Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic)

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ISSN / EISSN : 1211-4286 / 1805-9694
Total articles ≅ 952
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Radovan Mottl, Martina Kunderová, Radovan Slezák, Jan Schmidt
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic), Volume 64, pp 101-107;

Iatrogenic mandible fracture is a rare complication of a tooth extraction with an incidence between 0.0033–0.0034%. This study retrospectively analyzes a total of 8 patients who underwent lower molar extraction associated with mandible fracture during tooth removal in the period from April 2006 to March 2019. The assessed parameters were age and sex of patients, method of tooth extraction, side distribution of fracture, type of extracted tooth, the position of a lower third molar, presence of bone pathological lesion formed in connection with a tooth, displacement of bone fragments, and sensory impairment in the innervation area of the mental nerve. The position and impaction of the lower third molars were evaluated according to Pell and Gregory’s classification and Winter’s classification. One fracture was left-sided, and 7 fractures were right-sided. In 6 cases, Winter’s extraction elevator was used. In 7 patients, the mandible fracture was treated surgically by performing stable osteosynthesis with the plates and screws. One patient was treated conservatively. This work analyzes the causes of iatrogenic mandible fractures and provides recommendations to reduce the risk of their occurrence.
Volodymyr Dytiatkovskyi, Tetiana Drevytska, Tetiana Lapikova-Bryhinska, Victor Dosenko, Olexandr Abaturov
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic), Volume 64, pp 96-100;

This study deals with detecting the associations of atopic dermatitis’ (AD) phenotypes in children: alone or combined with seasonal allergic rhino-conjunctivitis (SARC) and/or perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR), and/or with bronchial asthma (BA) with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of filaggrin (FLG), thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and orsomucoid-like-1 protein 3 (ORMDL3) genes. Male and female pediatric patients aged from 3 to 18 years old were recruited into the main (AD in different combinations with SARC, PAR, BA) and control groups (disorders of digestives system, neither clinical nor laboratory signs of atopy). Patients were genotyped for SNP of rs_7927894 FLG, rs_11466749 TSLP, rs_7216389 ORMDL3 variants. Statistically significant associations of the increased risk were detected of AD combined with SARC and/or PAR and AD combined with BA (possibly, SARC and/or PAR) with C/T rs_7927894 FLG and T/T rs_7216389 ORMDL3 genotypes. Genotype C/C rs_7927894 FLG significantly decreases the risk of AD combined with SARC and/or PAR by 2.56 fold. Several genotypes’ associations had a trend to significance: C/C rs_7216389 ORMDL3 decreases and C/T rs_7216389 ORMDL3 increases the risk for developing AD alone phenotype; A/G rs_11466749 TSLP decreases the risk of AD combined with BA (possibly, SARC and/or PAR) phenotype development.
Filip Olekšák, , Ľubica Jakušová, Peter Ďurdík, Matúš Igaz, Peter Bánovčin
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic), Volume 64, pp 119-124;

Background: The reference values of young athletes for cardiopulmonary exercise testing are lacking. Expert opinions encourage production of local values specific for certain population. Patients and methods: The study population consisted of 136 healthy male caucasian athletic children and adolescents coming from one specific football school in northern Slovakia. Exercise testing with continuous electrocardiography was performed, and ventilatory parameters, oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) production were measured continuously with a respiratory gas analysis system. Results: Peak VO2max/kg was changing very little across the childhood, whereas the peak work rate, heart rate and O2Pulse were. Linear regression analysis showed a significant effect of age on VE/VCO2. Conclusion: This work provides a reference values for the most important cardiopulmonary variables that can be obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in athletic children.
, Darina Kohoutová, Jaroslav Květina, Věra Radochová, Michal Pavlík, Aleš Tichý, Stanislav Rejchrt, Marcela Kopáčová, Tomáš Douda, David Vysloužil, et al.
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic), Volume 64, pp 85-90;

