BMC Public Health

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ISSN / EISSN : 1471-2458 / 1471-2458
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1186)
Former Publisher: , Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1186) , Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1186) , Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1186) Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1186)
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Elena K. Martin, Matthew P. Shearer, Marc Trotochaud, Jennifer B. Nuzzo
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10652-9

Abstract:
Background To understand operational challenges involved with responding to US measles outbreaks in 2017–19 and identify applicable lessons in order to inform preparedness and response operations for future outbreaks, particularly with respect to specific operational barriers and recommendations for outbreak responses among insular communities. Methods From August 2019 to January 2020, we conducted 11 telephone interviews with 18 participants representing state and local health departments and community health centers that responded to US measles outbreaks in 2017–19, with a focus on outbreaks among insular communities. We conducted qualitative, thematic coding to identify and characterize key operational challenges and lessons identified by the interviewees. Results We categorized principal insights into 5 topic areas: scale of the response, vaccination operations, exclusion policies, community engagement, and countering anti-vaccine efforts. These topics address resource-intensive aspects of these outbreak responses, including personnel demands; guidance needed to support response operations and reduce transmission, such as excluding exposed or at-risk individuals from public spaces; operational challenges and barriers to vaccination and other response activities; and effectively engaging and educating affected populations, particularly with respect to insular and vulnerable communities. Conclusions Measles outbreak responses are resource intensive, which can quickly overwhelm existing public health capacities. Early and effective coordination with trusted leaders and organizations in affected communities, including to provide vaccination capacity and facilitate community engagement, can promote efficient response operations. The firsthand experiences of public health and healthcare personnel who responded to measles outbreaks, including among insular communities, provide evidence-based operational lessons that can inform future preparedness and response operations for outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases.
Sanaz Sohrabizadeh, Shiva Yousefian, Amirhosein Bahramzadeh, Mohammad Hossein Vaziri
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10806-9

Abstract:
Background In December 2019, the Chinese city of Wuhan reported a novel pneumonia caused by COVID-19. While the COVID-19 pandemic has been increasingly affecting the world, the occurrence of disasters resulted in complex emergencies. The present review is aimed to identify the literature focused on health system response to coincidence of COVID-19 and disasters as well as describing their finding, implications and lessons-learned. Methods This study was conducted and reported based on PRISMA guideline. The databases of Web of Sciences, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and World Health Organization Library were searched. The inclusion criteria were all forms of published articles which investigated the coincidence of disasters and COVID-19 pandemic. Using the title and abstract screening, the selections of studies were performed by two researchers. Once, the relevant papers were finalized, the analysis was done in two parts of descriptive analysis and implications for health systems. Results Out of 1245 studies generated by initial search, a number of 13 articles was selected for final analysis. Earthquake was the most frequent disaster which its coincidence with COVID-19 was studied by researchers (31%). The implications of researchers for healthcare system were explained in three sections of climatic events, earthquakes and all hazard approach in relation to COVID-19. Conclusion Extracting the lessons learned from the regions affected by disasters at the time of COVID-19 pandemic can be helpful for healthcare professionals and policy-makers to improve their preparedness and response during disasters and a serious pandemic such as COVID-19. Further research is needed to identify the factors which strengthen the preparedness of health system for the dual risk of natural hazards and pandemics.
Nathalie Bajos, for the SAPRIS study group, Florence Jusot, Ariane Pailhé, Alexis Spire, Claude Martin, Laurence Meyer, Nathalie Lydié, Jeanna-Eve Franck, Marie Zins, et al.
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10521-5

Abstract:
Background Significant differences in COVID-19 incidence by gender, class and race/ethnicity are recorded in many countries in the world. Lockdown measures, shown to be effective in reducing the number of new cases, may not have been effective in the same way for all, failing to protect the most vulnerable populations. This survey aims to assess social inequalities in the trends in COVID-19 infections following lockdown. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted among the general population in France in April 2020, during COVID-19 lockdown. Ten thousand one hundred one participants aged 18–64, from a national cohort who lived in the three metropolitan French regions most affected by the first wave of COVID-19. The main outcome was occurrence of possible COVID-19 symptoms, defined as the occurrence of sudden onset of cough, fever, dyspnea, ageusia and/or anosmia, that lasted more than 3 days in the 15 days before the survey. We used multinomial regression models to identify social and health factors related to possible COVID-19 before and during the lockdown. Results In all, 1304 (13.0%; 95% CI: 12.0–14.0%) reported cases of possible COVID-19. The effect of lockdown on the occurrence of possible COVID-19 was different across social hierarchies. The most privileged class individuals saw a significant decline in possible COVID-19 infections between the period prior to lockdown and during the lockdown (from 8.8 to 4.3%, P = 0.0001) while the decline was less pronounced among working class individuals (6.9% before lockdown and 5.5% during lockdown, P = 0.03). This differential effect of lockdown remained significant after adjusting for other factors including history of chronic disease. The odds of being infected during lockdown as opposed to the prior period increased by 57% among working class individuals (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.00–2.48). The same was true for those engaged in in-person professional activities during lockdown (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.03–2.29). Conclusions Lockdown was associated with social inequalities in the decline in COVID-19 infections, calling for the adoption of preventive policies to account for living and working conditions. Such adoptions are critical to reduce social inequalities related to COVID-19, as working-class individuals also have the highest COVID-19 related mortality, due to higher prevalence of comorbidities.
Irena Papst, Michael Li, David Champredon, Benjamin M. Bolker, Jonathan Dushoff, David J. D. Earn
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10611-4

