American Journal of Trade and Policy

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2313-4747 / 2313-4755
Published by: ABC Journals (10.18034)
Total articles ≅ 125
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Latest articles in this journal

Mst. Hasna Banu, Sayaduzzaman, Subhash Chandra Sil
American Journal of Trade and Policy, Volume 8, pp 215-224;

The focal attempt of this research is to identify the consequence of credit risk management indicators on profitableness attributes of state-owned commercial banks functioning in Bangladesh. To attain the objectives of this research study researcher has analyzed four sample banks’ audited annual reports covering the period 2012 to 2016. The study has employed the ANOVA technique, multiple regression model, and correlation matrix to reach the concluding remark as per study objectives. The findings revealed that there is significant and insignificant variation as well as relationship in the different indicators of credit risk management but there is insignificant variation in the different attributes of profitability in the midst of the sample banks within the study period. Furthermore, there is the insignificant impact of the different indicators of credit risk management namely loan and advance, classified loan, unclassified loan, leverage ratio, bad debt, default ratio, cost per loan asset, and cost to income ratio on profitability attributes such as return on assets, return on equity along with net profit percentage of the sample banks over the study period. Hence, the study has recommended that the management of the banking sector should emphasize creating a smart credit management policy as well as lending guidelines to formulate the suitable credit risk management practice to meet the demand of loans applicants properly.
Melanie Lane
American Journal of Trade and Policy, Volume 8, pp 183-198;

Since COVID-19, the world has been constantly evolving to adapt. Finding a cure quickly became the focus worldwide which altered set approaches to intellectual property rights. Additionally, creating a controversial vaccine has led to several more questions for the future. With varying vaccines and standards throughout the world, travel, business, and trade may face new challenges which change the current systems.
Ashraf Al Mamun
American Journal of Trade and Policy, Volume 8, pp 199-214;

The broad objective of this paper is to investigate the relationships between the disclosure of non-financial material sustainability information and the financial performance of listed Australian companies in the materials sector. Using firm-level fixed-effects analysis for all companies, the findings show a mixed relationship (no relationship or statistically significant negative relationship) between lagged aggregate non-financial material sustainability disclosure and financial performance of Australian listed companies in the materials sector. The present study contributes to the existing literature on disclosure of non-financial sustainability information by adding insights into the materiality concept of non-financial sustainability disclosure in the Australian context. The evidence from the current study is expected to provide useful information for the companies’ stakeholders in Australia who use both financial and non-financial information for formulating business and regulatory policies and for decisions regarding the persistent expansion of sustainability reporting requirements. Funding Acknowledgement: This study is funded by the “Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship”.
Severine Bateman
American Journal of Trade and Policy, Volume 8, pp 115-128;

In September of 2020, the Department of Justice made a change to the Merger Remedies Manual, which discusses the correct remedies for mergers that violate the standards in the Heart-Scott-Rodino Act and how to best enforce them. A deeper look at this manual prompts a deeper analysis on current antitrust merger standards and how they balance government power and personal liberties. The Merger Remedies manual and its corresponding document with the Federal Trade Commission, as well as the merger standards in regard to the rise of Private Equity Buyers and Big Tech, promote concern over the balance between constitutional rights and promoting fairness in the marketplace. This article is among the first to analyze how current merger remedies stand in being effective in regard to the technology sector, while also analyzing the constitutionality of those merger regulations.The article contributes to the literature in three primary ways. First, the article deeply analyzes the two manuals for merger remedies from the above mentioned agencies and determines which better balances governmental powers with personal liberties and where both agencies could improve. Second, the article outlines the current concerns with large technology companies and their current rights in regard to merger standards while also acknowledging their monopolizing tendencies, presenting ways in which such issues could more easily and constitutionally be regulated through antitrust merger laws. Third, the article analyzes the current stance from the merger regulating agencies towards private equity firms and how their changing stances and opinions support a less government-regulative stance towards private equity firm involvement.
Corinna K. Hamilton
American Journal of Trade and Policy, Volume 8, pp 171-182;

