Problems and Perspectives in Management

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ISSN / EISSN : 1727-7051 / 1810-5467
Current Publisher: LLC CPC Business Perspectives (10.21511)
Total articles ≅ 818
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Ebere Ume Kalu, Chinwe Achike, Ann Ogbo, Wilfred Ukpere
Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 18, pp 527-538; doi:10.21511/ppm.18(4).2020.42

This paper examined the growth and unemployment linkage from a gender-classification perspective using the Nigerian economic environment. The autoregressive distributed lag model in its baseline form, the bound test, and error correction representation were used as the estimation approach. Annualized time series spanning 1981 to 2017 were used for the variables of interest. Generally, it was found that female unemployment has a positive significant influence on GDP growth rate in Nigeria, while youth unemployment negatively and significantly influences GDP. It was also found that male unemployment does not significantly affect the GDP growth rate in Nigeria. In the long run, the main variables influencing GDP growth rate within the context of this study include unemployment rate, ratio of labor force size to the national population, female unemployment rate, and youth unemployment rate. The error correction representation and the bound test estimates confirm that growth adjusts to the dynamics of the studied unemployment variables. The study advocates for an increase in government capital expenditure, as this is theoretically and practically known to create new jobs. This spending should go into real and core productive sectors that would create upstream and downstream jobs opportunities.
Sung-Hoon Ko, Yongjun Choi
Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 19, pp 13-23; doi:10.21511/ppm.19(1).2021.02

This study examined the effect of positive leadership experienced by employees on their organizational identification and the mechanisms through how positive leadership enhances organizational identification. Despite the importance of positive leadership at work, such as increasing the followers’ positive self-concepts at work, our understanding of the mechanisms through how positive leadership leads to employees’ organizational identification is still in a nascent state. Thus, this study addresses the research gap by investigating the mediating roles of compassion and positive emotions in the relationship between positive leadership and organizational identification. This study used path analysis and bootstrapping to analyze the survey data collected from 312 full-time employees in 10 large-sized companies located in South Korea. The path analysis results confirmed that positive leadership increases employees’ organizational identification. Furthermore, positive leadership enhances compassion and positive emotions at work, which, in turn, leads to higher organizational identification. Most importantly, the bootstrapping results revealed that both compassion and positive emotion mediate the positive relationship between positive leadership and organizational identification. The empirical results broaden the understanding of the mechanisms through how positive leadership could bring positive effects at work, such as employee organizational identification. Thus, from the managerial perspective, organizations could emphasize the importance of positive leadership at work, and provide the managers with opportunities to develop their positive leadership.
Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 19, pp 1-12; doi:10.21511/ppm.19(1).2021.01

This research paper fills a significant gap in the literature in the field of the influence of demographic characteristics of employees on the quality of interpersonal relationships at work (QR). There are no comprehensive research results concerning this problem. The research objective is to describe how selected characteristics of employees (sex, age, education, type of job, and length of service) influence QR. This goal was achieved through the use of survey methods (online, direct and auditory) conducted in 2018 and 2019 on the sample of 1,336 active employees in Poland. The data was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics application. The findings prove that the quality of interpersonal relationships at work is differentiated by sex (men tend to rate the quality of relationships higher as compared to women), age (respondents belonging to younger groups tend to rate the quality of relationships higher as compared to older respondents), education (respondents with higher education tend to rate the quality of relationships higher as compared to less educated respondents), and type of job (managers tend to rate the quality of relationships higher as compared to the blue-collar workers). It was not possible to determine explicit trends in assessing the quality of relationships depending on the term of work. According to obtained results, special attention should be paid to the following categories of staff: women, older, less educated and blue-collar employees.
, Qaisar Ali, Nur Anissa Sarbini, Abdul Nasir Rani, Zaki Zaini
Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 19, pp 90-102; doi:10.21511/ppm.19(1).2021.08

