Annual Research & Review in Biology
ISSN / EISSN : 2347-565X / 2347-565X
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 1,575
Latest articles in this journal
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 60-74; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930426
Fruit-bearing plants in the Brazilian Amazon are mainly attacked by species of Anastrepha, of which about half are endemic to the region. However, tritrophic relations (fly/plant/parasitoid) have only been established for some 25% of the species of Anastrepha in the region. At present, 11 species of hymenopterous parasitoids (Braconidae and Figitidae) have been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon. Parasitoids in general, especially those of the family Braconidae, stand out as the most effective natural enemies of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha. Doryctobracon areolatus is the most abundant parasitoid and it is associated with the largest number of Anastrepha species in the region. Some fruiting species, for example Bellucia grossularioides (L.) Triana and Geissospermum argenteum Woodson, have been studied aiming at biological control of fruit flies, because they act as reservoirs or multipliers of fruit fly parasitoids. Although research has advanced significantly in the past 20 years, there is a shortage of studies in nearly all states in the region, due to the huge area of the Brazilian Amazon.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 47-59; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930423
This review article focuses on the effect of pesticides on reproductive functions, haematological and biochemical changes in catfishes. Pesticides are chemical substances that are released into the environment to control the populations of harmful pests. Pesticide exposure leads to toxicity in aquatic organisms, including fishes which are particularly sensitive to pesticides. The acute and sublethal concentrations of pesticides in the aquatic environment result in different lethal alterations, including changes in reproductive functions, histology, haematology, proteins, glucose, lipids, enzymes, etc. Pesticides act as endocrine disruptor compounds and have the potential to impair reproductive function in catfishes. Alterations in haematological and biochemical parameters are used as efficient biomarkers in assessing the toxicity of pesticides in fishes.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 38-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930422
A varietal testing had been undertaken in Pematangsiantar regency, North Sumatra province, Indonesia in 2015-2016. The objective of the study was to determine the preference of cassava growers to the introduced varieties compared to the existing cassava varieties. Twelve cassava varities (UB1/2, UB1472, Adira1, Malang4, Cecekijo, Farsem, Gajah, Ketan Jabung, Caspro, Malaysia, Adira4, and Cikaret) were tested using a Randomized Block Design with four replications. The data were taken on aboveground characters and underground characters such as root number, root diameter, root length, root weight, and starch content based on factory criteria (A = 22%, B = 18%, C = 14% and D = 10% starch content). Results of the study indicated that Malang-4 had the highest root yield (49,830 kg ha-1) followed by Farsem variety (41,690 kg ha-1), and Malaysia Local variety (41,030 kg ha-1). The bitter taste of Malang 4 was an appropriate character to be developed as starch processing of cassava. Starch content is very important indigenous criteria for farmers and traders to know fairly about pricing in relation with starch content. The higher starch content coincided with higher root yield of Malang-4 is very interesting and will benefit the factory. There was no difference in factory price of cassava from farmers, although the starch content indicated different levels (B =18%, C=14% or D =10%). The Malang-4 could be introduced to the local goverment for being grown in a larger areas in the North Sumatera province.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 21-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930420
Cranioplasty is a surgery used to repair a bone defect in the skull caused by an injury. It involves lifting the scalp and restoring the contour of the skull with an implant usually manufactured by additive manufacturing. The cranial implant is a sensitive topic; thus, it must be manufactured to the highest standards. Medical implants are growing significantly due to industrial digitalization and the rapid development of industrial software. With the help of computed Tomography (CT) equipment, a spatial, rotating model of the patient's current state can be obtained quickly, even in minutes where the replacement part of the deficiency can be perfectly designed. Although this requires considerable routine, computational capacity, and time, but taking advantage of the latest software presented in our manuscript, the development time of the implant can be up to 50 times shorter with significant improvements in suitability and adaptability. Subsequently, we can produce more accurate implants with more accessible and faster manufacturing with our developed method. The development steps and methods of designing an implant are described in our article.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 11-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930419
The aim of this research is to extract carotenoids from apricot fruits using a food solvent (ethanol) and a non-food solvent (propanol). In addition, it aims to study the effect of different extraction conditions, i.e., the extraction temperature (20-40-60)°C and the extraction times (4-8-12) hours, on the carotenoids yield in order to improve and develop extraction methods. The extracted carotenoids were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the studied carotenoids are α-carotene and β-carotene. It was found that β-carotene constitutes about 80% of the total carotenoids in apricots. The results indicated that the extraction yield using ethanol was low compared to the extraction yield using propanol. Propanol is the most suitable solvent for carotenoids extraction in comparison with ethanol. The temperature also had a significant effect on the extraction yield; at 20°C the extraction yield was very low, and 60°C was the optimum temperature for the extraction of carotene. The extraction yield significantly increased with time in the first hours of extraction, and there was no significant effect from increasing the extraction time for a period of 6-8 hours. Moreover, the pretreatment of fruits by freezing accelerated the extraction process and increased the extraction yield. The optimum conditions for extracting carotenoids were determined in the conditions of food extraction; the optimum conditions for extracting carotenoids are: extraction at 60°C for three hours with pretreatment by freezing as the extraction rate reached up to 6.36 mg/100 g using ethanol as a food solvent.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930421
