World Mycotoxin Journal

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ISSN / EISSN : 1875-0710 / 1875-0796
Published by: Wageningen Academic Publishers (10.3920)
Total articles ≅ 704
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S. Debevere, K. Demeyere, N. Reisinger, J. Faas, G. Haesaert, V. Fievez, S. Croubels,
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 14, pp 513-523; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2020.2651

Abstract:
In a temperate climate, the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), enniatin B (ENN B), mycophenolic acid (MPA), roquefortine C (ROC) and zearalenone (ZEN) are often found in maize silage. Although rumen microbiota are able to degrade some mycotoxins (e.g. DON), others are known to stay mainly intact (e.g. ROC). In addition, mycotoxin degradation can be hampered by a low ruminal pH or decrease in rumen microbial activity. Hence, these mycotoxins can reach the small intestine and exert a cytotoxic effect on intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, a real-time kinetic analysis of the cytotoxicity of these six mycotoxins and some of their metabolites (α- and β-zearalenol, α- and β-ZOL) was performed in a calf small intestinal epithelial cell line (CIEB). Confluency as well as the cell death parameters apoptosis and necrosis were determined to evaluate the mycotoxin-induced cytotoxicity. A combination of Annexin-V green and Cytotox red staining was used to determine early and late apoptosis as well as necrosis. Six different concentrations were tested ranging from 0.78 to 12.5 μM. Compared to cells not exposed to mycotoxins, DON and NIV exert a fast toxic effect with DON being more toxic than NIV within the first hours of incubation, whereas the inverse was observed at 16 h of incubation. On the other hand, MPA and ZEN induced increased Annexin V green positive cells within several hours of incubation with higher toxicity over time. Increased Annexin V green and Cytotox red positive cells were seen for ROC only at the highest concentration tested. For ENN B, increased Annexin V green positive cells were observed only after 12 h and α- and β-ZOL did not show cytotoxic effects. Hence, mycotoxin exposure causes either severe (DON and NIV) or more limited (ZEN, ROC, MPA, and ENN B) risk of bovine intestinal epithelial damage.
S.B. Boni, F. Beed, M.E. Kimanya, E. Koyano, O. Mponda, D. Mamiro, B. Kaoneka, R. Bandyopadhyay, S. Korie,
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 14, pp 553-564; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2020.2646

Abstract:
Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites, produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which contaminate food and feed and threaten human and animal health. To assess the prevalence of aflatoxins in Tanzania, 180 groundnut and 200 maize samples were collected from 9 and 10 districts, respectively. Aflatoxin contamination was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxins were detected in samples collected from all districts and prevalence ranged from 92 to 100% for groundnuts and 10 to 80% for maize. The mean aflatoxin level for groundnuts was 6.37 μg/kg and the highly contaminated sample had 40.31 μg/kg. For maize, the mean aflatoxin level was 12.47 μg/kg and the highly contaminated sample had 162.40 μg/kg. The estimated average probable daily intake (APDI) of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from groundnuts consumption was 1.88 ng/kg body weight/day, while for maize, it ranged between 151.98-272.89 ng/kg body weight/day. The APDI for both groundnut and maize exceeded the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of AFB1 for adults (1 ng/kg body weight/day), bringing about health concerns for populations in Tanzania. Another alarming finding was that 75% of the farmers who provided samples for analysis were not aware of aflatoxins or the negative health impacts from consuming contaminated products. Results reported in this paper show that aflatoxin contaminated staple crops are widely distributed in Tanzania and that the risk of human exposure is high due to diet preferences. Awareness campaigns are required to inform and protect farmers and consumers.
, C.M. Srilatha, P.C. Lekshmi, N. Rameshbabu
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 14, pp 463-475; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2020.2636

Abstract:
Mycotoxins are important food contaminants posing a significant threat to food and feed safety and public health. Among the mycotoxins, aflatoxins are deemed to be a more significant contaminant due to their potent carcinogenic, and hepatotoxic effects, and their levels are highly regulated in the international food trade. Phytochemicals are considered a major source of natural antifungal agents. The volatile nature of essential oil of plants makes them ideal candidates for antifungal agents due to their ability to distribute in free air spaces in closed containers and penetrate through heterogeneous food materials. In these, essential oils in spices attain special attention due to their commercial availability and low toxicity. This article reviews the antiaflatoxigenic capacity of spice essential oils and the effect of essential oil composition on the activity and mechanism of antifungal action and is expected to be useful for the planning of further research in the subject area.
J.R. Gerez, A.L.P.L. Gomes, R.P. Erthal, G.S.A. Fernandes, R.L.N. Matos, W.A. Verri, E.M. Gloria, A.P.F.R.L. Bracarense
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 14, pp 431-440; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2020.2667

