International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology

Journal Information
EISSN : 2456-3994
Published by: Scientific Scholar (10.25259)
Total articles ≅ 122
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Gangothri Selvarajan,
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_22_2021

Abstract:
The presence of a targetable driver mutation in advanced non-small cell carcinoma is seen in about 40–50% of patients. The most common targetable driver identified is the mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. Conventionally, it was thought that these driver mutations of mutually exclusive. But due to the availability of a wider panel of molecular testing and highly sensitive methods of testing, there have been multiple case reports of more than one driver being identified in a single patient. Here in this series, we have described five such cases and have discussed the possible hypothesis and strategies in treatment.
Sindhu Kilaru, , Sourav Mishra, Debahuti Mohapatra, Spoorthy Kolluri, Manas Baisakh, Lalatendu Moharana, Suma Devaraj, Hemlata Das
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_18_2021

Abstract:
Extra-nodal Natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is a well-defined and highly aggressive form of NonHodgkin’s lymphoma with a scarcity of cases reported in literature. The most common primary site of involvement is the nasal cavity followed by skin and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Cutaneous involvement is a rarity. More than 95% of cases are usually in association with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection. EBV negative ENKTL can be similar in clinical, pathological, and prognostic characteristics with EBV positive ENKTL. This malignancy is usually characterized by its poor prognosis irrespective of clinical stage and therapy. We describe here, a 58-year-old man presenting with multiple nodular lesions over legs and trunk, had an ileal perforation later, and was diagnosed as ENKTL on the ileal biopsy specimen. This case is being reported in view of the fulminant clinical course of the disease, simultaneous involvement of the GIT and skin without nasal or midline involvement, the usefulness of immunohistochemistry in arriving at a diagnosis, and EBV negativity which is quite rare in the Asian population.
, Bimal Prasad Jit, Rutumbara Dash, Manasa Kumar Panda
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology, Volume 6, pp 136-139; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_7_2021

Abstract:
Bioactive lipids, presumably lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), play a critical role in regulating an array of cellular functions ranging from cellular fate determination, inflammation, immunity, and cancer. Epidemiological evidence suggests that both the metabolites play a prominent role in the development and progression of oncogenic phenotype in a variety of cancers including breast, colorectal, pancreatic, and lymphoma. Previous studies have demonstrated the possible association of LPA, S1P and their receptor in regulating the pathogenesis of retinoblastoma, however, the exact mechanism involved in this event has not been studied in detail. Importantly, understating the mechanistic basis of LPA and S1P regulation is of utmost significance, as far the phenotypical complexity of retinoblastoma (RB) is concerned. Findings from the recent investigations elucidate the prospective role of S1P in provoking the chemoresistant behavior of RB cells for etoposide. In this context, the current paper will enable the identification of novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for better treatment and clinical efficacy in children with RB.
, Amruta Ashok Deshpande
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology, Volume 6, pp 118-121; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_12_2021

Abstract:
Poly ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are approved for post-chemotherapy maintenance in BRCA mutated ovarian carcinoma. Various PARP-1 inhibitors such as olaparib, rucaparib, niraparib, and veliparib are approved for this indication. These PARP-1 inhibitors are costly as well as having toxic potential, anemia, and neutropenia is the major side effects. Most of the middle-aged women in Indian subcontinent are anemic and prescription of PARP-1 inhibitors is tricky in such conditions, besides their cost is at times unaffordable as maintenance chemotherapy. Hence, we need an affordable yet lesser toxic PARP-1 inhibitor to solve this problem. Nicotinamide, a vitamin B3 amide can be re-purposed as PARP-1 inhibitor. Nicotinamide, albeit at a higher dose, can be efficacious as well as economical in its use as maintenance chemotherapy. It has toxic potential but the toxicity is both rare and manageable. We need a clinical trial for this purpose. Following perspective is on the current evidence on high dose nicotinamide and it is re-purposing as PARP-1 inhibitor.
, Arun Kumar Patra, Pradeep Jaiswal, Raj Mohan, P. K. Sindhu
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology, Volume 6, pp 140-144; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_16_2021

Abstract:
Primary peritoneal carcinomatosis (PPC) is a rare tumor, described in the literature almost exclusively in women. Patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis were considered incurable with low survival rates. This underwent a paradigm shift with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) after optimal cytoreductive surgery which changed the entire scenario. This case report describes the management of a 28-year-old male patient who was diagnosed to have PPC when he presented with massive ascites, who underwent cytoreductive surgery combined with HIPEC in our hospital. This procedure was complex for both the surgical team due to an extensive surgery, but also the anesthetist during the hyperthermic phase where the chemotherapy was administered. The post-operative recovery in such a case is also many times stormy and requires extreme vigilance. We had major challenges such as prolonged surgery, massive blood loss, temperature management, maintaining adequate urine output, and post-operative critical care. Extensive pre-operative preparation and proper coordination with the multidisciplinary team led us to handle the condition satisfactorily. The PPC in a young patient itself is a rare which enthuses us to report the case.
L. Rohit Reddy, Azgar Abdul Rasheed,
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology, Volume 6, pp 122-131; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_6_2021

Abstract:
Sarcomas are a heterogenous group of cancers, traditionally with dismal outcomes. They were initially treated with histology agnostic chemotherapy-based regimens usually centered around anthracyclines. With the availability of molecular diagnostics especially next-generation sequencing, the advanced genomics of sarcomas was slowly unveiled. Precision medicine not only enables a better diagnosis in sarcomas but also allows in identifying better targets for treatment of sarcoma subtypes. GENSARC study proved that using correct molecular diagnostics, enabled in a better diagnosis and treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). Notable examples of targeted therapies with great success in sarcomas include imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase inhibitors infantile fibrosarcoma, and crizotinib in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. Thus, treatment of sarcomas has been gradually changing from traditional chemotherapy-based treatments to the modern targeted therapy. In this review, we hope to impress on the evolving role of precision medicine in sarcoma subtypes especially STS.
, Rachna Gowlikar, Syeda Nooreen Fatima
International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology, Volume 6, pp 76-81; https://doi.org/10.25259/ijmio_28_2020

Abstract:
The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) is a publicly accessible cancer data repository and tool that allows us to understand the molecular basis of cancer through the application of genomics and proteomics. So far, researchers have been able to diagnose 33 cancer types including 10 rare cancer types. The key features of TCGA are to make the data collection process publicly accessible for the better understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of cancer and its mechanism of action along with its prevention. Studies on different cancer types along with comprehensive pan cancer analysis have expanded the understanding and purpose of TCGA. Ever since its’ conceptualization, its’ high-throughput approach has provided a platform for the identification of genes and pathways involved in cancers and accurate classification of cancers.
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