Journal of Vocational Health Studies
ISSN / EISSN : 2580-7161 / 2580-717X
Published by: Universitas Airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 106
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Vocational Health Studies, Volume 5, pp 22-25; https://doi.org/10.20473/jvhs.v5.i1.2021.22-25
Background: Burn unit is a unit where patients with a burn wound in which the patient’s skin is not intact are taken care of. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as the prototype of a nosocomial pathogen is usually transmitted through contact from the surfaces of the object to the non-intact skin. Therefore, the possibility of MRSA infection increase in the burn unit. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to find out whether there is any colonization of MRSA on the objects around burn unit patients that can contribute to the spreading of MRSA in the RSUD Dr.Soetomo Indonesia. Method: The sampling period was started from October 2019 until March 2020. Samples were taken randomly from 28 patients in the Burn unit RSUD Dr.Soetomo -ndonesia and then tested for identification in the microbiology laboratory of the medical faculty, Universitas Airlangga. Result: Nineteen bacterial growths were obtained from twenty-eight samples taken, nine of them were confirmed as Stahylococcus aureus and one from nine of them was confirmed as MRSA. Conclusion: MRSA contamination was found on an object around the patient burn unit Dr. Soetomo-Indonesia which comes from the stethoscope membrane.
Journal of Vocational Health Studies, Volume 5, pp 47-52; https://doi.org/10.20473/jvhs.v5.i1.2021.47-52
Background: On 12th December 2019, pneumonia of unknown etiology was reported in number of human cases from Wuhan, central China. On 11th February 2020, the WHO named the disease COVID-19, short for “COronaVIrus Disease 2019”. This COVID-19 out-break has grown substantially to that of pandemic nature currently. Close personal contact and respiratory droplets from sneezes and coughs of patient can disseminate SARS-CoV-2. The WHO continues to stress the usefulness of environmental cleaning and disinfection, frequent hand hygiene, respiratory etiquette. The WHO also suggests avoidance of close, unprotected contact and maintenance of physical distance with people having fever or respiratory symptoms. Purpose: To develop strategies for lowering transmission of COVID-19, development of ways for distinguishing the various modes of transmission such as urine and fecal samples is need of the hour. Review: In a clinical scenario where possibility of vertical transmission of Covid-19 is increasingly being reported and transplacental transmission of the SARS-COV-2 cannot be ruled out, medical fraternity requires more evidence on vertical transmission for better mother and newborn care. Conclusion: In order to study the vertical dissemination of SARS-CoV-2, the heath authorities should include additional examinations of maternal and newborn samples in standard treatment guideline for pregnant women.
Journal of Vocational Health Studies, Volume 5, pp 12-16; https://doi.org/10.20473/jvhs.v5.i1.2021.12-16
Background: INR examination services at laboratories in hospitals and clinics use different methods and tools therefore, results of the INR examination are different. Purpose: To determine whether there are differences in the INR value between using the photo optic method and electromechanical method. Method: This study used a citrate blood sample with a ratio of blood and anticoagulant 9: 1 and used the Sysmex CA-600 device for the photo optic method and used the Thrombostat device for the electromechanical method. The sample consisted of 32 samples, namely 10 treatment samples to be analyzed and 22 normal samples. Using SPSS 25.0 to test data that was tested for normality test and in a different test. Result: The result of INR with the electromechanical method was significantly longer than INR with the photo optic method. In the hemolytic sample, the result was significantly higher than the INR result with normal samples. Conclusion: There are significant differences between results of the INR value using photo optic and electromechanical due to the difference in the detection principle between the two methods.
Journal of Vocational Health Studies, Volume 5, pp 17-21; https://doi.org/10.20473/jvhs.v5.i1.2021.17-21
Background: Examination of PT and APTT in hospitals and clinical laboratories by utilizing the use of different instruments and methods. Examination of PT and APTT can be implemented through electromechanical or photo-optical techniques to detect changes in plasma turbidity. This method principle isprincipled that addition can affect the increase in plasma viscosity. Purpose: To analyze the differences in the values of PT and APTT between the electromechanical method and the photo-optical method. Method: Analytical observation, 32 plasma citrate without interference and hemolysis were examined at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory of RSU Haji Surabaya and the Ultra Medica Main Clinics Laboratory in Surabaya. The study used SPSS 24.0 program to determine whether there were PT and APTT values with an electromechanical and photo-optical method. Result: The result of PT and APTT with the electromechanical method was significantly higher than PT and APTT with the photo-optical method on samples without interference. In hemolytic samples, the result of PT with the electromechanical method was significantly higher than the PT result with the photo-optical method. Meanwhile, the result of APTT with the electromechanical method was significantly lower than the APTT result with the photo-optical method in hemolytic samples. Conclusion: There were significant differences in PT and APTT results between electromechanical and photo-optical in samples without interference and hemolytic. It is due to the difference in the detection principle between the two methods.
