Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease

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EISSN : 24146366
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 493
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Byron Flores, Karla Escobar, José Muzquiz, Jessica Sheleby-Elías, Brenda Mora, Edipcia Roque, Dayana Torres, Álvaro Chávez, William Jirón
Published: 18 September 2020
by MDPI
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5030149

Abstract:
In Nicaragua, there are ideal environmental conditions for leptospirosis. The objective of this investigation was to detect pathogenic and saprophytic leptospires in water and soil samples from leptospirosis-endemic areas in Nicaragua. Seventy-eight water and 42 soil samples were collected from houses and rivers close to confirmed human cases. Leptospira spp was isolated in Ellinghausen–McCullough–Johnson–Harris (EMJH) culture medium with 5-fluororacil and positive samples were analyzed through PCR for the LipL32 gene, specific for pathogenic leptospires (P1 clade). There were 73 positive cultures from 120 samples, however only six of these (5% of all collected samples) were confirmed to be pathogenic, based on the presence of the LipL32 gene (P1 clade). Of these six pathogenic isolates, four were from Leon and two from Chinandega. Four pathogenic isolates were obtained from water and two from soil. This study proved the contamination of water and soil with pathogenic leptospires, which represents a potential risk for public health.
Hamma Maiga, Breanna Barger, Issaka Sagara, Abdoulaye Guindo, Oumar Traore, Mamadou Tekete, Antoine Dara, Zoumana Traore, Modibo Diarra, Samba Coumare, et al.
Published: 17 September 2020
by MDPI
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5030148

Abstract:
Previous studies have shown that a single season of intermittent preventive treatment in schoolchildren (IPTsc) targeting the transmission season has reduced the rates of clinical malaria, all-cause clinic visits, asymptomatic parasitemia, and anemia. Efficacy over the course of multiple years of IPTsc has been scantly investigated. Methods: An open, randomized-controlled trial among schoolchildren aged 6–13 years was conducted from September 2007 to January 2010 in Kolle, Mali. Students were included in three arms: sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine+artesunate (SP+AS), amodiaquine+artesunate (AQ+AS), and control (C). All students received two full doses, given 2 months apart, and were compared with respect to the incidence of clinical malaria, all-cause clinic visits, asymptomatic parasitemia, and anemia. Results: A total of 296 students were randomized. All-cause clinic visits were in the SP+AS versus control (29 (20.1%) vs. 68 (47.2%); 20 (21.7%) vs. 41 (44.6%); and 14 (21.2%) vs. 30 (44.6%); p < 0.02) in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. The prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia was lower in the SP+AS compared to control (38 (7.5%) vs. 143 (28.7%); and 47 (12.7%) vs. 75 (21.2%); p < 0.002) in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher in children receiving SP+AS (11.96, 12.06, and 12.62 g/dL) than in control children (11.60, 11.64, and 12.15 g/dL; p < 0.001) in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. No impact on clinical malaria was observed. Conclusion: IPTsc with SP+AS reduced the rates of all-cause clinic visits and anemia during a three-year implementation.
Mauro Giuffrè, Stefano Di Bella, Gianluca Sambataro, Verena Zerbato, Marco Cavallaro, Alessandro Occhipinti, Andrea Palermo, Anna Crescenti, Fabio Monica, Roberto Luzzati, et al.
Published: 16 September 2020
by MDPI
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5030147

Abstract:
Background: Patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) and gastrointestinal symptoms showed increased values of fecal calprotectin (FC). Additionally, bowel abnormalities were a common finding during abdominal imaging of individuals with COVID-19 despite being asymptomatic. The current pilot study aims at evaluating FC concentrations in patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods: we enrolled 25 consecutive inpatients with COVID-19 pneumonia, who were admitted without gastrointestinal symptoms and a previous history of inflammatory bowel disease. Results: At admission, 21 patients showed increased FC with median values of 116 (87.5; 243.5) mg/kg despite absent gastrointestinal symptoms. We found a strong positive correlation between FC and D-Dimer (r = 0.745, p < 0.0001). Two patients developed bowel perforation. Conclusion: our findings may change the current understanding of COVID-19 intestinal-related disease pathogenesis, shedding new light on the potential role of thrombosis and the consequent hypoxic intestinal damage.
Georgios Dougas, Maria Mavrouli, Athanassios Tsakris, Charalambos Billinis, Joseph Papaparaskevas
Published: 16 September 2020
by MDPI
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5030145

