International STD Research & Reviews

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EISSN : 2347-5196
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 149
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, Dan-Jumbo Alali, Oyan Boma, Eno Gomba, Bawo Michael, Asonye Samuel, Alabi Ajibola
International STD Research & Reviews pp 47-56; https://doi.org/10.9734/isrr/2022/v11i2148

Abstract:
Background: Advanced HIV disease (AHD) represents a stage of HIV infection characterized by severe immunosuppression and a high risk of mortality. An understanding of the burden and associated risk factors for AHD is important in order to design programs targeted at prevention and treatment with the aim of reducing HIV associated morbidity and mortality. This study set out to determine the prevalence and risk factors for AHD in a tertiary health facility in Southern Nigeria as well as to ascertain the frequency of Same day initiation of Highly Active Antiviral Therapy in AHD patients. Methodology: This was a retrospective cross-sectional review of data from 419 adults and children diagnosed with AHD seen at the antiretroviral therapy clinic and Emergency department of the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH) over a 1year period. Details including personal bio-data and clinical information were obtained from the HIV registry of the hospital. Results: Four hundred and nineteen (419) patients were diagnosed with Advanced HIV disease between January 2021- January 2022 with a mean age of 35.8 years. Regarding the co-factors, Sixty- four (29.4%) of the 218 persons tested were positive for tuberculosis while 18(9.2%) of the 196 patients tested for cryptococcus infection were positive. One hundred and forty-eight (148) of the AHD population had CD4 cell count of <200cells comprising 144 (97%) adults and 4(3%) children. AHD, defined by a CD4 count of <200 cells was more prevalent within the age bracket of 40-49years (n=51, 34%) and among females [F:M 81 (55%) vs 67 (45%)]. Majority of the patients presented with WHO stage 3 disease (n=64, 43.2%) closely followed by stage 2 disease (n=47, 31.79%). Stage 4 disease was found in only 2.02%. The overall same day initiation (SDI) of AHD patients was 97% (n=144). Conclusion: Advanced HIV disease is highly prevalent despite the test and treat approach to care. Interventions aimed at prevention, adherence to therapy as well as early recognition and treatment is paramount in reducing the burden of AHD.
International STD Research & Reviews pp 37-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/isrr/2022/v11i2147

Abstract:
HIV/AIDS has affected nearly every country on the planet. The effect of this surge has brought all major modes of HIV/AIDS transmission to the attention of public health professionals worldwide. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), which are a major mode of transmission, increases the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The study's aim was to assess knowledge and management of sexually transmitted infections by general Physicians of Lahore. A cross-sectional survey, of 203 general Physicians in Lahore, was conducted using structured questionnaires. Descriptive analysis was used to compute means and proportions. According to the findings of this study, 23 percent of UDS and 5 percent of GPs appropriately managed GUS syndromes. However, none of the GPs were found to managed VDS. The GPs were more likely to be trained in syndromic management who managed UDS appropriately (adj. OR: 8.0; 95% CI: 3.2-20.1), and UDS was appropriately managed (adj. OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 2.0-3.6). This study reveals a significant proportion of GPs in Karachi managed STIs. This provides a fantastic opportunity to treat and counsel STI patients and their partners. However, general Physicians lack the necessary skills. As a result, GPs must be trained in STI management in order to avert the impending disaster of HIV/AIDS. This study suggested that practicing doctors, particularly those who are young and female, should get prioritized training in STI care. Even though both the public and business sectors are actively working in this direction, additional efforts are still required.
, Joseph Fokam, Christian Mangala, Thérèse Nkoa
International STD Research & Reviews pp 24-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/isrr/2022/v11i230144