Background: Gastrointestinal injury caused by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) is a reliable porcine experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 (LC) on DSS-induced experimental IBD.Results: Eighteen female pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica, weight 33–36 kg, age 4–5 months) were divided into 3 groups (6 animals per group): controls with no treatment, DSS, and DSS + LC. LC was administered to overnight fasting animals in a dietary bolus in the morning on days 1–7 (4.5 × 1010 live bacteria/day). DSS was applied simultaneously on days 3–7 (0.25 g/kg/day). On day 8, the pigs were sacrificed. Histopathological score and length of crypts/glands (stomach, jejunum, ileum, transverse colon), length and width of villi (jejunum, ileum), and mitotic and apoptotic indices (jejunum, ileum, transverse colon) were assessed. DSS increased the length of glands in the stomach, length of crypts and villi in the jejunum and ileum, and the histopathological score of gastrointestinal damage, length of crypts and mitotic activity in the transverse colon. Other changes did not achieve any statistical significance. Administration of LC reduced the length of villi in the jejunum and ileum to control levels and decreased the length of crypts in the jejunum. Conclusions: Treatment with a probiotic strain of LC significantly accelerated regeneration of the small intestine in a DSS-induced experimental porcine model of IBD.
Bhagath Kumar Potu, M. V. Ravishankar
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic), Volume 64, pp 77-84;

Background: Contrary to the classic anatomical description, many recent studies have reported wide variations in branching patterns and location of motor branches that are supplying the pronator teres muscle. To understand these variations and their implications in surgical procedures of the nerve transfers, a systematic review was performed on the innervation of pronator teres muscle from cadaveric studies.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in databases such as Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO, ScienceDirect, Cochrane reviews and orthopedics textbooks using the search terms “pronator teres nerve branches”; AND “number” OR “location” OR “length” OR “diameter” yielded 545 article links. Articles were evaluated according to PRISMA guidelines. Results: A total of twenty cadaveric studies including 648 branches have registered 52.9% of two branch innervation pattern followed by 31.3%-single branch pattern; 13.5%-three branch pattern; 1.7%-four branch pattern, and 0.4%-five branch patterns, respectively. Of the 403 branches studied for their location in relation with the humeral intercondylar line, most branches were located distal to the line (50.3%), followed by 32.7% (proximal to it) and 16.8% at the line, respectively. The distance of branches located proximal and distal to humeral intercondylar line was in the range of 1.25–10 cm, and 1.1–7.5 cm, respectively. The mean length and diameter of nerves reported were 4.37 ± 2.43 cm, and 1.5 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Our data defined the morphometrics of nerve branches and they often met the required diameter for neurotization procedures. Our findings also demonstrated that the morphometrics, branching pattern and their location vary between populations and this information is very vital for surgeons during the nerve transfers.
, Alexander Ferko, Michal Demeter, Martin Vorčák, Ľudovít Laca
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic), Volume 64, pp 125-128;

Hepatolithiasis is a benign disease, where stones are localized proximal to the confluence of hepatic ducts. The clinical picture may differ depending on whether the stones cause complete, partial, or intermittent biliary obstruction. The course can vary from asymptomatic to fatal, thus, early diagnosis and treatment is critical for a good prognosis. The gold standard in imaging is magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). However, correct diagnosis can be challenging due to atypical clinical picture and laboratory findings. We present a case where hepatolithiasis was misdiagnosed initially due to incomplete reporting and documentation of MRCP. Choledocholithiasis was diagnosed based on initial MRCP, and endoscopic stone extraction was indicated. However, an unusual post-interventional course and signs of obstructive cholangitis led to an endoscopic re-intervention, which confirmed absence of pathology in extrahepatic biliary ducts. The cholangitis recurrence required intensive antibiotic treatment, and CT examination revealed intrahepatic S3 bile duct dilatation. Thus, a re-evaluation of initial MRCP and repeated MRCP confirmed hepatolithiasis. Further, laparoscopic bisegmentectomy was chosen as the definitive treatment due to the location of the lesion. The patient recovered and remained symptom free upon a 12 month follow up.
, Jitka Čupáková
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic), Volume 64, pp 132-135;

