Tobacco Prevention & Cessation
ISSN / EISSN : 2459-3087 / 2459-3087
Published by: E.U. European Publishing (10.18332)
Total articles ≅ 920
Latest articles in this journal
Tobacco Prevention & Cessation, Volume 7, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/140131
Tobacco Prevention & Cessation, Volume 7, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/140242
Tobacco Prevention & Cessation, Volume 7, pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/140786
Tobacco Prevention & Cessation, Volume 7, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/138951
Tobacco is the leading cause of death and disease in India. This study examines the effect of training intervention in behavioral counseling on intention to quit tobacco in primary healthcare settings in India. The intervention included training to improve behavioral counseling practices of primary care physicians (PCPs) based on the 5As approach to increase patients’ motivation to quit tobacco. A quasi-experimental design was used for the study. The intervention consists of training of primary care physicians in the behavioral intervention in tobacco cessation. The intervention was conducted in twelve districts of two states in India (Rajasthan and Odisha) in 2016–2017. Four districts were randomly sampled for the study. A total of 1314 participants (intervention and control) were recruited for the study in the baseline and end-line surveys, respectively. Intention to quit in 30 days was the primary outcome measure. Difference-in-difference (DiD) logistic regression models were used separately for smokers and smokeless tobacco users to estimate the odds of intention to quit. Analysis was done in STATA Version 14. The intervention and time variable had a significantly positive influence on the intention to quit tobacco among smokers. Smokers in the intervention districts had higher odds of intention to quit (OR=9.82; 95% CI: 1.67–57.72) compared to smokers in the control districts. Smokeless tobacco (SLT) users had higher odds of intention to quit (OR=3.06; 95% CI: 1.35–6.98) in the end-line survey compared to baseline survey. Our findings indicate that building capacity in behavioral intervention in primary care settings can help increase the intention to quit among smokers. The observed difference in intention to quit between smokers and SLT users suggests the need of tailored counseling interventions for SLT users. There is a need for further research to design and evaluate training and behavioral interventions for SLT and dual (smoking and SLT) users in primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries.
Tobacco Prevention & Cessation, Volume 7, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/138950
Smoking is a health hazard. Current smoking cessation measures such as behavioral change counselling by trained professionals, nicotine replacement therapy and medications have limited success. Smoking intensity is assessed using a portable device to measure the smokers’ exhaled breath carbon monoxide (eCO) level. A systematic review suggests the potential of serious gaming to increase smoking quit rate. However, the related studies were unable to explain and determine the effect gamification on smoking cessation.
Tobacco Prevention & Cessation, Volume 7, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/139812
Low-income populations have higher rates of smoking and are disproportionately affected by smoking-related illnesses. This study assessed the long-term impact of increased coverage for tobacco cessation through Medicaid expansion on past-year quit attempts and prevalence of cigarette smoking. Using data from CDC’s annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2011–2019, we conducted difference-in-difference regression analyses to compare changes in smoking prevalence and past-year quit attempts in expansion states versus non-expansion states. Our sample included non-pregnant adults (18–64 years old) without dependent children with incomes at or below 100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Regression analyses indicate that Medicaid expansion was associated with reduced smoking prevalence in the first two years post-expansion (β=-0.019, p=0.04), but that this effect was not maintained at longer follow-up periods (β=-0.006, p=0.49). Results of regression analyses also suggest that Medicaid expansion does not significantly impact quit attempts in the short-term (β=-0.013, p=0.52) or at longer term follow-up (β=-0.026, p=0.08). Expanded coverage for tobacco cessation services through Medicaid alone may not be enough to increase quit-attempts or sustain a reduction in overall prevalence of smoking in newly eligible populations over time. Medicaid programs should consider additional strategies, such as public education campaigns and removal of barriers, to support cessation among enrollees.
Tobacco Prevention & Cessation, Volume 7, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/138952
Cigarette smoking has been causally associated with various diseases, and among the numerous harmful effects of smoking is included its impact on the senses of vision and hearing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoking on the visual and auditory functions. In this analytic study, hearing and smoking status of 40 patients with agerelated macular degeneration (AMD) were analyzed with 40 age-matched control subjects without AMD. In all subjects (n=80), retinal status was investigated by optical coherence tomography (OCT), with analyses of thickness central subfield (TCS) and thickness average cube (TAC) of the macula. All participants were examined with pure tone audiometry. Audiometric trials comprised pure tone bone and air conduction. The smoking history of all the subjects was recorded in detail. A significant correlation was found between smoking status and visual (p<0.001) and hearing impairment (p<0.05). Cigarette smoking was found to be highly correlated with sensorineural hearing impairment and exudative macular degeneration. Cigarette smoking damage anti-oxidative systems and tissue metabolism. We have underlined a clear correlation between the risk of sensorineural hearing impairment, exudative macular degeneration and cigarette smoking. Our findings may result in future screening of smokers to identify any hearing and vision impairment and for improving smoking cessation interventions.
