Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing

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ISSN : 2040-7122
Published by: Emerald (10.1108)
Total articles ≅ 287
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Inés López-López, , José Antonio Sánchez-Martínez
Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing; doi:10.1108/jrim-04-2020-0090

Abstract:
Purpose This paper analyzes the effect of company response style and complaint source on silent observers' reactions to a service failure episode vented on Twitter. Design/methodology/approach In a 2 × 2 experimental design, company response style (personalized vs automatic) and complaint source (ordinary Twitter user vs influencer) were manipulated to test the hypotheses. Findings Complaint source moderates the effect of company response style on brand image, purchase intention and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). Thus, the authors found that a personalized response to a complaint, compared to an automatic response, leads to a more favorable brand image as well as purchase intention and eWOM intention when the complainant is an ordinary Twitter user. However, the automatic response, compared to the personalized one, is better perceived when the complainant is an influencer. The authors also found that service failure response attribution and the emotions elicited during the firm–complainant interaction mediate the previous effects. Research limitations/implications This paper deals with the company's initial reaction after a complaint is posted on Twitter; however, the complaint-handling process is longer, and both the customer and silent observers await a resolution. Future research could tackle subsequent stages of the process and different recovery strategies. Practical implications The study offers meaningful insights regarding complaint handling on Twitter and how the effectiveness of the company response style depends on the complaint source. Marketers should offer adapted personalized responses to prompt positive behavioral intentions for ordinary Twitter users, who represent prospective consumers. However, a personalized response given to an influencer may be perceived more negatively, as silent observers may interpret that the company offers such a response just because the complaint comes from a well-known person who can reach many users and not because of an honest interest in serving consumers. Originality/value This research focuses on the underresearched area of the impact of online complaints on silent observers, a large group of prospective consumers quietly exposed to complaints aired on Twitter. The underlying mechanisms are also identified.
Clement Nangpiire, ,
Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing; doi:10.1108/jrim-05-2020-0104

Abstract:
Purpose The customer as an active and engaged value co-creator raises new challenges for theory and practice, especially in the hospitality industry. However, the connection between engagement and co-creation is little studied in the hotel/tourism literature. This paper proposes a connection between customer engagement (CE) and value co-creation frameworks to ascertain and depict the internal actors' activities and factors that foster or hinder guests' co-creation and destruction of value. Design/methodology/approach The researchers used qualitative methods (35 in-depth interviews, document analysis and four observation sessions) in seven regions of Ghana to explore the customer's perspective. Data were analyzed with NVivo11 within a thematic analysis framework. Findings The findings suggest that positive and negative engagement fosters or hinders guests' interactions, which lead to value co-creation or destruction. The research also discovered that negative interactions occasioned by any factor or actor trigger value destruction at multiple stages of the experience journey. Practical implications Industry players can use the framework developed to assess their businesses, explore and reflect on the proposed value they aim to generate, and thus be more aware of how they can better facilitate value co-creation with their consumers and avoid value destruction. Originality/value This research proposes a novel connection between customer interactions, engagement and value co-creation to ascertain and depict the internal actors' activities and factors that foster or hinder customers' experience in the hotel/tourism industry.
Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing; doi:10.1108/jrim-12-2019-0210

Abstract:
Purpose Grounded in uses and gratifications (U&G) theory and relying on the congruence/incongruence approaches, the current research aims to contribute to the study of interactive marketing by measuring the effectiveness of social and personal sponsored post message appeals on consumer psychological and behavioral engagement. A conceptual framework is suggested. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected during a field experiment conducted on Facebook, consisting of two sponsored Facebook post campaigns, followed by a survey distributed to consumers who were exposed to the experiment. Findings A structural path model suggests that the congruence of the social message appeal of sponsored Facebook posts leads directly to psychological engagement that follows affective response. This path elevates an indirect effect toward behavioral engagement. Additionally, it was found that the incongruence of the personal message appeal of sponsored Facebook posts leads directly to behavioral engagement. Originality/value The novelty of the current research focuses on the unexplored subject of sponsored Facebook post message appeal effectiveness. Based on U&G theory applied to social media and the (in)congruence approaches, the study suggests a new dichotomy of message appeal for digital advertising, i.e. social vs. personal message strategies. Consumer engagement with the two appeals adds value to theory and practice by conceptualizing the effect of sponsored post content strategies on consumer engagement in Facebook while incorporating ad content with a hierarchical process.
, Ashish Dubey
Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing; doi:10.1108/jrim-04-2020-0074