As this article will explain in detail, much of the fentanyl reaching the hands of Americans comes from The People’s Republic of China (“China”). However, as seen by the rise in overdoses, most efforts to control the invasion of fentanyl have been unsuccessful. Although the federal and state governments have attempted to curtail this crisis by imposing sanctions and urging China to regulate production and shipping of the substance, fentanyl continues to flood the streets of the U.S. Moreover, the economic interdependence between the two nations complicates the matter. Because of this interdependence, the U.S. must take control of the situation. The U.S. fentanyl problem will persist if Americans are not dissuaded from using the drug. We must focus on the demand, rather than the supply. This comment focuses on the rise of opioids and synthetic pain relievers, and the variety of attempts at decreasing the number of addicts and overdoses. Initially, the comment will discuss the history of the popular drug opium, opiates, and prescription opioids, discussing state and federal attempts at curbing the crisis that the U.S. faces. It will address the rise of synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl, and how and why it was created. Section two will discuss how fentanyl and its precursors are imported into the U.S. from China. Section three will discuss U.S. federal and state attempts at legislation to control the flow of fentanyl into the U.S. Section four will address the implications, or perhaps fuel to the fire, that the influx in the supply of fentanyl from China has had on trade relations, and how the trade linkage between the two nations obfuscates the situation. The comment will conclude by hypothesizing how the U.S. and China will recalibrate their relationship and recommend that to combat the fentanyl emergency, the U.S. needs to take steps to offer Americans with drug addictions the assistance they need.
Amos N. Guiora, Nathan H. Jackson
American Journal of Trade and Policy, Volume 8, pp 129-146;

Although the events of the past year are in many ways unprecedented, they have resulted in circumstances that are common throughout history. The rise of a global pandemic has led to suffering in many forms, political powers shifting, militant coups rising, and countries facing protests as civil unrest becomes more prevalent. In these uncertain times, political leaders and the role of militaries have been even more scrutinized, revealing flaws that might have remained undetected if it was not for circumstances going awry. These current events have caused us to reflect upon incidents of the past when commanders have faced the uncertainty of how to complete their mission. History is wrought with instances in which the commander, despite having a “Plan B,” still fails to succeed in his role, thus resulting in hundreds of thousands of unnecessary lives lost. Specifically, this article focuses on three death marches—The Long Walk of the Navajo, The Bataan Death March, and Holocaust Death Marches—and the international law of command responsibility. In comparing and contrasting these three historic events through the lens of this law, we analyze the imposition of a commander’s criminal liability when unexpected events occur and he or she is called upon to make difficult decisions. In doing so, we also provide a historical backdrop of each commander’s ethical, moral, and tactical decisions, allowing us to explore what else could have been done, and who should be held liable for the actions of the commander’s soldiers. Ultimately, we call on national leaders and military commanders alike to evaluate our uncomfortable contemporary reality, look back in history, and ask themselves one question: am I truly prepared to make the right decisions when things go wrong?
David E Missirian
American Journal of Trade and Policy, Volume 8, pp 147-154;

There is a new form of communication entering the international business world and the legal environment. It is the Emoji. It has been embraced across the globe by millennials. There are 26 million US persons entering the business community this year alone for whom the emoji is an essential communications tool. That number is matched in multiples by other countries. We must anticipate and incorporate this new mode and method of communication into our international legal structure, or we will ultimately make our legal system less effective in the global business community driving a communications wedge between our society and the rest of the world.
Ryan W. McDowell
American Journal of Trade and Policy, Volume 8, pp 155-170;

