International Journal of Molecular & Immuno Oncology
EISSN : 2456-3994
Published by: Scientific Scholar (10.25259)
Total articles ≅ 139
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 1 June 2022
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology, Volume 7, pp 29-32; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_12_2022
Homologous recombination repair-deficient tumor cells including altered breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2) tumor cells are known to respond to poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor through the mechanisms of reaching critical levels of genomic instability followed by mitotic catastrophe and ultimately synthetic lethality. PARP inhibitors are oral targeted drugs that are well tolerated and have received FDA approval for the treatment of ovarian, breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The common challenge one encounters in clinical usage is the PARP inhibitor resistance, which may be de novo or acquired. In this review, various mechanisms underlying PARP resistance will be highlighted and the rationale to overcome the resistance.
Published: 18 May 2022
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_11_2022
Cancer immunotherapy originated in the early 1900s with the understanding of cancer immune surveillance and host immune defense mechanisms against cancer cells. Immunotherapy has provided a ray of hope in patients with uveal melanoma, a subtype of melanoma that has a poor prognosis once it has metastasized. Metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) lacks a standard protocol for the treatment. Systemic chemotherapy has not shown any potential benefit. Moreover, its high toxicity has limited its use. Immunotherapy has changed the approach to treating these patients and has significantly prolonged the overall survival as well as the quality of life. We, hereby, present an interesting case of a patient presenting with MUM after an unusually long time from the primary treatment and showing an exceptional response to immunotherapy.
Published: 18 May 2022
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_5_2022
We aim to publish/document a clinically novel case of total body irradiation (TBI) performed on the Halcyon™. A 21-year-old gentleman diagnosed with high-risk tp53-positive acute myeloid leukemia planned for haploidentical bone marrow transplant post-chemotherapy following which he was declared minimal residual disease, negative was referred for TBI. The patient was placed in the supine position, arms by side with feet together. Immobilization was achieved using a full-body Vac-Lok. Two CT images of the cranial and caudal body parts were acquired. The PTV comprised the whole body minus 3 mm. The prescribed dose was 3 Gy in a single fraction. To achieve the desired dose distribution, we used 15 isocenters. Constraints were given to spare lungs and kidneys. The final plan was evaluated where 90% of the dose is received by 95% of volume, whereas lungs and kidneys received 80% of the prescribed dose, maximum dose of <130% of the prescribed dose is received by 2 cc of whole-body volume. The total time taken for delivering a single fraction is 1 h 15 min. This is the first known reported clinical treatment of TBI on Halcyon machine amidst available medical literature.
Published: 18 May 2022
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_3_2022
Breast cancer was initially thought to be less immunogenic; however, extensive studies in recent years have transcended into one having high mutagenic potential. The molecular classification of breast cancer has taken giant strides, as to having subtypes in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) as proposed by Lehmann and group. This recent development has been studied extensively in the immunotherapy trials, the most recent one being the IMPASSION 130 trial which introduced the drug – Atezolizumab. In addition, tissue infiltrating lymphocytes have also been researched in the treatment of residual tumors in post-neoadjuvant scenarios. Vaccines, CART cell therapy, and antibodies are being developed in breast cancer just like the immunotherapeutic strategies in other cancers. This review is an attempt to present the ongoing developments in the field of immunotherapy in breast cancer with highlights in TNBC’s, metastatic breast cancer, and hereditary BRCA positive cancers in particular.
Published: 18 May 2022
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_10_2022
Published: 10 May 2022
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_4_2022
Molecular classification of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder has revealed high mutation rates and a heterogenous variety of mutations. FGFR3 mutations are commonly detected in the Luminal-papillary subtype. Molecular targeted therapy for urothelial carcinoma is now the standard of care after disease progression on platinum/immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Enfortumab vedotin is preferred as there is level 1 evidence available to support its use. Erdafitinib is the first approved gene-targeted therapy for patients with FGFR3/2 alterations. Sacituzumab govitecan shows promise in early phase trials. Further results from phase 3 trials are eagerly anticipated.