Abstract:
Background: Blood transfusion carry the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections. HBV genetic diversity and transfusion safety are concepts that are increasingly used in public discourse. However, how the concepts are used and how they are defined remains unclear. The objective of this study is to clarify the concepts emanating from the research project titled «Genetic diversity of HBV and its effect on the transmission risks in blood transfusion in Gabon» and to propose an integrative model of HBV genetic diversity-Transmission risks based on these results. Methods: Three databases were used in the Quantitative analysis: Pubmed, Medline and Google Scholar. The researchers delimited the search to full articles in the databases. The eligibility criteria were based on published studies in English between January 2012 and December 2020, looking at the HBV genetic diversity and the transfusion safety. The Cochrane tool was used to assess the risk of bias. A systematic review was performed on concepts and definitions. Eligible publications were reviewed using concept analysis that led to the extraction of text data for the themes “definition”, “attributes”, “antecedents”, “consequences”, and “related concepts”. The quantitative methods was used to quantify the associations between HBV Genetic diversity and transmission risk examined in the literature. Results: A total of 2685 records were identified by primary and secondary search, of which 802 were retained after examination of titles and abstracts. A total of 144 (18%) publications were included in the review, 123 dealing with Hepatitis B Virus, 38 with Genetic diversity, 94 with Transfusion safety and 94 with Transmission risks were all coded. The final concept coding scheme contained 14 items, each with a satisfactory inter-author reliability score (r) (r ranging from 0.6 and 1), coding Hepatitis B Virus, Genetic diversity, Transfusion safety, Transmission risks, Blood donation-transmission risks, Demographic factors-transmission risks, HBsAg- transmission risks, Anti-HBc-transmission risks, Viral load-transmission risks, measurement errors- transmission risks, viral load-HBsAg, viral load-Anti-HBc, Sequencing-viral load, Genotype- transmission risks. In the resulting integrative model, the elements were mapped to different levels of care. Conclusion: This integrated theory suggests a number of directions to improve the understanding of transfusion safety in the context of HBV genetic diversity, to speak the same language. It provides a basis for creating better measures and interventions in transfusion medicine.
, Lebwaze Massamba Bienvenu, Omanyondo Ohambe Marie-Claire, Tshitadi Makangu Augustin, Assani Ramazani Raymond, Masikini Ewale Faustin
International STD Research & Reviews pp 9-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/isrr/2022/v11i230143

Abstract:
Introduction: The aim of the study was to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the elderly in the old people's home in the city of Kisangani, to assess the health status of these elderly people and to determine the predictors of their medical suffering. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study with an analytical focus. The survey method was used through interviews to collect information useful for this study, which benefited from the participation of 56 elderly people living in the hospices of the city of Kisangani. Results: It was shown that the hospices for the elderly in Kisangani are dominated by women (51.8%), widows and divorcees are in the majority (92.9%), and the primary level predominates (37.5%). Also 41.1% of the subjects suffered since their accommodation, of which acute rheumatism occupies the first position (47.8%) and 52.2% are taken care of by the churches, but 65.2% are not satisfied with the medical treatment, among them, 41.1% do not make medical controls; 85.7% do not walk well and 82.1% do not urinate well. Similarly their suffering in hospices was associated with five factors including lack of exercise, not urinating well, insecurity in the hospice, needing a man or woman for sex and not eating well. Conclusion: Ageing is accompanied by a decrease in the functional capacities of the body. Also, several systems of regulation of physiological parameters are less efficient in the elderly. They need to be cared for so that their end of life is also better in all respects.
, Onyinye G. Mba
International STD Research & Reviews pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/isrr/2022/v11i230142