Abstract:
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is related to reduced reproductive performance in males and females in several species. Children and adolescents showed a high risk of exposure to DON, however, no study has evaluated reproductive effects of DON at puberty. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of DON at peripuberty on the testicles of pubertal rats. To achieve this, 10 Wistar rats (28 days old) were fed for 28 days with a DON-contaminated diet (9.4 mg/kg) or a control diet. After the experimental period, rats (56 days old) were euthanised and the following evaluations were performed in the testicles: dynamics of spermatogenesis, tubular morphometry, number of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, analysis of caspase-3 expression, and the index of cell proliferation using the nucleolus organising regions (NOR) method. Ingestion of DON-contaminated diet induced a significant reduction in the number of Sertoli and Leydig cells and the number of seminiferous tubules in stage XIV. A significant increase in the number of NORs in seminiferous tubules in stage I-VI was observed in animals receiving the DON diet. No significant difference was noted in tubular morphometry or caspase-3 expression. Taken together, our results unravelled that the peripubertal exposure to DON compromised the testicular structure of pubertal rats, changing the dynamics of spermatogenesis.
S.L. Gibellato, L.F. Dalsóquio, I.C.A. Do Nascimento,
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 14, pp 293-304; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2020.2559

Abstract:
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that colonise various crops around the world and cause major damage to the agro-industrial sector on a global scale. Considering the estimative of population growth in the next decades, it is of fundamental importance the implementation of practices that help prevent the economics and social impacts of aflatoxin contamination. Even though various approaches have been developed – including physical, chemical and biological approaches – there is not yet one that strikes a balance in terms of safety, food quality and cost, especially when considering large scale application. In this review, we present a compilation of advantages and disadvantages of different strategies for prevention and reduction of aflatoxin contamination. Biological approaches represent the trend in innovations mainly due to their specificity and versatility, since it is possible to consider the utilisation of whole microorganisms, culture supernatants, purified enzymes or even genetic engineering. However, challenges related to improvement of the efficiency of such methods and ensuring safety of treated foods still need to be overcome.
C. Tonini, M.S. Oliveira, E.B. Parmeggiani, D.A.F. Sturza, A.O. Mallmann, M.I.B. Rubin, C.A. Mallmann
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 14, pp 357-365; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2019.2548

Abstract:
The inclusion of anti-mycotoxin additives (AMA) in the diet of production animals has been widely used to avoid mycotoxin exposure. In order to confirm the efficacy of such products in vivo, measurement of mycotoxins and/or their metabolites in biological fluids is preconized. This study aimed at determining the serological biomarkers of zearalenone (ZEN), α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) and zearalanone, to evaluate the efficacy of an AMA in beef heifers. The trial lasted 37 days: 11 days of adaptation, 21 days of actual experiment, and 5 days of regression. Twenty-four heifers were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments (n=6/group): (T1) basal diet (control); (T2) basal diet + 5 mg/kg of ZEN; (T3) basal diet + 5 mg/kg of ZEN + 2.5 kg/t of AMA; and (T4) basal diet + 5 mg/kg of ZEN + 5.0 kg/t of AMA. Blood sampling was performed on different days after the diet was given. The samples were centrifuged to obtain the blood serum, and then analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). β-ZAL was detected above the limit of quantification both in the unconjugated (>0.60 ng/ml) and conjugated (>0.90 ng/ml) forms. The remaining metabolites presented concentrations under the limit of detection. In the efficacy evaluation of the AMA, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the treatments with and without additive at the tested levels of inclusion. Thus, β-ZAL may be employed as a biomarker of ZEN exposure via diet to evaluate the efficacy of an AMA through serological parameters. The technique applied in this study proved to be an adequate alternative for in vivo confirmation of the efficacy of products in adsorbing the toxin.
M.C. Sabini, L.N. Cariddi, F.M. Escobar, F. Mañas, D. Roma, F. Menis Candela, G. Bagnis, E.A. Soria, L.I. Sabini, A.M. Dalcero
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 14, pp 401-409; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2020.2571