Abstract:
Purpose Quantitative objective studies on the problem of celebrity selection are lacking. Furthermore, existing research does not recognize the group decision-making nature and the possibility of customer involvement in celebrity or influencer selection for social media marketing. This study conceptualizes celebrity selection as a multi-attribute group decision-making problem while deriving the final ranking of celebrities/influencers using interactive and flexible criteria based on the value tradeoff approach. The article thus proposes and demonstrates a quantitative objective method of celebrity selection for a brand or campaign in an interactive manner incorporating customer's preferences as well. Design/methodology/approach Each decision-maker's preferences for celebrity selection criteria are objectively captured and converted into an overall group preference using a modified generalized fuzzy evaluation method (MGFEM). The final ranking of celebrities is then derived from an interactive and criteria-based value tradeoff approach using the flexible and interactive tradeoff method. Findings The approach gives a different ranking of celebrities for two campaigns based on group members' perceived importance of the selection criteria in different scenarios. This group includes decision-makers (DMs) from the brand, marketing communication agency and brand's customers. Further, each group member has an almost equal say in the decision-making based on fuzzy evaluation and an interactive and flexible value tradeoff approach to celebrity selection for receiving a rank order. Research limitations/implications The approach uses secondary data on celebrities and hypothetical scenarios. Comparison with other methods is difficult, as no other study proposes a multi-criteria group decision-making approach to celebrity selection especially in a social media context. Practical implications This approach can help DMs make more informed, objective and effective decisions on celebrity selection for their brands or campaigns. It recognizes that there are multiple stakeholders, including the end customers, each of whose views is objectively considered in the aspects of group decision-making through a fuzzy evaluation method. Further, this study provides a selection mechanism for a given context of endorsement by objectively and interactively encapsulating stakeholder preferences. Originality/value This robust and holistic approach to celebrity selection can help DMs objectively make consensual decisions with partial or complete information. This quantitative approach contributes to the literature on selection mechanisms of influencers, celebrities, social media opinion leaders etc. by providing a methodological aid that encompasses aspects of interactive group decision-making for a given context. Moreover, this method is useful to DMs and stakeholders in understanding and incorporating the effect of nature or context of the brand and the campaign type in the selection of a celebrity or an influencer.
Kesha K. Coker, Richard L. Flight, Dominic M. Baima
Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing; doi:10.1108/jrim-05-2020-0115

Abstract:
Purpose Digital engagement with advertising remains challenging for marketers. This research examines “being hooked” as the mechanism of narrative transportation associated with digital video storytelling ads. Its purpose is to examine the efficacy of digital video ad format (storytelling vs argumentative) in hooking viewers (i.e. grabbing attention and interest in the ad). This research also presents a conceptual model of the effect of being hooked on digital engagement with advertising. Design/methodology/approach This study employs a quasi-experimental research design with a final sample of 273 undergraduate students. It tests the hypothesis that digital video storytelling ads hook viewers more effectively than argumentative ads do. It also tests a conceptual model of the positive effect of being hooked on digital engagement with advertising. Findings Digital video storytelling ads hook viewers more effectively than argumentative ads do. SEM analysis shows that being hooked positively impacts intentions to view, share, promote and spread positive word of mouth. Attitude toward the ad partially mediates the relationship between being hooked and intentions to promote and spread positive word of mouth. Research limitations/implications Findings are applicable to target audience profiles that match the sample in this study. Despite this and other limitations, findings advance theory on the process underlying digital video storytelling advertising effects on consumer engagement. Practical implications Marketers are advised to invest in more digital video storytelling than argumentative ads. In doing so, marketers are more likely to hook viewers on the ad, thereby generating positive digital engagement with advertising. Originality/value This research focuses on attention and interest dimensions of narrative transportation as measured by “being hooked.” It also extends past models of narrative transportation by including more representative measures of digital engagement with advertising.
Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing; doi:10.1108/jrim-09-2019-0141

Abstract:
Purpose This study aims to apply and test the effectiveness of message sidedness and conclusiveness in Google Ads advertising. Design/methodology/approach Four field experiments on Google Ad campaigns were conducted on the topics of energy and environment, the water–energy–food nexus, and a Higher-Ed program (at the national and local levels). Findings Two-sided search engine advertisements are more effective than one-sided advertisements in national campaigns but less effective in local campaigns. In national campaigns, conclusive search engine advertisements are more effective in increasing impressions and clicks, but inconclusive advertisements are more effective in increasing the click-through rate (CTR); in local campaigns, inconclusive advertisements are more effective when being one-sided, while conclusive advertisements are more effective when being two-sided. Overall, the two-sided and inconclusive advertisement generates the best results in a national campaign, but the one-sided and inconclusive advertisement generates the best results in a local campaign. Originality/value As the first to test sidedness and conclusiveness with Google Ads advertising, the paper provides theoretical and practical suggestions to search engine marketers by identifying the effective copywriting strategies, moderating factors and more measurements of effectiveness.
A-Reum Jung, Jun Heo
Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing; doi:10.1108/jrim-11-2020-0238