Tobacco Prevention & Cessation, Volume 7, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/138943
Limited research has explored sex differences in the relationship between partner support and smoking cessation among minority low-income population. Further, scarce attention has been given to the influence of partners who are not married. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between negative and positive social support provided by partners and smoking cessation among men and women smokers. Data were collected as part of the Tobacco Use in Drug Environment (TIDE) study, a cross-sectional study conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, from September 2013 to May 2015. Interviews were administered with current smokers. The sample size for the current analysis was 134 men and 86 women. Approximately 33% of male participants (n=45) reported currently trying to quit smoking cigarettes and 29% of women were currently trying to quit. Having a sex partner who did not mind the participant's smoking was associated with decreased odds of trying to quit among men (AOR=0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.91, p=0.03). Having a sex partner who expressed concern about the participant's smoking (AOR=12.9; 95% CI: 3.49-47.0, p<0.01) and having a sex partner who encouraged the participant to quit smoking was significantly associated with current quit attempt among women. In supplementary analyses, we found that each type of partner support varied based on the type of partner - committed or casual. Understanding sex-partner support regarding smoking and their relationship to smoking cessation activities may provide insights for future tailored cessation interventions.
Tobacco Prevention & Cessation, Volume 7, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/137482
Banning smoking at home, schools, children's playgrounds and indoor environments, constitutes an integral part of tobacco control efforts to prevent uptake of smoking among young teenagers. We aimed at exploring the role of teenagers as facilitators of change in enforcing a home no-smoking rule following school-based anti-tobacco programs and examining the effect of home no-smoking rule on teenagers' intention to smoke. A school-based intervention-control study was implemented during the 2016-2017 academic year among middle-school students in Athens, Greece. The experiential learning intervention was delivered using an interdisciplinary approach, bridging excerpts from ancient classical Greek myths and ancient classical literature, with their decoded archetypal symbols applied in a smoking and tobacco control paradigm. An anonymous selfadministered questionnaire was used at baseline, and at follow-up at 3 months to evaluate program effectiveness. A chi-squared test was used for categorical variables and a t-test for continuous variables. Cohen's distance (d) was employed to examine the intervention effect size. A two-tailed p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant using IBM SPSS V.22. In all, 351 students participated. At baseline, 47.5% in the intervention group reported a home no-smoking rule and 86% indicated being unlikely to smoke, these increased to 61.3% (p=0.016) and 98.2% (p<0.001) at followup, respectively. Cohen's d value was calculated to estimate the effect size of intervention. A large effect size of intervention was found in the intervention group (d=1.24), whilst d=0.19 in the control group. Our study showed that our intervention led to the increase of no-smoking rules at home and to a negative intention towards smoking of adolescents. Consequently, we provide evidence that students are effective vehicles for carrying anti-smoking messages to their home environment including the no-smoking rule. Additionally, we confirmed previous reports that home no-smoking rule is associated with a negative intention to smoke and risk of smoking.
Tobacco Prevention & Cessation, Volume 7, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/138224
Universities are increasingly considering tobacco-free campus policies to help promote a healthy learning and working environment. We assessed attitudes of students, faculty, and staff, before and after the implementation of a tobacco-free campus policy at a large, urban university. We also examined individual factors associated with these attitudes. An independent panel design method was used to assess students, faculty and staff about their tobacco product use, attitudes towards tobacco policies, and support for cigarette and e-cigarette bans 3 months before and 7 months after a university-wide policy change to ban tobacco and e-cigarettes on campus. Survey participants before the policy change included 636 students and 1356 faculty/ staff. Survey participants after the policy change included 1000 students and 574 faculty/staff. We conducted separate multiple linear and logistic regression models for students and faculty/staff. Attitudes towards tobacco-free campus policies did not improve for students, but did for faculty/staff. Support for bans of cigarettes and e-cigarettes on campus increased following the policy change among both students and faculty/staff. Students were more willing to ask their friends to stop vaping post-policy, but did not differ in their willingness to ask friends to stop smoking. Among the individual factors considered, gender and use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes were predictive of attitudes among both students and faculty/staff. Women were more likely to support and have more positive attitudes towards bans, while current tobacco product users were less likely to support tobacco product bans and have less positive attitudes towards tobacco policies. Attitudes towards tobacco-free campus policies changed pre- to postpolicy among faculty/staff, but not among students. However, both students and faculty/staff were more supportive of tobacco product bans following the policy change. Individual factors associated with support and attitudes were identified.