Abstract:
Background: HIV/AIDS remains a public health challenge with an estimated 37.9 million persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) globally. Risky sexual behaviours/practices among PLWHA increase the likelihood of co-infection and further spread of infection. Understanding the pattern of these behaviours will aid in the modelling of campaigns to control further spread of infection. Aim: To examine sexual behaviour and risky practices among adults living with HIV in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Methodology: Six hundred (600) participants were recruited for this cross-sectional study from the HIV/AIDS clinics at Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Yenagoa, and Otuasega Cottage Hospital, Ogbia in Bayelsa State, after obtaining informed consent. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data comprising socio-demographic characteristics and the sexual activities/behaviour of the respondents in this study. The data obtained from the study were analyzed and presented as frequencies and percentages. Results: Most of the respondents reported sexual intercourse 532(88.7%) 3 months to study. Sexual intercourse with casual partners 20(3.8%), multiple sexual partners 72(12%), and sex workers 2(0.4%) were observed among the respondents. Regular use of condoms during sex was reported by 63(11.8%), while 200(37.6%) sometimes, 96(18.0%) rarely, and 173(32.5%) never. A recent treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was reported by 115(19.2%). Alcohol use before sex was reported by 218(36.3%). Overall, 253(42.2%) of the respondents engaged in at least one form of risky sexual behaviour. Conclusion: There is a preponderance of risky sexual behaviour/practices among PLWHA in Bayelsa State that may account for coinfection with STI as well as increase HIV/AIDS transmission.
Likilo Dangondje Martin, Tabu Singa Brigitte, Buruga Bhanduni Emmanuel,
International STD Research & Reviews pp 44-55; https://doi.org/10.9734/isrr/2022/v11i130141

Abstract:
Introduction: A study on the knowledge of young people on the consequences of the use of toxic cosmetic products was carried out at the Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales of Kisangani with the objectives of analysing young people's knowledge of the use of toxic cosmetics, determining the consequences of abusive use of these products and evaluating the treatment in the event of irritation or intoxication. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study based on face-to-face interviewing of students in the period from 1 January to 15 October 2021. Based on a Simple random sampling. Thus, 60 young people were recruited from a population of 1,865 students. Results: It was shown that the majority of young people (81.7%) were not aware of the chemical agents contained in toxic cosmetics, skin cancer was the consequence of the abusive use of toxic cosmetic products (50.0%), changing products considered toxic was the management observed in case of allergies or skin irritations (53.3%). Conclusion: Young people's lack of knowledge about the chemical agents in toxic cosmetic products is a real public health problem. The need and importance of raising awareness among young people about not using toxic cosmetic products that can cause harmful and damaging consequences on the skin is essential. This is where the role of the authorities in charge of controlling and regulating the conformity of products released for consumption comes in.
Goodness Ene-Bongilli, , Precious Ojo Uahomo
International STD Research & Reviews pp 34-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/isrr/2022/v11i130138

Abstract:
Introduction: Monitoring of the practices and behaviour of populations more vulnerable to HIV infection is essential for effective interventions and it is of importance to curtail the spread of HIV and to help generate significant changes in the transmission pattern of HIV/AIDS in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess safe sexual practice and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among female sex workers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Method: Two hundred female sex workers participated in this cross-sectional study. Data was collected using an adapted IBBSS-2014 semi-structured questionnaire and interview method. Knowledge of HIV among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) was also assessed with questions on Test for HIV, modes of transmission, prevention, behavioural attributes of HIV and safe sexual practice assessed for with the options of answers of these dimension: YES and NO. Data for this study was collected by trained peer educators who are familiar with the environment via interview method with FSWs. Data Obtained were analyzed and presented using descriptive statistics of frequency tables, simple percentage and bar charts using Microsoft Excel 2016. Results: Result obtained showed that the mean age of FSWs was 25.7±3.7years, majority of the respondent (59.5%) had secondary education, majority (81.0%) of FSWs are Single and about 2.5% are married. Also more than a quarter (44.5%) started sex work at 20-24 years with a mean age of 22.0±3.0 years. Also, majority of them do not have other source of income (70%). On Assessment of risky behaviours such as multiple sex partners, no condom use during sexual intercourse, there was a high prevalence of use of condoms with most especially paying partners (70.5%) and casual partners (52.5%). On assessment of female Sex Workers’ knowledge on HIV, majority of FSWs have good knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and the need to get tested. Conclusion: Though FSWs practice a minimal safe sexual practice by the use of condoms with higher percentage of different identified partners as well as having acceptable knowledge of HIV, the few FSWs who lack this knowledge and do not practice safe sex needs to be re-sensitized of the need for their benefit and the benefit of the general population. Conclusively, safe sexual practices and acceptable knowledge about prevention, transmission and the need to be tested for HIV were observed.
, Sam Johnson, Raphael Nyarkotey Obu
International STD Research & Reviews pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/isrr/2022/v11i130137