Abstract:
Background Patient age is one of the most salient clinical indicators of risk from COVID-19. Age-specific distributions of known SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-related deaths are available for many regions. Less attention has been given to the age distributions of serious medical interventions administered to COVID-19 patients, which could reveal sources of potential pressure on the healthcare system should SARS-CoV-2 prevalence increase, and could inform mass vaccination strategies. The aim of this study is to quantify the relationship between COVID-19 patient age and serious outcomes of the disease, beyond fatalities alone. Methods We analysed 277,555 known SARS-CoV-2 infection records for Ontario, Canada, from 23 January 2020 to 16 February 2021 and estimated the age distributions of hospitalizations, Intensive Care Unit admissions, intubations, and ventilations. We quantified the probability of hospitalization given known SARS-CoV-2 infection, and of survival given COVID-19-related hospitalization. Results The distribution of hospitalizations peaks with a wide plateau covering ages 60–90, whereas deaths are concentrated in ages 80+. The estimated probability of hospitalization given known infection reaches a maximum of 27.8% at age 80 (95% CI 26.0%–29.7%). The probability of survival given hospitalization is nearly 100% for adults younger than 40, but declines substantially after this age; for example, a hospitalized 54-year-old patient has a 91.7% chance of surviving COVID-19 (95% CI 88.3%–94.4%). Conclusions Our study demonstrates a significant need for hospitalization in middle-aged individuals and young seniors. This need is not captured by the distribution of deaths, which is heavily concentrated in very old ages. The probability of survival given hospitalization for COVID-19 is lower than is generally perceived for patients over 40. If acute care capacity is exceeded due to an increase in COVID-19 prevalence, the distribution of deaths could expand toward younger ages. These results suggest that vaccine programs should aim to prevent infection not only in old seniors, but also in young seniors and middle-aged individuals, to protect them from serious illness and to limit stress on the healthcare system.
Oumy Erica Wie Dia, Anne Lene Løvhaug, Peter Milton Rukundo, Liv Elin Torheim
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10661-8

Abstract:
Background Marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages is recognized as a contributing factor to the global increase in overweight and obesity, particularly among children. Such marketing negatively affects children’s dietary preferences, food choices, purchasing requests, and consumption patterns. Given that little is known about food marketing in Africa, including in Uganda, monitoring children’s exposure to food marketing is essential to generate evidence on the problem and develop meaningful policy responses. The aim of this study was to describe the food and beverage marketing environment surrounding schools in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala city. Methods Outdoor advertising around 25 randomly sampled primary and secondary schools within a radius of 250 m of each school was mapped. Information on size, setting, type, and position of the advertisements and the healthiness of the foods and beverages promoted was collected using the INFORMAS Outdoor Advertising Protocol. The occurrence of advertising was described using frequencies, median, and density per 100m2. Results A total of 1034 branded advertisements were identified around the schools. Of these, 86% featured unhealthy products, 7% healthy products, and 7% miscellaneous products. The most advertised products were sugar-sweetened beverages and alcoholic beverages (51 and 23%, respectively). Schools in the urban area were surrounded by more unhealthy ads than those in the peri-urban areas (median of 45 vs 24 advertisements). Conclusion The widespread extent of unhealthy food and beverage advertisements around primary and secondary schools highlights the need for food marketing regulation in Uganda, in line with the World Health Organization’s recommendations, to ensure that young people are protected from unhealthy food marketing.
Joseph K. B. Matovu, Aminah Nambuusi, Rhoda K. Wanyenze, David Serwadda
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10804-x