Journal of Vocational Health Studies, Volume 5, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.20473/jvhs.v5.i1.2021.1-11
Background: HIV patients with a weak immune system are very vulnerable to opportunistic infections, can trigger systemic endothelial activation and end up as a condition of sepsis. In Indonesia currently, there is no bacterial epidemiological mapping of the etiology of opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Purpose: To determine the pattern of bacteria that cause opportunistic infections and their antibiotic sensitivity in HIV patients. Method: Prospective observational study design. Data were obtained from medical records of hospitalized patients at RSUD Dr. Soetomo Surabaya from August 2019 - February 2020. Result: Out of 64 patients, 83 specimens were found with the most types of gram-negative bacteria 44.6%, while gram-positive bacteria were 15.7% and a mix of 2.4% and 37.3% negative culture. The highest prevalence of gram-negative bacteria was Klebsiella pneumoniae (35.15), followed by Escherichia coli (10.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.1%), and Acinetobacter baumanii (8.1%). The highest prevalence of gram-positive bacteria was Streptococcus mitis / oralis (30.7%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23.1%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (15.4%). Among gram-negative bacteria antibiotic, Cefoperazone-sulbactam showed the greatest sensitivity, following by Amikacin, Gentamycin and Piperacillin-tazobactam; while among gram-positive bacteria are Chloramphenicol, Linezolid, and Vancomycin. Almost all isolates showed resistance to Ampicillin. Conclusion: Bacteria pattern that caused opportunistic infection in RSUD Dr. Soetomo is K. pneumonia as most common gram-negative bacteria followed by E. coli, P. aeruginosa and A. baumanii; while the most gram-positive bacteria found are S. mitis/oralis and S. aureus. Among antibiotic used, Ampicillin showed the lowest sensitivity to almost all bacteria isolates.
Journal of Vocational Health Studies, Volume 5, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.20473/jvhs.v5.i1.2021.31-38
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacteria that can cause infection. One of the plants that has antibacterial activity is jatropha leaves which contain flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroids and polyphenols. Purpose: To determine the antibacterial activity of ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction with concentrations of 30%, 60% and 100% against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Method: The method for extracting jatropha leaves is maceration with 96% ethanol solvent and the fractionation method, namely liquid-liquid fractionation with ethyl acetate solvent. Antibacterial activity test was carried out in vitro with the disc diffusion method and compared the mean zone of inhibition of each treatment with a positive control (gentamicin 10 μg). Result: The results showed that the ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of jatropha leaves had a strong resistance response, while the positive control gave a very strong inhibitory response to the growth of S. aureus bacteria. Based on the one way ANOVA test, ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant difference from each treatment with a significant value (P=<0.05). Conclusion: The ethanol extract of Jatropha leaves can inhibit the growth of S. aureus bacteria at a concentration of 100% (18.28 ± 0.50 mm), 100% concentration of ethyl acetate fraction (15.10 ± 0.12 mm). The ethanol extract provided the best inhibition power, namely 18.28 ± 0.50 mm and a positive control 21.82 ± 0.092 mm.
Journal of Vocational Health Studies, Volume 5, pp 53-57; https://doi.org/10.20473/jvhs.v5.i1.2021.53-57
Background: The end of 2019, Wuhan experienced an insurgence of coronavirus within two months of this prolong pandemic. Patients with Covid-19 have chance in suffering a serious damage of respiratory system, which then lead to hypoxemia. The harmful of silent hypoxemia is that either the patients are remain untreated or they will not seek any treatment at all, though their blood oxygen levels (SpO2 levels) slowly decrease. Especially those who isolated at home. Pulse oximeter is a mini device that evaluate the level of arterial blood saturation. Purpose: This article gives a short review about the principle, application, advantage, and disadvantage of pulse oximetry in maintaining the Covid-19 patients with hypoxemia. Review: Two basic principles of pulse oximetry that are important: (a) to differentiate the oxyhemoglobin (HbO2 ) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb), (b) to get the value of SpO2 from arterial compartment blood. How pulse oximeter detects SpO2 is based on the amount of red and IR light absorbed. Pulse oximeter can detect an abnormality of respiratory system in Covid-19 patients that may cannot be detected earlier. Pulse oximeter also helps diagnosing some severe pneumonia cases. It also can be realiable to diagnose an ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndroms) if the devices are found limited (WHO, 2020). Beside the advantages of pulse oximeter, there are some erroneous of readings. Conclusion: Pulse oximeter is a mini device which offers many advantages over its limitations. Limitation of pulse oximeter can be early detected and overcame with an introduction evaluation of clinical conditions of each patients.