Abstract:
Background: HIV transmission remains a public health concern, with many adolescents and young adults engaging in unprotected sex. Inadequate condom uptake rates have been reported among university students, with women recording relatively lower condom uptake. Religion remains a determinant of condom uptake in certain contexts. Objective: To examine gender and other factors such as religion as determinants of condom use among university students in a Ghanaian public university Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional survey approach, using a pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data among 132 unmarried undergraduate students. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 26, using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Results of a cross-tabulation of gender against condom use revealed that males use condoms (73.6%) more than females (63.3%). However, there was no statistically significant in the means of both males and females and condom use (t=-0.810, df=122, p>0.05). Analysis of Variance test of religion and condom use indicated that there was no significant difference between the means of religion and condom use [F (1,130) =2.759, p>0.05]. The relationship between gender and the barriers to condom use was positive and was statistically significant r (130) =0.229, p<0.05. Conclusion and Recommendation: The university curriculum should be reviewed to incorporate reproductive health education as a core course for students to acquire more knowledge on current reproductive health issues, including condom use.
International STD Research & Reviews pp 11-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/isrr/2022/v11i130136

Abstract:
Background: Genital infections caused by Herpes Simplex viruses are viewed as the indicators of sexual network in the society. Most of the infections caused by these viruses are asymptomatic and underdiagnosed. Aim: To investigate the seroprevalences of HSV-1 and HSV-2 among the STI vulnerable women and correlate them with clinical infections and other co-viral STIs. Study design: A cross sectional retrospective study was conducted on female contacts of HIV / STI positive male partners, who were consulting the STD clinics of NGOs and OP section of STD department of Government hospital in Chennai, India between October 2006 and September 2008. Methodology: The study included 138 STI vulnerable women along with age matched control group from whom socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Serological screening was performed using ELISA for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to HSV types 1 and 2 and co-positivities to HIV, HBV, HCV and CMV. Statistical analysis of results was carried out using Chi-square test. Results: Overall seroprevalences of 79.71% and 74.32% were recorded respectively for HSV-1 and HSV-2 among the study group. Proportionate increase in symptomatic cases were observed with individuals showing seropositivities to anti-HSV-1/2 IgM, IgM+IgG (combined) and IgG antibodies, which correlated respectively with primary, reactivated and episodic infections. Observation of symptomatic cases among HSV-1 (48.0% vs. 4.05%) and HSV-2 (68.29% vs. 25.0%) IgG positive study and control groups corroborated the sexual transmission of these viruses. Significant percentages of co-positivities to other viral STIs were recorded with higher preponderance among HSV-2 seropositive individuals than those of HSV-1. Conclusion: Comprehensive serological screening and its correlation with the clinical data would be very helpful in demonstrating the impact of HSV infections. Wide screening of STI vulnerable women is necessary to estimate the actual burden of STIs and to adopt preventive intervention.
Agus Perry Kusuma,
International STD Research & Reviews pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/isrr/2022/v11i130135

Abstract:
Background and Objective: Most malpractice disputes are caused by the breakdown of communication between patients and doctors or hospitals, which can harm the reputation of both parties, necessitating a fair solution. Cases can be resolved in one of two ways: litigation or non- litigation. Arbitration is a non-litigation method to reach a fair settlement without involving a court. The aim of the literature review is to describe the role of arbitration in the settlement of malpractice cases. Methods: This study uses a systematic literature review. Results: Arbitration is a reasonable method for resolving malpractice claims. This can be done by optimizing the rule of law in the form of pre-contract agreements between patients and hospitals or doctors, and by using the Arbitration Board to resolve medical disputes, especially malpractice disputes before they become court cases. Conclusion: The significance of maximizing the rule of law as a foundation for carrying out an arbitration pattern is that it is faster and less expensive, and the decision is final and binding.
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