Abstract:
Background Distribution of HIV self-test kits by trained lay people in the community has resulted in increased uptake of HIV testing services among the targeted populations. However, little data exists on the experiences and challenges faced by trained lay people while distributing the kits. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in Kasensero fishing community, Rakai, Uganda, in September 2019. We purposely selected 18 out of 34 peer-leaders that participated in a peer-led HIV self-testing intervention to participate in a post-intervention qualitative evaluation. The main intervention included identification and training of lay people in the community (‘peer-leaders’) to distribute HIV self-test kits to pre-selected members of their social network. Data for this study were collected at the end of the intervention. Data were collected on peer-leaders’ experiences in distributing the kits, challenges experienced during distribution and suggestions on how to improve peer-led HIV self-testing in typical fishing communities in the future. Data were analyzed manually following a thematic framework approach. Results Of the 18 peer-leaders, eleven (61.1%) were aged 20–24 years while thirteen (72.2%) had secondary education. Most (n = 15) of the peer-leaders reported that they found it easier to distribute the kits to their social network members, with most of them distributing the kits at the social network members’ homes or at their own homes. HIV self-test kits were distributed at varying times (e.g. in the afternoon) depending on the agreement reached between the peer-leader and their social network member. A few peer-leaders reported that some of their social network members initially hesitated to accept the kits while other peer-leaders reported that they spent a ‘lot of time’ explaining the HIV self-testing procedures to some of their illiterate members. Peer-leaders argued for supervised HIV self-testing for illiterate people and the need to continuously follow-up social network members to check if they tested for HIV. Conclusion A majority of the peer-leaders successfully distributed the kits to their social network members save for a few who experienced challenges. These findings suggest that lay people can be trained as effective HIV self-test kits distributors to improve the distribution of kits in the community.
Alphonse Nshimyiryo, Dale A. Barnhart, Vincent K. Cubaka, Jean Marie Vianney Dusengimana, Symaque Dusabeyezu, Deogratias Ndagijimana, Grace Umutesi, Cyprien Shyirambere, Nadine Karema, Joel M. Mubiligi, et al.
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10783-z

Abstract:
Background Large scale physical distancing measures and movement restrictions imposed to contain COVID-19, often referred to as ‘lockdowns’, abruptly and ubiquitously restricted access to routine healthcare services. This study describes reported barriers and coping mechanisms to accessing healthcare among chronic care patients during the nationwide COVID-19 lockdown in Rwanda. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among chronic care patients enrolled in pediatric development, HIV/AIDS, non-communicable diseases, mental health, and oncology programs at 3 rural Rwandan districts. Active patients with an appointment scheduled between March–June 2020 and a phone number recorded in the electronic medical record system were eligible. Data were collected by telephone interviews between 23rd April and 11th May 2020, with proxy reporting by caregivers for children and critically ill-patients. Fisher’s exact tests were used to measure associations. Logistic regression analysis was also used to assess factors associated with reporting at least one barrier to accessing healthcare during the lockdown. Results Of 220 patient respondents, 44% reported at least one barrier to accessing healthcare. Barriers included lack of access to emergency care (n = 50; 22.7%), lack of access to medication (n = 44; 20.0%) and skipping clinical appointments (n = 37; 16.8%). Experiencing barriers was associated with the clinical program (p < 0.001), with oncology patients being highly affected (64.5%), and with increasing distance from home to the health facility (p = 0.031). In the adjusted logistic regression model, reporting at least one barrier to accessing healthcare was associated with the patient's clinical program and district of residence. Forty (18.2%) patients identified positive coping mechanisms to ensure continuation of care, such as walking long distances during suspension of public transport (n = 21; 9.6%), contacting clinicians via telephone for guidance or rescheduling appointments (n = 15; 6.8%), and delegating someone else for medication pick-up (n = 6; 2.7%). Of 124 patients who reported no barriers to accessing healthcare, 9% used positive coping mechanisms. Conclusion A large proportion of chronic care patients experienced barriers to accessing healthcare during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, many patients also independently identified positive coping mechanisms to ensure continuation of care - strategies that could be formally adopted by healthcare systems in Rwanda and similar settings to mitigate effects of future lockdowns on patients.
Qing Chun Lu, Tie Yun Zhang, Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Cheng Chen
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10740-w