Maritime commerce in world commerce. Each year, vessels carry more cargo at higher costs and faster speeds. Insurance is an integral part of shipping, as it protects cargoes and crews against the perils of the sea. This article focuses on the peril of piracy, a criminal practice that has evolved significantly throughout history. Pirates today, as pirates of the past, prey upon the unprotected. Yet, modern piracy, unlike historical piracy, is essentially non-violent. The modern pirate profits from ransom, not theft. Today, piracy is a monetary risk with compu­­­table consequences: an insurable threat. Anti-piracy methods, including insurance, impose steep costs to world trade. In the past decade, pirate activity has declined while piracy insurance has grown more expensive. This phenomenon is problematic, but an industry-wide solution is a challenging construct. To handle the costly risks of piracy is to balance the distinct and competing interests of ship-owners, insurers, operators, and governments. As this Article argues, insurance can more efficiently mitigate piracy’s puzzling risk. After discussing maritime piracy and maritime insurance, this Article outlines the legal and regulatory schema for a system to mandate the speeds of vessels that transit pirate-prone waters. The proposed regulation is mechanically sound, logistically feasible, cost-effective, and enforceable. To diminish the costly risk of piracy, this Article proposes revising a treaty to afford the International Maritime Organization (IMO) jurisdiction to regulate vessel speeds on the high seas.
Raymond A. Atuguba
Published: 25 February 2021
American Journal of Trade and Policy, Volume 8, pp 17-50;

Universally, Tax Culture is not a very common topic but it is critical to administrative governance and economic development. This article argues that the Tax Culture of any milieu is an assemblage of various indices and criteria. These include the history of taxation; tax laws; tax information; tax education; tax revenue mobilization; tax system transparency; tax delinquency; tax dispute resolution; and taxpayer satisfaction. The article sheds light on these instrumental wheels of the Tax Culture of Ghana by providing the research results of field surveys conducted a decade and a half ago. Though dated, any observer of the Tax Culture of Ghana, and indeed of much of Africa and the Global South, will realize that little has since changed. In some instances, the article provides more up-to-date evidence beyond the 2005 data. The article goes beyond an assessment of the Tax Culture of Ghana and articulates recommendations for improving the same. Additionally, it attempts to interconnect issues of Taxation, Good Governance, and Legal Pluralism. Although popular themes in public discourse in Africa today, these concepts are often spoken of in different thematic spheres other than taxation. The article links these themes in practical and concrete ways to taxation, cast in the light of historical institutionalism – an examination of the institutions of taxation, governance, and traditional authority as they interacted through time.
Boaz Segal
Published: 25 February 2021
American Journal of Trade and Policy, Volume 8, pp 87-114;

The modern state exists and acts on behalf of its citizens. No longer is it the state of a sole ruler acting on his or her own behalf and for his or her own sake. Rather, it is a civil state whose role is to preserve the rights of its citizens and to maximize their welfare. An important instrument for the goal of realizing these roles is the government authority held by the state. Consequently, the modern state exercises extensive government authority in social and economic life. The widening of the areas of activity in which it is involved and over which it exercises its authority raises the question of the desirable scope of state liability for the negligent exercise of this authority. In this paper, I analyze the scope of tort liability of public agencies and public authorities in the United States and England. The innovation proposed in this article is twofold for, although the scope of liability of public agencies has been extensively surveyed and analyzed in the academic literature, these surveys and analyses were for the most part conducted by means of organizing the development of the relevant case law along a timeline. This article adopts a different approach, examining the scope of liability of public agencies according to their areas of activity. Accordingly, the abundant court judgments are classified into varied areas of government activity. This technique allows for fine, precise inferences to be drawn with regard to the level of liability of public agencies. It can be started already at this stage that, as a whole, the fundamental conclusion of this article is that in both the United States and England the remnants of the traditional doctrine, that of sovereign or crown immunity, are marked. An analysis of the law in these countries shows that to this day, public agencies still enjoy extensive protections against tort claims and that the general approach there has always been to limit liability. The second innovation included in this article is, in a nutshell, the suggestion of a possible reason for the prevalence of this doctrine in the United States and England. I argue that this reason may be the manner in which each judicial system perceives the role of the instrument of tort compensation. Accordingly, I contend that compensation is perceived in the United States and England as a means to achieve the goals of tort law, rather than as an independent goal standing on its own merit.
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