Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology

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EISSN : 2320-7027
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 1,104
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, S. K. Kashyap, Neelam Bhardwaj, V. L. V. Kameswari, G. S. Kushwaha
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 71-80; doi:10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730610

Group decision-making is a participatory process in which multiple individuals collectively perform situation analysis, think of alternative courses of action, and select the best alternative to solve the problem. Similarly, in the context of Self-help groups, group decision-making is a necessary process. However, decisions made collectively tend to be more effective than decisions made by a single individual. Still, group members face various constraints while group decision making like social pressure toward conformity, individual domination, conflicting secondary goals, undesirable compromises, ambiguous responsibility, and time. Most studies suggest that SHG members perceived problems faced during group decision-making as a significant constraint. Considering a shortage of empirical research indicating the exact reason for group failures, what makes a group successful, and the factors that lead to ineffective group decision-making, the study aimed at systematically and scientifically developing a group decision-making index to study the group decision-making of the Self-help groups, various factors affecting the group decision-making process, and quantitatively measuring how different groups vary in their group decision-making ability, Thus, an instrument was developed using a two-step method, i.e., instrument designing and judgmental evidence. After that, the validity of the instrument was computed through Item-Content Validity Index (I-CVI) method. Finally, it was narrowed down to 48 statements distributed among ten indicators. The reliability coefficient of the tool was found to be 0.80. Thus, it was found that the group decision-making indexes had appropriate content validity and internal consistency to measure and quantify the group decision-making process of selected Self-help Groups. The study recommends the use of the developed index for studying the root cause of ineffectiveness in group decision-making in various Self-help groups, which will help in the formulation of strategy for overcoming the constraints related to group decision-making as reported by various SHGs.
, T. Samsai, K. Mahendran
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 64-70; doi:10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730609

Aim: The purpose of the study is to find the awareness of consumers towards green products, factors influencing them to purchase the green products and the problems faced by consumers while purchasing the green products in Coimbatore city Design of the Study: The study is empirical in nature as the study aims to find out the Impact of green products on consumer purchase decision in Coimbatore city. The study is carried out with a survey through a well structured interview schedule. Collection of data for the purpose of the research study is in the form of primary data as the study being empirical in nature. Methodology: The sampling technique involved is purposive sampling. The study is limited only in Coimbatore city. The data were collected from the customer who were aware about the green products. The survey conducted in customers of organised retail stores. In this study, total samples is 100.Tools used for analysis were percentage analysis, factor analysis and Garett’s Ranking Technique. Findings: Consumer Awareness towards green products was high and it indicated that they were having high environmental concern. Most of the sample respondents were college graduates and they have good knowledge about the green products. Consumer attitude towards purchase of green product was high. Consumer purchase decision of green products was highly based on the Quality and Promotion (Advertisement). High cost is the major problem faced by the sample respondents while purchasing of green products.
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 51-63; doi:10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730608

This study was conducted on the pine nuts industry in the southeast of Afghanistan. This is a baseline study, which has conducted between May 2019 and December 2020. This study aims to provide essential information about the pine nuts industry, especially focused on the supply chain of pine nuts. A structured questionnaire has been used for the data collection to collect demographic information, and information regarding the pine nuts supply chain, pine nuts processing, challenges and opportunities, trade, and marketing, Due to the small size of the population, the census method was used. I interviewed directly the stakeholder and entrepreneurs who are working in the pine nuts industries; the interview has been conducted on local language (Pashto). Chilgoza plays an important role in the socio-economic development of rural societies existing nearby Chilgoza forests. Chilgoza pine forests not only provide pine nuts as a cash crop product but also provide fuelwood, medicinal plants, pasture, and shelter for livestock as well as environment habitat and other ecological services. Nuts of Chilgoza pine are highly valued, collected, and sold by local villagers is a good source of income for them. After extracting nuts from the cones, the owner, sells the empty cones to the people of Khost province of Afghanistan, usually used as fuelwood.
Abdoulaye Maïga, Amadou Bamba, Boubacar Sy, Georges Hady Keita, Issoufou Soumaïla Mouleye, Moussa Diallo
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 42-50; doi:10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730607

The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of government spending on agricultural growth in Mali using data from 2000 to 2019. The lagged autoregressive model (ARDL) was used to perform the estimation. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the data from the World Bank database. Several specification tests were performed to confirm the validity of the chosen model. The results of this study show that the public expenditures have positive and significant effects on agricultural growth, except for agricultural expenditures that have negative effects. Similarly, the agricultural employability rate and fertilizer consumption also have negative effects. This implies that the government needs to review its resource allocation policy in all sectors, including the agricultural sector.
, B. Subrahmanyeshwari, K. C. Veeranna, G. R. K. Sharma, Y. Ravindraredddy, B. Punyakumari
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 36-41; doi:10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730606