Journal of Vocational Health Studies, Volume 5, pp 26-30; https://doi.org/10.20473/jvhs.v5.i1.2021.26-30
Background: Filariasis patients can be a source of transmission if their blood still contains microfilariae. One of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods used is High Resolution Melting (HRM), using primary specificity testing. Purpose: To test the specificity of SLX primer. The samples used for this test were isolates of Salmonella., Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, negative and positive controls for Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. Method: The design in this study is a quasi-experiment by testing the specificity of SLX primer using HRMbased real-time PCR based on the Cycle Threshold (CT) value observed through the amplification curve. Result: The real-time PCR results showed that no CT was released in the bacterial samples, and there was a CT value in the positive control. The results of this study indicate that specific SLX primer can be used in identifying microfilariae. Conclusion: SLX primer have a reasonable specificity because they cannot detect the existence of microorganisms in the samples other than microfilariae.
Journal of Vocational Health Studies, Volume 5, pp 58-64; https://doi.org/10.20473/jvhs.v5.i1.2021.58-64
Background: Mosquito-borne parasites include the pathogenic protozoa and helminths that are transmitted by the insect vector which may co-infect with other organisms to elicit an immune response. Purpose: To determine the frequency of mosquito-borne parasites in patients newly infected with HIV in relationship with CD4 count and TNFα. Method: Thirty-one (31; aged 15-32 years; male-12; female-19) newly diagnosed HIV positive patients and fifty (50) age-matched HIV negative volunteers were recruited as a control subject for this study. All subjects were negative to anti-HCV/HBsAg ELISA, Plasmodium, Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) tests and the control subjects were also negative to HIVP24 Ag-Ab ELISA, Plasmodium spp. and Wuchereria bancrofti microscopy. Venous blood including Night blood samples and sputum samples were obtained from the participants for CD4 count by cyflowmetry, TNFα, HIVP24Ag-Ab, anti-HCV, HBsAg by ELISA and microscopic identification by Giemsa staining while Sputum sample was used for Ziehl Neelsen staining to demonstrate Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB). Result: A lower frequency of 25.8% (Rajan, 2008) Plasmodium spp. and 6.5% (James et al., 2015) W. bancrofti was obtained in newly infected HIV patients compared with 32% (Zeitlmann et al., 2001) Plasmodium spp. and 8% (WHO, 2019) W. bancrofti obtained in the non-HIV infected control subjects. Showed a significant decrease in CD4 count and increase in plasma TNFα in both HIV mono-infection and coinfection with Plasmodium spp. and W. bancrofti compared with the results obtained in the non-HIV infected control subjects (p<0.05) and the results obtained in the newly infected HIV patients without Plasmodium spp. and W. coinfection (p<0.05). Conclusion: There was a significant increase in plasma TNFα and a decrease in CD4 count in both HIV mono-infection and coinfection with Plasmodium spp. and W. bancrofti while a lower frequency of Plasmodium spp. and W. bancrofti was obtained in newly infected HIV patients compared with the results obtained in the non-HIV infected control subjects.
Journal of Vocational Health Studies, Volume 5, pp 39-46; https://doi.org/10.20473/jvhs.v5.i1.2021.39-46
Background: Each year, dengue hemorrhagic fever has grown. Clinical hematological examinations and blood preparations are used to confirm the diagnosis. Purpose: To detect, assess and characterize dengue hemorrhagic fever blood smear at Bali Royal Hospital. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive observational study-was conducted in April at Bali Royal Hospital on 37 patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever, clinical hematological tests and the manufacture of blood preparations identified using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Platelet counts, hemoglobin levels, hematocrit values, leukocyte counts, clinic degrees, gender and age, and blue plasma lymphocytes, are all used in hematological analyzed by univariate, ANOVA and BNT tests to analyze data. Result: Patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever are mostly toddlers and children (35.13%), women (54.0%), and dengue fever degree I (64.86%) with positive blue plasma lymphocytes (51.36%). Platelet counts, hemoglobin levels, hematocrit values, and leukocyte counts are significantly changed on days 3, 6, and 9, with probability values (p=0.000) less than p=0.01. The findings of the BNT test indicate that the number of platelets and haemoglobin on various days is significantly different (p0.01). Conclusion: Clinical hematological tests and blood preparations reveal a blood component anomaly in Dengue Haemorragic Fever (DHF) patients at Bali Royal Hospital on days 3, 6, and 9.