Warfarin is widely used anticoagulant drug for a variety of diseases (thromboembolic disease, atrial fibrillation, etc.). It has three most important parallel metabolic pathways, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9. Terbinafine is a potent CYP2D6 inhibitor. A possible drug interaction could lead to an increased pharmacological effect of the above drugs. Enzyme induction with CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP1A2 inducers may have occurred. Case report: We present a case report of an 88-year-old male patient who has been successfully anticoagulated with warfarin due to atrial fibrillation. He was orally administered terbinafine to treat onychomycosis. Two weeks after initiation of this drug the patient experienced dizziness and feelings of instability, for which he was admitted to the neurology department. A low-efficient INR level was found at the baseline, presumably due to warfarin interaction with terbinafine. The induction of liver enzymes lasts 10–14 days, which matches the introduction of the antifungal agent. Conclusion: Combined therapy with warfarin and oral terbinafine is actually rarely prescribed but, if used, their interaction can have serious consequences in many clinical situations for which anticoagulation therapy with warfarin is indicated.
, Vesna Velik-Stefanovska, Aleksandra Babulovska
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic), Volume 64, pp 91-95;

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological profile of unintentional opioid overdoses, the prevalence and number of psychotropic substances involved in opioid overdoses.Methods: This was a descriptive study, in which 180 participants were enrolled, and covered a nine-years-period. For collecting data was used the National patient electronic system “My term”. The variables as gender, age, duration of opioid dependence, number of overdoses, type of substance, number of antidote ampoules, duration of hospitalization were analyzed. Severity of poisoning was made by using the Poison severity score. Results: Opioid overdose cases were significantly higher among males than females. Mean age with standard deviation (SD) was 32.23 ± 6.71 years. Mean years (±SD) of duration of opioid use disorder was 11.60 ± 5.89 years. The most commonly used primary substance was methadone in 68.89% and heroin in 31.11% cases. Twenty patients were treated with mechanical ventilation because of the severe respiratory depression. Poison severity score was moderate in 51.11%, severe in 45.56% and fatal in 3.33% of the cases. Conclusion: Most of the cases, predominantly males used one or two substances. The combination of methadone and benzodiazepine was most frequently used and the most common way was by injecting the abused substances. In most of the subjects PSS score was moderate and severe with no differences between genders.
, , Flóra Kovácsová, Vlasta Merglová
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic), Volume 64, pp 71-76;

Caries incidence and prevalence have decreased significantly over the last few decades due to widespread use of fluoride. However, an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis has been reported in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities. Care must be taken to ensure that a balance between the optimal fluoride preventive effect at the individual and community level and minimal risk of dental fluorosis is maintained. This review describes the main sources of fluoride intake that have been identified: fluoridated drinking water, dietary fluoride supplement, and topical forms comprising toothpastes, rinses, gels and varnishes. The cited data were taken from meta-analytic studies and reports from Cochrane database systematic reviews up to December 2019. Efficiency, but safety, of topically applied fluorides in individual home care is dependent on the degree of compliance of individuals/parents and on the level of competence of providers of preventive counselling. The broad spectrum of these resources allows individualization of fluoride prevention based on risk analysis of caries attack and taking into consideration other preventive measures.
, Konstantinos Koutsouflianiotis, Chrysanthos Chrysanthou, Kalliopi Iliou, Nikolaos Syrmos, Marios Salmas
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic), Volume 64, pp 129-131;

In the current study, we display a rare association of an aberrant innervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle by the ansa cervicalis (AC) with a tortuous common carotid artery (TCCA). In specific, in a male cadaver we observed on the right side of the cervical region, a nerval branch of remarkable size originating from the most distal part of the AC’s superior root and after piercing the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle innervated the distal portion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Furthermore, we noticed a tortuous course of the initial part of the right common carotid artery. We discuss the surgical significance of the awareness of AC’s variations during neurotisation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in cases of its damage, as well as the importance of aberrant innervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle by AC for the preservation of muscle’s functionality after accessory nerve’s damage. Furthermore, we highlight the fact, that the knowledge of the relatively uncommon variant, such as TCCA is crucial for the physician in order to proceed more effectively in differential diagnosis of a palpable mass of the anterior cervical region or deal with symptoms such as dyspnea, dysphagia or symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency.
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