2.12. We successfully amplified the 1050 bp DNA fragment as targeted. The intensity, thickness and clarity of the bands were evidences of non-degradation of DNA. The optimized Livak protocol is simple, low-cost and manageable. Regarding the quantity, purity and quality of extracted DNA, the optimized Livak protocol is highly recommended for Myxosporidia studies.
Ibukun Olukorede Popoola, Oluwabukola Rashidat Popoola, Oluwaseyi Olamide Olajide, Akinyemi Alaba Adeyemi, Queenesther Tolu Alegbejo
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 266-277; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.102015

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