Abstract:
Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella henselae are the causative agents of murine typhus and cat-scratch disease, respectively. A small-scale survey (N = 202) was conducted in the Attica region, Greece, for determining the prevalence rates of IgG antibodies against B. henselae and R. typhi by indirect fluorescence antibody test. IgG against B. henselae and R. typhi were present in 17.8% (36/202) and 4.5% (9/202) of the participants, respectively; co-occurring IgG against both B. henselae and R. typhi were detected in 3.5% (7/202), whereas only anti-B. henselae IgG in 14.3% (29/202), and only anti-R. typhi IgG in 1.0% (2/202). Titres 1/64, 1/128, 1/256, and 1/512, of anti-B. henselae IgG were identified in 6.4%, 4.5%, 4.5%, and 2.4%, whereas titres 1/40 and 1/80 of anti-R. typhi IgG were detected in 4.0%, and 0.5%, respectively. A positive association of anti-B. henselae IgG prevalence with a coastal area featuring a major seaport (p = 0.009) and with younger age (p = 0.046) was identified. The findings of this survey raise concern for exposure of the population of Attica to B. henselae and R. typhi, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis when compatible symptoms are present. Our results also suggest that seaports may represent high-risk areas for exposure to Bartonella spp.
Daiana De Oliveira, Vladimir Airam Querino, Yeonsoo Sara Lee, Marcelo Cunha, Nivison Nery Jr., Louisa Wessels Perelo, Juan Rossi Alva, Albert Ko, Mitermayer Reis, Arnau Casanovas-Massana, et al.
Published: 16 September 2020
by MDPI
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5030146

Abstract:
Leptospirosis, a zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira, primarily affects tropical, developing regions, especially communities without adequate sanitation. Outbreaks of leptospirosis have been linked with the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in water. In this study, we measured the physicochemical characteristics (temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids (TDS)) of surface waters from an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil, and analyzed their associations with the presence and concentration of pathogenic Leptospira reported previously. We built logistic and linear regression models to determine the strength of association between physicochemical parameters and the presence and concentration of Leptospira. We found that salinity, TDS, pH, and type of water were strongly associated with the presence of Leptospira. In contrast, only pH was associated with the concentration of the pathogen in water. The study of physico-chemical markers can contribute to a better understanding of the occurrence of Leptospira in water and to the identification of sources of risk in urban slum environments.
Luan Nguyen Quang Vo, Andrew James Codlin, Huy Ba Huynh, Thuy Doan To Mai, Rachel Jeanette Forse, Vinh Van Truong, Ha Minh Thi Dang, Bang Duc Nguyen, Lan Huu Nguyen, Tuan Dinh Nguyen, et al.
Published: 14 September 2020
by MDPI
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5030143

Abstract:
Under-detection and -reporting in the private sector constitute a major barrier in Viet Nam’s fight to end tuberculosis (TB). Effective private-sector engagement requires innovative approaches. We established an intermediary agency that incentivized private providers in two districts of Ho Chi Minh City to refer persons with presumptive TB and share data of unreported TB treatment from July 2017 to March 2019. We subsidized chest x-ray screening and Xpert MTB/RIF testing, and supported test logistics, recording, and reporting. Among 393 participating private providers, 32.1% (126/393) referred at least one symptomatic person, and 3.6% (14/393) reported TB patients treated in their practice. In total, the study identified 1203 people with TB through private provider engagement. Of these, 7.6% (91/1203) were referred for treatment in government facilities. The referrals led to a post-intervention increase of +8.5% in All Forms TB notifications in the intervention districts. The remaining 92.4% (1112/1203) of identified people with TB elected private-sector treatment and were not notified to the NTP. Had this private TB treatment been included in official notifications, the increase in All Forms TB notifications would have been +68.3%. Our evaluation showed that an intermediary agency model can potentially engage private providers in Viet Nam to notify many people with TB who are not being captured by the current system. This could have a substantial impact on transparency into disease burden and contribute significantly to the progress towards ending TB.
Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek, Snjezana Zidovec-Lepej, Dragan Ledina, Samira Knezevic, Vladimir Savic, Irena Tabain, Ivo Ivic, Irena Slavuljica, Maja Bogdanic, Ivana Grgic, et al.
Published: 14 September 2020
by MDPI
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5030144