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this study is to figure out the factors (i.e. ad type and ad personalization) that diminish the detrimental advertising clutter effects in terms of ad attention and ad clicks. Design/methodology/approach To fulfill the purpose, an eye-tracking study using real-time Facebook accounts of the participants was conducted. Findings The findings suggest that not all types of ad format face attentional competition. Consumers have a tendency to selectively care of native advertising area, where clutter becomes a significant issue. Additionally, personalized advertising is beneficial for attracting consumer attention regardless of the clutter level. Originality/value This less-artificial study setting with an eye-tracker makes up for the findings from previous ad clutter studies based on self-reported data; this study was able to observe real-life interaction between consumers and social media. The personalized native format may benefit advertisers in grabbing more attention. However, the careful use of native ads is recommended, because excessive ads could increase the attentional competition among native ads.
, Hae Won Ju, Kim K.P. Johnson
Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing; doi:10.1108/jrim-10-2020-0213

Abstract:
Purpose Little research has been done to understand how individual elements (e.g. advertisements) within a webpage are processed and evaluated when visual complexity is increased. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how consumers allocate attention and evaluate products and advertisements on complex webpages when they are casually browsing. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted two experiments to test the causal effects of different degrees of visual complexity on consumer responses to products and advertisements. An eye-tracking experiment (n = 90) and a follow-up online experiment (n = 121) were conducted using undergraduate students as participants. Findings Participants formed a global impression from the overall webpage complexity, which spilled over to evaluation of individual elements on the webpage (e.g. product, advertisement). The inverted U-shaped relationships (vs. linear negative relationships) between webpage visual complexity and attitude toward the webpage, products, and advertisements were observed. The focal product was given a consistent level of attention regardless of the complexity level. Practical implications This study provides implications for website organization and design to maximize positive consumer experiences and marketing effectiveness. The findings provide implications for retailers and advertisement buyers. Originality/value This study expanded the knowledge by examining the interplay between individual elements of webpages and the whole webpage complexity when consumers browse visually complex webpages. It is a novel finding that the overall webpage complexity effect spills over to locally attended products or advertisements.
, Susana Mieiro, Guihai Huang
Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing; doi:10.1108/jrim-04-2020-0067

Abstract:
Purpose Social media advertising (SMA) has become overly critical in the interactive marketing research field. This paper aimed to construct a research architecture model and to investigate the mediating effect of customer engagement between SMA and consumer behavioral intention in the context of Macao's casino integrated resorts. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from 300 Chinese-speaking visitors of Macao's casino integrated resorts through a face-to-face survey. The hypotheses derived from the conceptual model were tested through two-stage structural equation modeling. The authors considered age and gender as control variables. Findings This study found that entertainment and promotional rewards had significant direct effects on consumption intention. Social media dependency did affect directly not only consumption intention but also sharing intention. Customer engagement on SMA mediated the effects of two SMA features (entertainment and promotional rewards) and one feature of SMA viewers (social media dependency) on consumption intention. As to extraneous variables, neither age nor gender significantly influenced consumer behavioral intention. Practical implications The casino integrated resort managers should enhance the entertainment elements and provide reasonable promotional rewards to increase SMA's effectiveness. Managers should also consider the social media usage habits of the targeted customers. Further academic research on casino integrated resorts in other regions may use this study as a basis for investigating the mediation of customer engagement on SMA. Originality/value This study contributed to understanding the mediating mechanism of customer engagement on SMA by conceptualizing customer engagement on SMA as a unique idea and provided a conceptual framework for further theoretical and empirical research in the interactive marketing research field.
Tengfei Guo, Shiquan Zhong, Xuelian Wang, Geng Li
Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing; doi:10.1108/jrim-08-2020-0163

Abstract:
Purpose In this research, the authors aim to investigate the impact of product display quantity on consumers' online purchase intention through the diminished pain of payment, in light of signaling theory and mental accounting theory. Additionally, the authors test the role of price in this psychological mechanism. Design/methodology/approach The authors use a combination of online studies and field experiments to test our predictions. Four online studies are conducted to test the main effect of product display quantity on purchase intention (Studies 1A and 1B), the mediating effect of the diminished pain of payment (Study 2), and the moderating role of price (Study 3). Two field experiments are conducted to strengthen the robustness of our findings. Findings The findings suggest that product display quantity has a significantly positive impact on purchase intention, mediated by the diminished pain of payment, and this effect is moderated by price. Originality/value This is the first study to investigate the effect of product display quantity on online purchase intention. This research advances the discussion of product display quantity, which provides retailers and consumers with a convenient way to communicate with each other and leads to a more relaxed purchase experience.
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