Published: 12 April 2022
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_8_2022
Visceral crisis is a situation in which the vital organ function is impaired due to infiltration by cancer cells. It Is of particular importance in the subset of HR+/Her2- metastatic breast cancer.. Current guidelines that recommend cytotoxic chemotherapy for visceral crisis are based on historical data that indicate that chemotherapy has higher response rates than endocrine therapy. These trials included patients with advanced breast cancer who were not selected for the hormonal receptor or Her 2 receptor status. In addition, the comparator had a weak endocrine agent. Objective response rates with endocrine therapy in combination with any of the CDK 4/6 inhibitors in patients with measurable disease range from 50-59%. These response rates are higher than the chemotherapy rates found in the historical trials. Moreover, patients with visceral crisis have a compromised performance status and impaired organ functions. Therefore, it is unlikely that these patients would tolerate complete doses of the most active chemotherapeutic agents, including anthracycline and taxane. The retrospective analysis of the real-world data base clearly demonstrates that the combination of endocrine agents with a CDK 4/6 inhibitor is superior to chemotherapy with improvement in overall survival. In conclusion, it is time to redefine the guidelines and consider endocrine therapy with a CDK 4/6 combination as the preferred option in the initial management of the visceral crisis.
Published: 12 April 2022
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_2_2022
Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins and p53 expression by immunohistochemistry in operable endometrial carcinoma (EC) patients. The study aimed to analyze and correlate clinicopathological factors and survival with MMR and p53 immunohistochemistry markers. Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 115 cases of carcinoma endometrium who underwent primary surgery in our hospital from July 1, 2013, to December 31, 2020, with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Available tissue blocks were stained for IHC expression of MMR and p53 proteins. Patients were stratified into Type I and Type II on basis of histopathology. Clinicopathological factors, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were then compared on the basis of MMR deficiency and p53 status. Results: The mean age of study population was 58.9 years with a mean body mass index of 31.61 kg/m2. The mean follow-up was 41.29 months. Ninety-seven patients underwent IHC staining for MMR and p53 proteins. Among these 97 patients, 79 patients belonged to Type I histopathology and 18 patients belonged to Type II histopathology. The 79 patients of Type I histopathology were further divided into MSS or microsatellite stable group and MSI or microsatellite instable group. MMR deficit status was seen in 17 (21.5%) patients and 62 (78.5%) patients were MSS. For the 18 cases of Type II ECs, 5 (27.8%) patients were p53 positive whereas 13 (72.2%) patients were p53 negative. For patients with Type I histopathology; the clinicopathological factors such as stage, age, grade of the tumor, lymph-vascular space involvement, lymph node status, and myometrial invasion were compared between the MSI and MSS groups. Patients with microsatellite instability were more likely to present with a higher grade, a positive lymph node status, and with lymph-vascular space invasion. The OS and DFS are not significantly affected in patients with loss of MMR proteins. Due to a smaller number of cases in p53 group, clinicopathological features and survival could not be compared. Conclusion: Analyzing of immunohistochemistry status for evaluating the microsatellite instability in patients with Type I endometrioid adenocarcinomas is an alternative and efficient tool in predicting the prognosis for these patients. Further studies with more sample size can help us in studying the impact of MSI and p53 on OS and DFS and for guiding in the management of the same.
Published: 10 March 2022
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_1_2022
Atrial fibrillation is a well recognized side effects of several drugs. However it is ignored since most studies have failed to show that it impacts survival adversely. This is not the case with ibrutinib, especially amongst patients with pre-existing cardiac morbidities. In this article, we provide practical consensus guidelines for cancer patients being commenced on therapy with ibrutinib.
Published: 9 January 2022
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology, Volume 7, pp 3-15; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_26_2021
In December 2019, the first case of COVID-19 surfaced in Wuhan, China. The relatively unknown SARS-CoV-2 virus led to the global 2020–2021 pandemic claiming thousands of lives. One of the major reasons for the prolonged duration of the pandemic consisting of multiple waves, due to sporadic surges in the number of cases, is the emerging variants. Such variants of the classic Wuhan strain hold multiple mutations that increase the viral fitness, improve transmissibility, aid in immune escape, and overall increase the virulence of the virus. Hence, studying and understanding the viral evolution and the interaction dynamics of the virus with the human immune system becomes vital. To that end, here, we review some of the immune aspects associated with SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 with a focus on immune responses to variants of concern. The article breaks down the normal immune response elicited against the virus and its variants along with various interesting concepts of antibody-dependent enhancement, immune escape, immune suppression, and immunophenomics while also highlighting the next frontiers in dealing with the virus. The unprecedented research into understanding the immunological underpinnings of the COVID-19 global pandemic will pave the way for evidence-based strategies for the management of this and any future widespread infectious diseases.