Communications and Network

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1949-2421 / 1947-3826
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 455
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Fontaine Rafamantanantsoa, Razafindramonja Clément Aubert, Rabetafika Louis Haja
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 25-35; https://doi.org/10.4236/cn.2021.131003

Abstract:
Currently, the increasing network connectivity is becoming more and more complex and the integration of several services continues to appear. These approaches need a guarantee in terms of throughput, the performance of which they potentially impact. So, the basic aim of this research is to get the best MPLS network performance towards linux and FreeBSD operating systems. This is why in this report, we have worked on MPLS network performance, which will help to identify performance metrics. To evaluate the performance, we used those operating systems implementing the MPLS architecture in order to define the best performing between the two on this domain. For this, we used scapy to measure the response times by varying the size of the packets sent and validate the measurements with the MATLAB Simulink. After all experiments, we realized that FreeBSD operating system is more reliable than linux in MPLS network base.
Nafisa Islam, Warsame H. Ali, Emmanuel S Kolawole, John Fuller, Pamela Obiomon, John O. Attia, Samir Abood
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 51-67; https://doi.org/10.4236/cn.2021.132005

Abstract:
In recent times, renewable energy production from renewable energy sources is an alternative way to fulfill the increased energy demands. However, the increasing energy demand rate places more pressure, leading to the termination of conventional energy resources. However, the cost of power generation from coal-fired plants is higher than the power generation’s price from renewable energy sources. This experiment is focused on cost optimization during power generation through pumped storage power plant and wind power plant. The entire modeling of cost optimization has been conducted in two parts. The mathematical modeling was done using MATLAB simulation while the hydro and wind power plant’s emulation was performed using SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) designer implementation. The experiment was conducted using ranges of generated power from both power sources. The optimum combination of output power and cost from both generators is determined via MATLAB simulation within the assumed generated output power range. Secondly, the hydro-generator and wind generator’s emulation were executed individually through synchronizing the grid to determine each generator’s specification using SCADA designer, which provided the optimum power generation from both generators with the specific speed, aligning with results generated through MATLAB. Finally, the operational power cost (with no losses consideration) from MATLAB was compared with the local energy provider to determine the cost-efficiency. This experiment has provided the operational cost optimization of the hydro-wind combined power system with stable wind power generation using SCADA, which will ultimately assist in operations of large-scale power systems, remotely minimizing multi-area dynamic issues while maximizing the system efficiency.
Cheng-Chin Tsai, Fuchun Joseph Lin, Hiroshige Tanaka
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 79-92; https://doi.org/10.4236/cn.2021.133007

Abstract:
Network slicing is one of the most important features in 5G which enables a large variety of services with diverse performance requirements by network virtualization. Traditionally, the network can be viewed as a one-size-fits-all slice and its services are bundled with proprietary hardware supported by telecom equipment providers. Now with the network virtualization technology in 5G, open networking software can be deployed flexibly on commodity hardware to offer a multi-slice network where each slice can offer a different set of network services. In this research, we propose a multi-slice 5G core architecture by provisioning its User Plane Functions (UPFs) with different QoS requirements. We compare the performance of such a multi-slice system with that of one-size-fits-all single slice architecture under the same resource assignment. Our research objective is to compare the performance of a network slicing architecture with that of a “one-size-fits-all” architecture and validate that the former can achieve better performance with the same underlying infrastructure. The results validate that our proposed system can achieve better performance by slicing one UPF into three with proper resource allocation.
Fontaine Rafamantanantsoa, Rabetafika Louis Haja, Randrianomenjanahary Lala Ferdinand
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 36-49; https://doi.org/10.4236/cn.2021.131004

Abstract:
In recent years, Internet exposure of applications continuously engenders new forms threats that can endanger the security of the entire system and raises many performance issues related to code security. The safety of information systems becomes essential. This is why the performance linked to security codes is of importance essential in the security systems of all companies. Indeed, as contribution, to carry out measurements, it appropriates tools that are the JMH tool (Java Microbenchmark Harness) and the PHP Benchmark script tool which include unsecure java and PHP codes and secured against SQL (Structured Query Language) injection, XSS (Cross Site Scripting) i.e., using prepared requests, stored procedures, validation of input from white lists, reinforcement of minimum privilege, when sending requests from the last ones to MySQL databases and Postgresql. We recover the times of response to his requests. From java codes and PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) secure, we also retrieve the response time for requests to databases MySQL and PostgresqL data. We then obtain the curves and interpretations comparing performance related to security and non-security of codes. The goal is to analyze and evaluate the performance comparing secure Java and PHP code against unsecure java and PHP code using MySQL and Postgresql databases. In Section 1, we presented the performance of the code Java and PHP. The configuration of the experiments and the experimental results are discussed in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Use of suitable tool which is the JMH tool and the PHP Benchmark script tool, we have developed in Java 1.8 and PHP 7.4 secure and non-secure codes that send the queries to the MySQL or Postgresql database to carry out the measurements which led to the conclusion that the insecure PHP and Java codes are faster in terms of response time compared to the PHP and Java secure codes as the number of tables linked to the query increases because the blocking times of SQL injection and XSS preventions linked to its secure codes are increasing.
Alese Boniface Kayode, Alowolodu Olufunso Dayo, Adekunle Adewale Uthman
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 68-78; https://doi.org/10.4236/cn.2021.132006