The outbreak of Covid-19 is the second most devastating event over a century. The pandemic, alongside deep health crises, has ushered the largest economic shocks, which require governments’ attention to ameliorate to avoid an economic downturn. The aim of this study is to measure the economic impacts of Covid-19 in Brunei by estimating the exposure, vulnerability, and resilience of the economy. This study deployed the United Nations Disaster Risk Reduction framework to examine the economic impact empirically. The data related to variables of gross domestic product, oil prices, international merchandise trade, tourism, unemployment, consumer price index, money supply, and national accounts were collected from September 2019 to July 2020 and analyzed through the fixed effects panel regression technique. The findings show that the news of the Covid-19 outbreak has exposed the weaknesses in energy sectors by having a significant negative impact. Additionally, analysis discloses that the energy and tourism sectors are vulnerable to the shocks of Covid-19. During the peak of the pandemic outbreak, unemployment in Brunei has also escalated. Additionally, the energy and tourism sectors are less resilient to pandemic shocks. The findings indicated that the consumer price index has significantly escalated during the economic recovery process. The findings elucidate that the overall GDP growth rate, international merchandise trade, and the financial sector continue exhibiting better performance amid Covid-19. The findings of this study contribute to developing policy implications for the emerging economies concerned with the economic recovery process during the pandemic.
Jiří Kutlák
Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 19, pp 39-52; doi:10.21511/ppm.19(1).2021.04

In recent years, numerous researches and studies confirm differences between Generations in their values, attitudes, or characteristics. However, the challenge is to get to know the Generation Z, whose individuals are currently entering the labor market for research and practical application. The presented paper aims to expand the knowledge of Generations Y and Z in the field of individualism and self-reliance. This issue is examined concerning independence regarding housing and financial independence to parental help. The aim of the study is an empirical verification of possible similarities and differences between Generations Y and Z. The study is based on an online questionnaire survey. Data were obtained from more than 1,500 respondents of these Generations (born in 1982–2005) in 5 European countries (Czech Republic, Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and Slovakia). Data are examined using a two-tailed t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and regression analysis. The overall findings of the study indicate intergenerational differences in the issue of independence, with Generation Z, unlike Millennials, becoming more self-sufficient at a younger age. Research has also found that women leave the parental household earlier than men. The paper presents the possible influence of the outputs on the working environment and work motivation of the Generations Y and Z. AcknowledgmentThe paper was created with the support of the project SGS-2020-015 “Research in selected areas of management and marketing of organisations in the context of demographic and technological changes.”
Arjun Rai, Prem Bahadur Budhathoki, Chandra Kumar Rai
Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 19, pp 127-136; doi:10.21511/ppm.19(1).2021.11

Employees’ job satisfaction is a leading factor in determining their organizational commitment. The organizational commitment level affects the employees’ decision to leave or remain in their organization. The banking sector of Nepal has been facing a problem of high employee mobility from one bank to another. In the backdrop of this context, this survey intends to examine the effect of satisfaction with colleagues, promotion, and the nature of work on the three dimensions of organizational commitment using the Ordinary Least Squares model in the context of private bank employees in Nepal. This study used a survey method to collect data from 199 employees working in private banks in Nepal, using a standardized questionnaire. The collected data were coded, entered, and processed in Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25. The outcomes of the study – satisfaction with the colleagues, promotion, and the nature of the work – had a significant positive impact on the affective and normative commitment of the employees, but the regressors had an insignificant effect on continuance commitment. The employees’ satisfaction from their colleagues, promotion, and the nature of work positively improves their affective and normative commitment. Nevertheless, this study found the predictor variables as irrelevant factors for explaining the continuance commitment of the employees in the context of the study. This study’s contribution is the idea of how satisfaction with colleagues, promotion, and work nature contribute to the three dimensions of organizational commitment among Nepalese private bank employees.
Anita Wijayanti, , Safiah Sidek, Kartika Hendra Titisari
Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 19, pp 185-197; doi:10.21511/ppm.19(1).2021.16