Abstract:
Background The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) makes certain recommendations including the annual influenza vaccination of pregnant and pre-pregnant women during influenza (flu) season with an inactivated influenza vaccine as soon as it becomes available. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in association with ACOG state that the vaccine is safe to be given any trimester during pregnancy. However, due to a lack of communication, the public is unaware of the effects of influenza A vaccination in pregnancy. Since this is a vital public health concern, we aimed to communicate with evidence, the safety of influenza A vaccination in pregnancy in order to improve the rate of influenza A vaccines in pregnant women. Methods This health communication issue was based on the impact of influenza vaccine on fetal outcomes. Therefore, a search was carried out through medical-based online databases including: Cochrane Central, EMBASE, Web of Science, MEDLINE, http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google scholar for relevant English-based publications. Adverse fetal outcomes were considered as the endpoints of this analysis. The most specific RevMan 5.3 (latest version) software was used to carry out this analysis. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were involved in data and results representation and interpretation. Results A total number of 679, 992 pregnant women participated in this analysis. Based on this current analysis, premature/preterm birth (< 37 weeks) was significantly reduced in pregnant women who were vaccinated for influenza A (RR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.69–0.92; P = 0.002) as compared to those women who were not vaccinated. Similarly, influenza A vaccination decreased the risk for very preterm birth (< 32 weeks) (RR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.58–0.84; P = 0.0001). The risks for infants with low birth weight (RR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.49–1.04; P = 0.08), very low birth weight (RR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.23–2.11; P = 0.52) and infants small for gestational age (RR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83–1.05; P = 0.26) were not increased with the vaccine. Influenza A vaccination was not associated with increased risks of stillbirth (RR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.38–1.03; P = 0.07), birth defects (RR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.26–1.72; P = 0.41), admission to neonatal intensive care unit or Apgar score < 7 in 5 min. Conclusion Influenza vaccine is completely safe in pregnancy. It significantly lowers premature birth and is not associated with any serious adverse neonatal outcome. Hence, this important piece of information should be communicated and conveyed to all pregnant women, for a safer and healthier pregnancy. At last, this public health issue should further be addressed to the population through media and other communication means in order to improve the rate of influenza A vaccines in pregnant women for a healthier and more productive population.
Madhanraj Kalyanasundaram, Yogesh Sabde, Kristi Sidney Annerstedt, Surya Singh, Krushna Chandra Sahoo, Vivek Parashar, Manju Purohit, Ashish Pathak, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Kamran Rousta, et al.
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10693-0

Abstract:
Background Segregation of household waste at the source is an effective and sustainable strategy for management of municipal waste. However, household segregation levels remain insufficient as waste management approaches are mostly top down and lack local support. The realisation and recognition of effective, improved and adequate waste management may be one of the vital drivers for attaining environmental protection and improved health and well-being. The presence of a local level motivator may promote household waste segregation and ultimately pro-environmental behaviour. The present cluster randomized control trial aims to understand if volunteer based information on waste segregation (I-MISS) can effectively promote increased waste segregation practices at the household level when compared with existing routine waste segregation information in an urban Indian setting. Methods This paper describes the protocol of an 18 month two-group parallel,cluster randomised controlled trialin the urban setting of Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India. Randomization will be conducted at ward level, which is the last administrative unit of the municipality. The study will recruit 425 households in intervention and control groups. Assessments will be performed at baseline (0 months), midline (6 months), end line (12 months) and post intervention (18 months). The primary outcome will be the comparison of change in proportion of households practicing waste segregation and change in proportion of mis-sorted waste across the study period between the intervention and control groups as assessed by pick analysis. Intention to treat analysis will be conducted. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Discussion The present study is designed to study whether an external motivator, a volunteer selected from the participating community and empowered with adequate training, could disseminate waste segregation information to their community, thus promoting household waste segregation and ultimately pro-environmental behaviour. The study envisages that the volunteers could link waste management service providers and the community, give a local perspective to waste management, and help to change community habits through information, constant communication and feedback. Trial registration The study is registered prospectively with Indian Council of Medical Research- Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI/2020/03/024278).
Yunge Fan, , Hu Xiang, Xianmei Yang, Guoping Huang, Wenhong Cheng, Yongbiao Xie, Xiuzhen Wang, Guangming Liang, Ming He, et al.
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10726-8

Abstract:
Background The current study examined the change in local government staff’s emotional distress over 7 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and the influence of earthquake exposure and professional quality of life (ProQOL) on emotional distress. Methods This longitudinal study assessed 250 participants at 1 year after the earthquake; 162 (64.8%) were followed up at 7 years. Emotional distress was assessed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) at both time points. We assessed ProQOL, including compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress, and earthquake exposure at 1 year. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed to test longitudinal changes in emotional distress. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to examine the effect of earthquake exposure and ProQOL. Results The positive screening rate of emotional distress (SRQ ≥ 8) was 37.6 and 15.4% at one and 7 years, respectively. Emotional distress scores declined over time (p < 0.001). Earthquake exposure and ProQOL predicted one-year (ps < 0.05) but not seven-year emotional distress, whereas burnout predicted both one-year (p = 0.018) and seven-year (p = 0.047) emotional distress. Conclusions Although emotional distress can recover over time, it persists even 7 years later. Actions to reduce burnout during the early stage of post-disaster rescue have long-term benefits to staff’s psychological outcomes.
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