Communications and Network
Latest articles in this journal
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/cn.2021.131001
In this article, a physics aware deep learning model is introduced for multiphase flow problems. The deep learning model is shown to be capable of capturing complex physics phenomena such as saturation front, which is even challenging for numerical solvers due to the instability. We display the preciseness of the solution domain delivered by deep learning models and the low cost of deploying this model for complex physics problems, showing the versatile character of this method and bringing it to new areas. This will require more allocation points and more careful design of the deep learning model architectures and residual neural network can be a potential candidate.
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 12-24; doi:10.4236/cn.2021.131002
Healthcare monitoring and analysis of healthcare parameters is a reality to reduce costs and increase access to specialist and experts that holds the future for geriatric care in India. This paper proposes distinct methods towards the implementation of rural elder health information technologies (IT), which includes electronic medical records, clinical decision support, mobile medical applications, and software driven medical devices used in the diagnosis or treatment of disease for the older adult population in the villages of India. The purpose is online patient satisfaction at the microlevel (village panchayat) through methods accessible and affordable by establishing a common standard of operations at the village primary care units giving way to early disease detection and routine screening among the aged population avoiding institutionalization. The rural elder health IT framework is of great interest for all stakeholders in the field, as it benefits the investors and the consumers, adding to the technological infrastructure, thereby opening new avenues of research in health informatics, telemedicine and enhancing the scope of geriatric research, which in turn enhances the health-related quality of life for the rural older adults in the remote villages of the nation.
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 68-78; doi:10.4236/cn.2021.132006
With the continuous use of cloud and distributed computing, the threats associated with data and information technology (IT) in such an environment have also increased. Thus, data security and data leakage prevention have become important in a distributed environment. In this aspect, mobile agent-based systems are one of the latest mechanisms to identify and prevent the intrusion and leakage of the data across the network. Thus, to tackle one or more of the several challenges on Mobile Agent-Based Information Leakage Prevention, this paper aim at providing a comprehensive, detailed, and systematic study of the Distribution Model for Mobile Agent-Based Information Leakage Prevention. This paper involves the review of papers selected from the journals which are published in 2009 and 2019. The critical review is presented for the distributed mobile agent-based intrusion detection systems in terms of their design analysis, techniques, and shortcomings. Initially, eighty-five papers were identified, but a paper selection process reduced the number of papers to thirteen important reviews.
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 36-49; doi:10.4236/cn.2021.131004
In recent years, Internet exposure of applications continuously engenders new forms threats that can endanger the security of the entire system and raises many performance issues related to code security. The safety of information systems becomes essential. This is why the performance linked to security codes is of importance essential in the security systems of all companies. Indeed, as contribution, to carry out measurements, it appropriates tools that are the JMH tool (Java Microbenchmark Harness) and the PHP Benchmark script tool which include unsecure java and PHP codes and secured against SQL (Structured Query Language) injection, XSS (Cross Site Scripting) i.e., using prepared requests, stored procedures, validation of input from white lists, reinforcement of minimum privilege, when sending requests from the last ones to MySQL databases and Postgresql. We recover the times of response to his requests. From java codes and PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) secure, we also retrieve the response time for requests to databases MySQL and PostgresqL data. We then obtain the curves and interpretations comparing performance related to security and non-security of codes. The goal is to analyze and evaluate the performance comparing secure Java and PHP code against unsecure java and PHP code using MySQL and Postgresql databases. In Section 1, we presented the performance of the code Java and PHP. The configuration of the experiments and the experimental results are discussed in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Use of suitable tool which is the JMH tool and the PHP Benchmark script tool, we have developed in Java 1.8 and PHP 7.4 secure and non-secure codes that send the queries to the MySQL or Postgresql database to carry out the measurements which led to the conclusion that the insecure PHP and Java codes are faster in terms of response time compared to the PHP and Java secure codes as the number of tables linked to the query increases because the blocking times of SQL injection and XSS preventions linked to its secure codes are increasing.
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 51-67; doi:10.4236/cn.2021.132005
In recent times, renewable energy production from renewable energy sources is an alternative way to fulfill the increased energy demands. However, the increasing energy demand rate places more pressure, leading to the termination of conventional energy resources. However, the cost of power generation from coal-fired plants is higher than the power generation’s price from renewable energy sources. This experiment is focused on cost optimization during power generation through pumped storage power plant and wind power plant. The entire modeling of cost optimization has been conducted in two parts. The mathematical modeling was done using MATLAB simulation while the hydro and wind power plant’s emulation was performed using SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) designer implementation. The experiment was conducted using ranges of generated power from both power sources. The optimum combination of output power and cost from both generators is determined via MATLAB simulation within the assumed generated output power range. Secondly, the hydro-generator and wind generator’s emulation were executed individually through synchronizing the grid to determine each generator’s specification using SCADA designer, which provided the optimum power generation from both generators with the specific speed, aligning with results generated through MATLAB. Finally, the operational power cost (with no losses consideration) from MATLAB was compared with the local energy provider to determine the cost-efficiency. This experiment has provided the operational cost optimization of the hydro-wind combined power system with stable wind power generation using SCADA, which will ultimately assist in operations of large-scale power systems, remotely minimizing multi-area dynamic issues while maximizing the system efficiency.