Business transformation is essential to making the small-sized family business more sustainable. Technological and environmental changes have radically transformed the way of doing business. Business transformation into digital business is the key to success in these conditions. On the other hand, some of the previous studies of business transformation in several countries and industries show different empirical evidence. This study analyzes the transformation process in a small-sized family business. This is a case study of 15 small-sized family businesses with four different types of industry, with an interview and observation period of 12 months in 2019–2020. This study has formulated a business transformation model for a small-sized family business and presented the results of the transformation process carried out. The research results indicate that a business transformation model consists of several attributes and sub-attributes. Business transformation results indicate different processes and times between companies. In general, the transformation process can be grouped into the exploration, learning, and synchronizing stages. The industry with the fastest transformation process is the hospitality industry, while the manufacturing process for the industry takes a bit longer. The results of this study indicate that business transformation has improved the sustainability of a small-sized family business that is characterized by its ability to adapt to changing technology and environmental conditions.
Anton Kvitka, Anna Kramarenko, Denys Davydov, Maryna Pasmor,
Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 19, pp 177-184; doi:10.21511/ppm.19(1).2021.15

The use of available digital tools, the entrepreneur’s personal human capital, and the formation and filling of niche markets are seen as the main factors of enterprises’ prosperity. Thus, the study aims to identify the impact of business research on the dynamics of operational and commercial efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). The online survey and regression analysis methods based on the data obtained were used. The study revealed that SMEs constantly need to perform data analysis, but despite the need for business intelligence, enterprises rarely use Big Data (cloud technologies). Most small businesses that conduct business research use digital tools, which poses acute problems of staff development and building an effective model for outsourcing research agents. Currently, the economic efficiency of business research is not clearly visible, which is due to the influence of strong external factors, as well as a low level of innovation and research activity of economic agents.
Eva Fichtnerová, Jitka Vacková
Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 19, pp 209-220; doi:10.21511/ppm.19(1).2021.18

The higher education system needs personalities who guarantee high quality of academic and scientific performance. This paper deals with the motives of their migration to/from HEIs, knowledge of which is important for their HR management and increasing global competitiveness. The theory is based on the idea of internationalization (Knight, 2012) and push-pull factors (Ravenstein, 1889), leading to the recruitment of highly qualified labor from abroad. The analysis focused on the “circulation of brains” in modern Europe. The final part contains a graph of the research methodology.Three main areas of the motivation process affecting migration have been identified. At the macro-level, this is political support, which enables the arrival of experts and creates conditions for own professionals to gain experience abroad, but return. This applies to working conditions, adaptation, and integration. Economic conditions at the mezzo-level are based on the motives of finding a better job opportunity and one’s living conditions. The transfer of knowledge increases the country’s economic potential. At the micro-level, there is an impact of an individual’s character traits and surrounding social networks. It depends on the influence of a family, school, friends, the desire to apply language and other skills, and experience abroad. The knowledge of the motives for migration should be a stimulus for taking appropriate measures at higher education institutions leading to the creation of a multicultural environment and the readiness of HEIs to use «brain circulation» to increase their excellence in academic and scientific performance. AcknowledgmentThis research did not receive a specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The researchers have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Olena Shkarupa, , Dmytro Vlasenko, Kostiantyn Fedchenko
Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 19, pp 151-162; doi:10.21511/ppm.19(1).2021.13

An essential aspect of the country’s economic growth is the transfer of innovation, which is very important nowadays. The innovative projects can be implemented through it at the level of households, companies, institutions, and local communities. The transfer of innovations is intended to cause a cumulative effect and stimulate economic growth. It is important to determine the influence of different factors on this process and consider the feedbacks in the “enterprise-region-state” system, which will increase the level of control over the process. The paper aims to find scientific instruments for managing the multilevel transfer of innovations, representing the connections between factors that act as catalysts/inhibitors of that process. The proposed methodology uses systems analysis, indicative analysis, and cognitive modeling (Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM)). Based on the study results, a cognitive model was formed based on identifying the “strength of impact” of connections between elements that determine the level of influence of the micro- and macro-environment factors of the innovation multilevel transfer. From a practical point of view, this allows obtaining forecasts of its behavior under different management actions. To implement the research results, it is necessary to determine management tools that will allow stakeholders in the system “enterprise-region-state” to make a transfer of innovations most effective. It demonstrates the need for further research in this area and assessing the potential consequences of management decisions for economic growth. AcknowledgmentThis research was funded by a grant from the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine “Modelling the Transfer of Eco-Innovations in the Enterprise-Region-State System: Impact on Ukraine’s Economic Growth and Security” (No. 0119U100364).
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