India owns the largest livestock population in the world and it is bestowed with huge and diverse livestock resources. The animal husbandry sector provides large self-employment opportunities and is proved to be a boon for sustaining the livelihood of the resource poor farmers. A study was undertaken to analyze the socioeconomic and psychological profile of livestock entrepreneurs in Karnataka state. Four divisions viz. Bengaluru division, Mysuru division, Belagavi division and Kalaburagi division were selected for the study. A total of 160 livestock entrepreneurs were randomly selected and data were collected using structured interview schedule. The analysis of socio economic and psychological profile revealed that majority (58.75%) of the livestock entrepreneurs were of middle age group (35-50 years), and more than three forth (78.13%) of the livestock entrepreneurs are male. With respect education 36.88 per cent of them had middle school education and half (50.63%) of the entrepreneurs belonged to small family size(less than 6 members). Majority (56.88%) of the livestock entrepreneurs had animal husbandry as their major occupation with 43.75 per cent of the respondents had medium landholding (2-3 acres of land). More than half (51.25%) of the respondents had medium livestock possession and 45.63 per cent of the entrepreneurs had an annual income of more than Rs.4,00,001. Majority (53.75%) of the livestock entrepreneurs had (5 to 10 years) medium level of experience in livestock entrepreneurship. Majority of the respondent dairy farmers had medium economic motivation and scientific orientation. The study concludes that livestock entrepreneurs had different socioeconomic status due to varied attributes possessed by them.
S. Bora, P. K. Das, , S. D. Deka, D. Sonowal
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 28-35; doi:10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730605

Most farmers are not aware of the various aspects of organic farming of vegetables despite the fact that the state of Assam is “naturally organic by default”. Besides having tremendous potential to grow crops organically, organic farming is yet to taste success in the state of Assam. Information is currently seen by many as the main limiting factor to growth in the organic sector in the state. Hence, there is need to equip the farmers with the necessary information related to the organic cultivation and certification process with respect to important vegetable crops The study was undertaken in North Bank Plains Zone and Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam, primarily to understand farmers’ information needs in relation to organic vegetable production. The study also identified the factors influencing the information needs and constraints as perceived by the farmers in meeting their information needs. A multi-stage, purposive cum proportionate random sampling design was adopted for the study in order to select 120 respondents. The study revealed that majority of the respondents (95.83%) expressed that they need information on inspection and certification process on organic vegetable production, followed by the need for information on soil treatment for organic vegetable production, and on the variety/planting material suitable for organic vegetable production. Findings of correlation analysis indicated that among the 10 independent variables, 6 variables showed significant and positive relationship and 4 variables showed significant and negative relationship with the information needs of farmers in relation to organic vegetable production at 0.01 level of probability. Findings revealed that “lack of knowledge about inspection and certification process of organic vegetable production” was the major constraint faced by the respondents with the highest score (PCI-296) and hence was ranked 1st followed by “Lack of knowledge about market linkages’ (PCI-280) and ‘Lack of access to credit facilities’ (PCI-278) which were ranked 2nd and 3rd important constraints faced by them in meeting their information needs. It implies that NGOs, KVKs, various development workers and extension agencies should put more efforts to modify and channel the information needs of organic vegetable farmers in the desirable direction through their preferred medium.
, Fakhrul Islam, , , Mokhlasur Rahman
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 8-27; doi:10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i730604

Fishery sector plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of Bangladesh. In the fish economy of Bangladesh, one of the most flourishing traffic activities is fish marketing. This study was aimed to investigate the fish species availability, supply chain, quality loss, price behavior and constrains associated with fish marketing in order to provide better suggestion for efficient fish marketing in Jamalpur district of Bangladesh. Data were collected form Sadar upazila markets by using a structured interview schedule, focus group discussions (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII) with the stakeholders involved in supplying fish from farm to fork, such as- aratdars, retailers, and consumers during 2020-21. A total 78 fish species were found (72 Fresh water and 2 Marine water), among them 20 frequently, 17 less amount, 25 occasionally, and 16 species were rarely available in the market. It was estimated that 72% fish species were sourced from culture fishery whereas 28% were from capture fishery. About 91.5% fishes in Jamalpur markets were supplied locally, whereas rests were from other districts. The post-harvest quality losses of fish in the sampled markets were assessed which indicate that small indigenous species (SIS) spoiled quicker than medium to large sizes fishes due to different factors. The price behavior of the fish market influenced by the demand of the fish species, quality, size, catching sources (culture fishery or capture fishery) and the purchasing time (beginning, middle or last time of market). The study found positive correlation between the market price and fish quality. Several problems of fish market were identified resulting consumer dissatisfaction and financial losses for fish traders. Considering the importance of fish market to the economy, this study suggested to take necessary steps for establishing modern fish market to ensure the adequate quality maintenance of fish with efficient marketing.
A. L. Rathva, , D. N. Gadhvi
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 127-133; doi:10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630600