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 25-35; doi:10.4236/cn.2021.131003
Currently, the increasing network connectivity is becoming more and more complex and the integration of several services continues to appear. These approaches need a guarantee in terms of throughput, the performance of which they potentially impact. So, the basic aim of this research is to get the best MPLS network performance towards linux and FreeBSD operating systems. This is why in this report, we have worked on MPLS network performance, which will help to identify performance metrics. To evaluate the performance, we used those operating systems implementing the MPLS architecture in order to define the best performing between the two on this domain. For this, we used scapy to measure the response times by varying the size of the packets sent and validate the measurements with the MATLAB Simulink. After all experiments, we realized that FreeBSD operating system is more reliable than linux in MPLS network base.
Communications and Network, Volume 12, pp 199-219; doi:10.4236/cn.2020.124010
Solving the controller placement problem (CPP) in an SDN architecture with multiple controllers has a significant impact on control overhead in the network, especially in multihop wireless networks (MWNs). The generated control overhead consists of controller-device and inter-controller communications to discover the network topology, exchange configurations, and set up and modify flow tables in the control plane. However, due to the high complexity of the proposed optimization model to the CPP, heuristic algorithms have been reported to find near-optimal solutions faster for large-scale wired networks. In this paper, the objective is to extend those existing heuristic algorithms to solve a proposed optimization model to the CPP in software-defined multihop wireless networking (SDMWN).Our results demonstrate that using ranking degrees assigned to the possible controller placements, including the average distance to other devices as a degree or the connectivity degree of each placement, the extended heuristic algorithms are able to achieve the optimal solution in small-scale networks in terms of the generated control overhead and the number of controllers selected in the network. As a result, using extended heuristic algorithms, the average number of hops among devices and their assigned controllers as well as among controllers will be reduced. Moreover, these algorithms are able tolower the control overhead in large-scale networks and select fewer controllers compared to an extended algorithm that solves the CPP in SDMWN based on a randomly selected controller placement approach.
Communications and Network, Volume 12, pp 99-121; doi:10.4236/cn.2020.123006
We present an effective routing solution for the backbone of hierarchical MANETs. Our solution leverages the storage and retrieval mechanisms of a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) common to many (structured) P2P overlays. The DHT provides routing information in a decentralized fashion, while supporting different forms of node and network mobility. We split a flat network into clusters, each having a gateway who participates in a DHT overlay. These gateways interconnect the clusters in a backbone network. Two routing approaches for the backbone are explored: flooding and a new solution exploiting the storage and retrieval capabilities of a P2P overlay based on a DHT. We implement both approaches in a network simulator and thoroughly evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme using a range of static and mobile scenarios. We also compare our solution against flooding. The simulation results show that our solution, even in the presence of mobility, achieved well above 90% success rates and maintained very low and constant round trip times, unlike the flooding approach. In fact, the performance of the proposed inter-cluster routing solution, in many cases, is comparable to the performance of the intra-cluster routing case. The advantage of our proposed approach compared to flooding increases as the number of clusters increases, demonstrating the superior scalability of our proposed approach.
Communications and Network, Volume 12, pp 122-154; doi:10.4236/cn.2020.123007
With ever-increasing applications of IoT, and due to the heterogeneous and bursty nature of these applications, scalability has become an important research issue in building cloud-based IoT/M2M systems. This research proposes a dynamic SDN-based network slicing mechanism to tackle the scalability problems caused by such heterogeneity and fluctuation of IoT application requirements. The proposed method can automatically create a network slice on-the-fly for each new type of IoT application and adjust the QoS characteristics of the slice dynamically according to the changing requirements of an IoT application. Validated with extensive experiments, the proposed mechanism demonstrates better platform scalability when compared to a static slicing system.
Communications and Network, Volume 12, pp 74-97; doi:10.4236/cn.2020.122005
In a cloud computing environment, users using the pay-as-you-go billing model can relinquish their services at any point in time and pay accordingly. From the perspective of the Cloud Service Providers (CSPs), this is not beneficial as they may lose the opportunity to earn from the relinquished resources. Therefore, this paper tackles the resource assignment problem while considering users relinquishment and its impact on the net profit of CSPs. As a solution, we first compare different ways to predict user behavior (i.e. how likely a user will leave the system before its scheduled end time) and deduce a better prediction technique based on linear regression. Then, based on the RACE (Relinquishment-Aware Cloud Economics) model proposed in , we develop a relinquishment-aware resource optimization model to estimate the amount of resources to assign on the basis of predicted user behavior. Simulations performed with CloudSim show that cloud service providers can gain more by estimating the amount of resources using better prediction techniques rather than blindly assigning resources to users. They also show that the proposed prediction-based resource assignment scheme typically generates more profit for a lower or similar utilization.