Abstract:
Zearalenone (ZEN), a Fusarium’s mycotoxin, is immunotoxic, genotoxic, hepatonephrotoxic and, affects the reproductive system. ZEN induces toxic and genotoxic effects on humans and other animals. Achyrocline satureioides has several medicinal properties. Moreover, the aqueous extract of A. satureioides is a safe agent that exerts low cytotoxicity and no genotoxicity. This extract is a promissory candidate to counteract ZEN effects. The present study aimed to investigate the capacity of cold aqueous extract from A. satureioides to protect against ZEN multi-target toxicity in different experimental mammal models. Anticytotoxicity was evaluated by neutral red uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium reduction assays. Comet assay and micronuclei test, oxidative stress (TBARs), and histopathological damage were evaluated in Balb/C mice. Anticytotoxic studies indicated that cold aqueous extract (100 and 300 μg/ml) protected from damage induced by ZEN (50 μg/ml) on Vero cells. In vivo studies indicated that ZEN (40 mg/kg body weight) induced an increase of genotoxicity: micronuclei (34 MNPCE/1000 PCE) and increase of damage (tail moment) in blood cells. Also, it increased lipid peroxidation in liver and kidneys and generated several histopathological alterations in both organs. Cold aqueous extract (100 mg/kg body weight) protected from genotoxicity induced by ZEN in both tests. Cold aqueous extract, also, reduced the lipid peroxidation and histopathological damage in liver and kidneys. In conclusion, the cold aqueous extract of A. satureioides that contains bioactive flavonoids prevents the multi-target toxicity induced by ZEN improving all the parameters evaluated in vitro and in vivo, which is a valuable and original finding in order to develop future treatments for human and veterinary medicine.
, A. Solhaug, H.G. Riella, G.S. Eriksen
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 14, pp 347-356; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2019.2547

Abstract:
Bentonite clays exhibit high adsorptive capacity for contaminants and is frequently used as a feed additive to reduce the bioavailability and thus the toxicity of several mycotoxins. Zearalenone (ZEN) is a secondary Fusarium toxic metabolite that can contaminate a wide range of food- and feedstuff. Since organophilic treatments is known to increase the adsorption capacity of bentonites, the aim of study was to evaluate and compare the ability of natural bentonite and bentonite treated with BAC302 to protect against ZEN-induced cytotoxicity in the epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and human leukemia monocytic (THP-1) cell lines. The two materials were not toxic to the cell lines at lower concentrations. Furthermore, the results indicate that the two materials protect the Caco-2 and THP-1 cells against ZEN-induced cytotoxicity, probably by extracellular adsorption of ZEN. The tested natural bentonite shows potential for in vivo testing to evaluate if it is suitable for intoxication in ZEN contaminated animal feeds.
E.O. da Silva, J.P. Santos, A.T. Morey, L.M. Yamauchi, A.P.F.R. Loureiro Bracarense
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 14, pp 441-450; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2020.2648

Abstract:
Occurrence of mycotoxins in agricultural products represents a risk for human and animal health. Therefore, there is a requirement of strategies to mitigate their harmful impacts. This study investigated the effects of phytic acid (IP6) on the immunological response of pro-(interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines and β-defensins 1 (pBD-1) and 2 (pBD-2) in porcine jejunal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). The explants were exposed to the following treatments: control, DON (10 μM), DON plus IP6 2.5 mM or 5 mM, FB1 (70 μM), FB1 IP6 plus 2.5 or 5 mM. The expression levels of the cytokines were measured by RT-qPCR. The exposure to FB1 and DON induced intestinal lesions. The presence of 2.5 and 5 mM IP6 inhibited the morphological changes induced by the mycotoxins. The explants exposed to DON showed an increase in the expression of IL-1β and IL-8 and a decrease in the levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10 and pBD-2. IP6 (5 mM) decreased the expression of IL-8 and increased the expression in pBD-1 and 2 compared to DON alone. FB1 induced a significant decrease in the levels of most of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and pBD-1, and an increase in IL-1β expression. The addition of IP6 5 mM induced significant increase in TNF-α expression compared to FB1. Taken together, the results suggest IP6 modulates immunological changes induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal mucosa resulting in beneficial effects that contribute to intestinal homeostasis and health.
J.D. Groopman, J.W. Smith, A. Rivera-Andrade, C.S. Alvarez, M.F. Kroker-Lobos, P.A. Egner, E. Gharzouzi, M. Dean, K.A. McGlynn, M. Ramírez-Zea
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 14, pp 305-317; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2020.2641

Abstract:
During the 60 years since the first scientific reports about a relation between aflatoxin exposure and adverse health consequences, both in animals and humans, there has been a remarkable number of basic, clinical and population science studies characterising the impact of this mycotoxin on diseases such as liver cancer. Many of these human investigations to date have focused on populations residing in Asia and Africa due to the high incidence of liver cancer and high exposures to aflatoxin. These studies formed the basis for the International Agency for Research on Cancer to classify the aflatoxins as Group 1 known human carcinogens. In addition, aflatoxin contamination levels have been used in international commodity trade to set the price of various staples such as maize and groundnuts. While there have been many case-control and prospective cohort studies of liver cancer risk over the years there have been remarkably few investigations focused on liver cancer in Latin America. Our interdisciplinary and multiple institutional collaborative has been developing a long-term strategy to characterise the role of aflatoxin and other mycotoxins as health risk factors in Guatemala and neighbouring countries. This paper summarises a number of the investigations to date and provides a roadmap of our strategies for the near term to discern the emergent aetiology of liver cancer in this region. With these data in hand public health-based prevention strategies could be strategically implemented and conducted to lower the impact of these mycotoxins on human health.
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