A field survey was conducted in Navsari district by selecting 40 commercial dairy farmers randomly from Navsari and adjoining areas. The commercial farm that possessed 20 Adult Unit of either cattle or buffalo was considered for the study. The desired information pertaining to livestock purchase-selling practices with criteria was collected with the help of pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. The data regarding problems found in purchased animals were collected by using 5 point Likert agreement scale. Analyzed data revealed that overall total herd strength was 52.07±5.24. It included 16.48±2.44 milch buffalo, 4.82±0.82 dry buffaloes, 5.90±0.76 milch cows and 2.12±0.33 cows. The herd strength across both regions was nonsignificant. Many livestock keepers were availing subsidies for construction of shed, purchase of chaff cutter, milking machine, rubber mats and livestock. Subsidy for purchase of chaff cutter was enjoyed by 20% respondents, whereas 12.5% respondents were benefited by subsidy for construction of shed and purchase of livestock. However, about 47% of them were not taken any kind of subsidy for their farm. The reasons for not availing subsidy showing that 17.5% respondents were not knowing/not tried to avail subsidy benefits. The analyzed data on livestock prizing showed that buffaloes were costlier than cows. The average purchase price was Rs. 72161±2195 and 58291±5233 for buffaloes and cows, respectively. Average selling price was quite lower than purchased price for cows and buffaloes. It was Rs. 28463±625 and 27083±2083 for buffalo and cow, respectively. Further, the livestock buyer was not much satisfied with purchased animals as they were having many problems like mastitis, repeat breeding, less milk production etc.
, P. Rambabu, T. Gopi Krishna, M. Martin Luther, V. Srinivasa Rao
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 118-126; doi:10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630599

This study aimed to assess the constraints faced by rice farmers under RKVY, their suggestions and a strategy was developed to overcome the constraints. The present study was conducted in 3 districts viz Srikakulam, Nellore and West Godavari of Andhra Pradesh. Ex post facto research design was used and data was collected through interview schedule from 240 farmers. Collected data is analyzed using Garett test and other suitable statistical tools. Multiple responses were considered to ascertain the constraints faced by the rice growers in adoption of recommended technologies of Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU). The constraints faced by the rice growers in adoption of recommended technologies are classified into 5 categories viz., Personnel constraints, Bio physical constraints, Socio-Economic Constraints, Marketing constraints and Organizational constraints. The major constraints perceived by the farmers among different categories were Labour scarcity & high wage rates during peak periods, less mass media exposure, interference of middlemen and Epidemics of pest & diseases. The suggestions given by the farmers were prioritization of agricultural activities in MGNREGA scheme, Conduct of hands on experience training programs on usage of ICT tools and social media for browsing information related to agriculture, Setting up of sufficient number of public purchase points at local level by the government, Conducting sufficient number of practical oriented season long training programs during crop period and Provision of timely updates regarding fluctuations in market prices. A suitable strategy was evolved addressing the various constraints which would be helpful for the policy makers, researchers, extension functionaries to plan and modify the extension programs so as to mitigate these constraints faced by the rice farmers and thereby to augment rice production.
, Ronald Révolo Acevedo, Bimael Quispe Reymundo, Saul Caballón Flores
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 103-117; doi:10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i630598

Aims: The urban form of each district was estimated; the entry indicators and exit indicators of urban eco-efficiency; as well as the environmental costs and economic outcomes of agricultural eco-efficiency in the 28 districts of the Huancayo Province. Study design: Descriptive-Correlational. Place and duration of study: The research project lasted 1 year, the data collection of agricultural-urban eco-efficiency was carried out from January to December 2020 by district, as well as the delimitation of productive and non-productive agricultural areas. Methodology: The World Business Council for Sustainable Development eco-efficiency model developed by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used. To estimate the Urban Form, the Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS satellite image was used. For the Ecoeficiencia Urban-Agricultural data was collected by interviewing field and respective households using probability sampling, to estimate the polluting gases by province, the Sentinel-5P satellite image was used. Pearson's r coefficient and bilateral Student's t-test were used for the statistical analysis [26; 2.05]. Results: The Urban Form presents compactness ratio 0.27, shape ratio 0.21, elasticity ratio 5.47 and population density 753.09hab/km2. The Urban-Input indicators are urban water consumption 5889116.31ML/year electric energy consumption 2062019.23MW/year, food consumption 2664.56 ton/year. The Urban-Output indicators are emission of polluting gases 40335.11 ton/year, economic revenue 279.35PEN/year and wastewater discharge 90581.38ML/year. The Environmental Costs-Agricultural are water consumption for the agricultural sector 3348.34ML/year, fertilizer consumption 69.14 ton/year and phytosanitary consumption 46 ton/year. The Economic Outputs-Agricultural are agricultural production of 4779.79 kg/year, agricultural land rent 6390.3 PEN/year, gross value of production 4854.35 PEN/year. Agricultural Eco-efficiency [Eec-Ag]=0.89 and Urban Eco-efficiency [Eec-Ur]=0.98, ratio coefficient r=-0.13 and tc=0.64. Conclusion: The 28 districts of the province of Huancayo have an Eec-Ur [Urban Eco-efficiency] of 0.98 and Eec-Ag [Agricultural Eco-efficiency] of 0.89 where it maintains the added value while generating 98% and 89% of its environmental pressures. There is no statistically significant relationship between urban eco-efficiency and agricultural eco-efficiency.
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