Abstract:
With the continuous use of cloud and distributed computing, the threats associated with data and information technology (IT) in such an environment have also increased. Thus, data security and data leakage prevention have become important in a distributed environment. In this aspect, mobile agent-based systems are one of the latest mechanisms to identify and prevent the intrusion and leakage of the data across the network. Thus, to tackle one or more of the several challenges on Mobile Agent-Based Information Leakage Prevention, this paper aim at providing a comprehensive, detailed, and systematic study of the Distribution Model for Mobile Agent-Based Information Leakage Prevention. This paper involves the review of papers selected from the journals which are published in 2009 and 2019. The critical review is presented for the distributed mobile agent-based intrusion detection systems in terms of their design analysis, techniques, and shortcomings. Initially, eighty-five papers were identified, but a paper selection process reduced the number of papers to thirteen important reviews.
Taslim Arefin, Mohammad Hanif Ali, A. K. M. Fazlul Haque
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 93-110; https://doi.org/10.4236/cn.2021.133008

Abstract:
In the modern age, Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) becomes very popular everywhere for monitoring healthcare services remotely. However, the WBAN system has lagged in efficient power consumption till now. As WBAN is formed with several portable devices, low power consumption will ensure battery lifetime. In this paper, an analysis of Transmission Power Control (TPC) over WBAN has been conducted. A ZigBee based WBAN model with different network topologies and data rates has been proposed in the experiment. WBAN data-management technique has been proposed due to reducing more data transmission. Less data transmission reduces overall power consumption. The whole work has been done using OPNET and OMNET++ network simulators. Six sensor nodes have been used with a ZigBee coordinator in the simulation scenario where throughput, load, delay, data traffic, amount of power consumption, packet delivery ratio, etc. have been used as simulation parameters. TPC analysis indicates the power consumptions in different topologies, with different data rates. Several simulation scenarios were run and the results were analyzed in this paper.
Keya Sen, Stan Ingman
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 12-24; https://doi.org/10.4236/cn.2021.131002

Abstract:
Healthcare monitoring and analysis of healthcare parameters is a reality to reduce costs and increase access to specialist and experts that holds the future for geriatric care in India. This paper proposes distinct methods towards the implementation of rural elder health information technologies (IT), which includes electronic medical records, clinical decision support, mobile medical applications, and software driven medical devices used in the diagnosis or treatment of disease for the older adult population in the villages of India. The purpose is online patient satisfaction at the microlevel (village panchayat) through methods accessible and affordable by establishing a common standard of operations at the village primary care units giving way to early disease detection and routine screening among the aged population avoiding institutionalization. The rural elder health IT framework is of great interest for all stakeholders in the field, as it benefits the investors and the consumers, adding to the technological infrastructure, thereby opening new avenues of research in health informatics, telemedicine and enhancing the scope of geriatric research, which in turn enhances the health-related quality of life for the rural older adults in the remote villages of the nation.
Zipeng Lin
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.4236/cn.2021.131001

Abstract:
In this article, a physics aware deep learning model is introduced for multiphase flow problems. The deep learning model is shown to be capable of capturing complex physics phenomena such as saturation front, which is even challenging for numerical solvers due to the instability. We display the preciseness of the solution domain delivered by deep learning models and the low cost of deploying this model for complex physics problems, showing the versatile character of this method and bringing it to new areas. This will require more allocation points and more careful design of the deep learning model architectures and residual neural network can be a potential candidate.
Pandharinath R. Satarkar, Rajesh B. Lohani
Communications and Network, Volume 13, pp 111-129; https://doi.org/10.4236/cn.2021.133009

Abstract:
Microstrip Patch Antenna is a narrowband antenna fabricated by etching the antenna element pattern in metal trace of elements like copper bonded to an insulating dielectric substrate with a continuous metal layer on the opposite side of the substrate which forms a ground plane. Electromagnetic Metamaterial is an artificial material that is made up of different types of structural designs on dielectric substrates. In this paper, a broad and elite investigation is being carried out by designing and simulating a single negative metamaterial cell comprising a square split ring resonator. This metamaterial cell depicts negative values of permeability for a specific range of frequencies. These cells show exceptionally great applications in the design of microstrip patch antenna. The substrate of the microstrip patch antenna with a ground plane is loaded with a square split-ring resonator, Conventional and proposed patch antennas are simulated, analyzed, and reported for performance comparison of its parameters. The proposed edge port feed metamaterial based Rectangular microstrip patch antenna and Circular patch antenna designed at 26 GHz resonance frequency useful for 5G applications. Both antennas are designed on RT Duroid 5880 Substrate with 2.2, dielectric constants. The parameters such as bandwidth, gain and return loss of metamaterial loaded rectangular microstrip patch antenna and Circular patch antenna increases considerably compared to conventional antennas. Comparing parameters of both antennas, the performance of the rectangular microstrip patch antenna is found to be better than circular patch antenna.
Mohammed Banu Ali, Trevor Wood-Harper, Abdullah Sultan Al-Qahtani, Abubakar Mohamed Ali Albakri
Communications and Network, Volume 12, pp 41-60; https://doi.org/10.4236/cn.2020.122003

Abstract:
Although there have been remarkable technological developments in healthcare, the privacy and security of mobile health systems (mHealth) still raise many concerns with considerable consequences for patients using these technologies. For instance, potential security and privacy threats in wireless devices, such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connected to a patient hub at the application, middleware and sensory layers, may result in the disclosure of private and sensitive data. This paper explores the security and privacy of the patient hub, including patient applications and their connections to sensors and cloud technology. Addressing the privacy and security concerns of the patient hub called for a comprehensive risk assessment by using the OCTAVE risk assessment framework. Findings reveal that the highest risk concerned data exposure at the sensory layer. In spite of the countermeasures presented in this paper, most served as a means to identify risk early as opposed to mitigating them. The findings can serve to inform users of the potential vulnerabilities in the patient hub before they arise.
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