Abstract:
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus, transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sandflies. Although the majority of infections are asymptomatic, neuroinvasive disease may occur. We report three cases of neuroinvasive TOSV infection detected in Croatia. Two patients aged 21 and 54 years presented with meningitis, while a 22-year old patient presented with meningoencephalitis and right-sided brachial plexitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, and urine samples were collected and tested for neuroinvasive arboviruses: tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, TOSV, Tahyna, and Bhanja virus. In addition, CSF and serum samples were tested for the anti-viral cytokine response. High titers of TOSV IgM (1000–3200) and IgG (3200−10,000) antibodies in serum samples confirmed TOSV infection. Antibodies to other phleboviruses (sandfly fever Sicilian/Naples/Cyprus virus) were negative. CSF samples showed high concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6; range 162.32−2683.90 pg/mL), interferon gamma (IFN-γ; range 110.12−1568.07 pg/mL), and IL-10 (range 28.08−858.91 pg/mL), while significantly lower cytokine production was observed in serum. Two patients recovered fully. The patient with a brachial plexitis improved significantly at discharge. The presented cases highlight the need of increasing awareness of a TOSV as a possible cause of aseptic meningitis/meningoencephalitis during summer months. Association of TOSV and brachial plexitis with long-term sequelae detected in one patient indicates the possibility of more severe disease, even in young patients.
Rebekah C. Kading, Aaron C. Brault, J. David Beckham
Published: 7 September 2020
by MDPI
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5030142

Abstract:
Figure 1 Kading, R.C.; Brault, A.C.; Beckham, J.D. Global Perspectives on Arbovirus Outbreaks: A 2020 Snapshot. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5, 142. Kading RC, Brault AC, Beckham JD. Global Perspectives on Arbovirus Outbreaks: A 2020 Snapshot. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2020; 5(3):142. Kading, Rebekah C.; Brault, Aaron C.; Beckham, J. D. 2020. "Global Perspectives on Arbovirus Outbreaks: A 2020 Snapshot." Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 5, no. 3: 142.
Francesco Di Gennaro, Claudia Marotta, Pietro Locantore, Damiano Pizzol, Giovanni Putoto
Published: 6 September 2020
by MDPI
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5030141

Abstract:
Malaria and COVID-19 may have similar aspects and seem to have a strong potential for mutual influence. They have already caused millions of deaths, and the regions where malaria is endemic are at risk of further suffering from the consequences of COVID-19 due to mutual side effects, such as less access to treatment for patients with malaria due to the fear of access to healthcare centers leading to diagnostic delays and worse outcomes. Moreover, the similar and generic symptoms make it harder to achieve an immediate diagnosis. Healthcare systems and professionals will face a great challenge in the case of a COVID-19 and malaria syndemic. Here, we present an overview of common and different findings for both diseases with possible mutual influences of one on the other, especially in countries with limited resources.
Nadia Castaldo, Elena Graziano, Maddalena Peghin, Tolinda Gallo, Pierlanfranco D’Agaro, Assunta Sartor, Tiziana Bove, Roberto Cocconi, Giovanni Merlino, Matteo Bassetti
Published: 31 August 2020
by MDPI
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5030138

Abstract:
The 2018 West Nile Virus (WNV) season in Europe was characterized by an extremely high infection rate and an exceptionally higher burden when compared to previous seasons. Overall, there was a 10.9-fold increase in incidence in Italy, with 577 human cases, 230 WNV neuroinvasive diseases (WNNV) and 42 WNV-attributed deaths. Methods: in this paper we retrospectively reported the neurological presentation of 7 patients admitted to University Hospital of Udine with a diagnosis of WNNV, especially focusing on two patients who presented with atypical severe brain stem involvement. Conclusions: the atypical features of some of these forms highlight the necessity to stay vigilant and suspect the diagnosis when confronted with neurological symptoms. We strongly encourage clinicians to consider WNNV in patients presenting with unexplained neurological symptoms in mild climate-areas at risk.
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