Aims: Evaluate the insecticidal effect of the aqueous extract of neem leaves on the control of Costalimaita ferruginea in eucalyptus. Place and Duration of Study: Entomology Laboratory of the Center for Agricultural Sciences (CCA) of the State University of the Tocantina Region of Maranhão (UEMASUL) between November 2016 and July 2017. Methodology: Neem aqueous extract solutions were tested at concentrations of 40, 60 and 80%, and the control group treated with mineral water. Leaves of eucalyptus seedlings were immersed in each concentration and individualized in Petri dishes together with the insects. The design was completely randomized with four treatments and ten repetitions, each repetition consisting of a Petri dish with an insect and a eucalyptus leaf. The evaluations were carried out daily, analyzing the mortality of adults, and the leaves were replaced by others submitted to the same treatment and procedure described above. Results: In the evaluations of 12, 60, 72 and 84 hours there was no significant difference. 36 hours after the implementation of the experiment, the 60% neem concentration resulted in 100% mortality of specimens. Conclusion: The 60% neem concentration is the most efficient due to its rapid effect on C. ferruginea mortality and economy of raw material for production.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 120-131; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830417
This study was carried out to identify the Ethnobotanical uses of flora and fauna species in Kainji Lake National Park New-Bussa Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria. The study objectives were to document knowledge and generate data on identification and uses of Plant species and animal species in Borgu and Zugurma sector of the park. Ethnobotanical surveys based on interviews from the park ranges, plant taxonomist and zoologist staff of the park and Botanical survey was carried out based on sample plots. A stratified random sampling was used to select sample sites within the two sector of the Park, based on flora and fauna sub-classification. A total Ten (10) plots of 100m x 100m strips were demarcated within the two sectors. In each plot a total of four (4) 20m x 20m sub-plots were randomly selected for identification of Flora and Fauna resources in both the two sector of the park. Results from Flora resources shows a total of 45 plants species belonging to 21 families were selected.in both the two sector. Family- Leguminosae and Combretaceace were the dominant family in terms of number of species represented. The species are multipurpose and are exploited to satisfy different subsistence needs. Bark and Leaf are the most commonly used Flora parts for medicinal in KLNP. Results from Fauna resources shows that Family-Bovidea and Felidae are the most dominate in the Mammal species, Family-Pythonidea is dominate in Reptile species, Birth has different family and species. Alestidae and Cyprinidae are the dominates in fish found in KLNP while Family-Mochokidae and Bagridae are the most dominates in the fresh-water fish species in Kainji Lake (Northern Nigeria).
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930418
Yellow sap contamination (YSC) is one of the mangosteen quality constrain in Indonesia. Calcium is the prominent nutrient that influence the incidence of yellow sap contamination. A research with objective to observe the relationship between incidence YSC and Ca availability in soil as well as plant tissue was done in ten locations in West Sumatra, Lampung and West Java provinces. Purposive random sampling method was used to determine the site locations. The plant and soil samples were collected from 10 sites and ten tree per sites. Correlation analysis was used to measure the relationship between incidence YSC and Ca content in fruit endocarp, mesocarp, peel, soil and leaf. The result showed that there was a variation of incidence YSC in site location with range of 8.7%−54.04%; 4.0−51.6%; and 17.7−78.6% for percentage of YSC in fruit flesh, segmentation and peel, respectively. Ca content in soil, endocarp, mesocarp and leaf were given significantly negative correlation toward incidence YSC in fruit flesh and segmentation. Ca content in leaf part correlates significantly to Ca availability in soil, endocarp and mesocarp. Ca content in leaf in the range of 1.40- 1.70% indicates YSC less than 10%.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 108-119; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830416
Background: Monovarietal cultivation of cotton plant allowed the genetic erosion for traditional cotton varieties that proceed essential traits mainly involved in cotton genetic breeding. These varieties need to be preserved for future used. This study aims to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on cotton seed germination and the effect of Benzylaminopurin (BAP), Kinetin (KIN), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and activated charcoal (CA) on cotton seedlings growth obtained from different type of explants. Methodology: The seeds of three improved varieties (KET782, ANG956, OKP768) and five local varieties (Q62, Q64, Q85, Q88, Q92) were germinated with different concentration of gibberellic acid (GA3). Different explants were collected from the germinated plantlets and cultivated in different culture media containing plants growth regulators and activated charcoal in different concentration. Results: We found that Gibberellic Acid activity on cotton seeds germination significantly varied according to the variety and GA3 concentration in the medium. 63.33% germination rate in OKP768 was obtained on the medium containing 0.5 mg/L of GA3 while the medium with 1 mg/l of GA3 gave the highest seed germination in Q85 (75%), Q64 (69.17%), and ANG956 (40.83%). The plantlets regeneration rate varied within the explants in different varieties used. 100%of axillary nodes were regenerated in Q62; Q85 and Q92 varieties while 60% were regenerated with the zygotic embryos in ANG956, and OKP768. Moreover, the medium supplemented with GA3 (1mg/l) + NAA (1 mg/l) induced the greatest number of roots (2.75 roots/plantlet) in the ANG956 and OKP768 varieties. With activated charcoal (10 g/l), ANG956 and OKP768 varieties achieved better performance with respective roots length average of 3.4 cm/plantlet and 2.1 cm/plantlet. The activated charcoal at 10 g/l highly influenced the length of roots with an average of 7.7cm in ANG956 variety. Implication: The protocol established during this study will be useful for in vitro regeneration and conservation for cotton local varieties.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 98-107; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830415
Background and Objective: The existence of a tofu waste treatment plant in residential areas and reports from the public about the unpleasant odor in several wells made residents worried about the impact of the intrusion of tofu waste treatment plant waste. This study aims to assess the impact of possible intrusion of waste from tofu waste treatment plants into residents' wells. Methods: This type of research is descriptive with a survey method. Samples from the research site were analyzed in the laboratory by the titration method based on the value of chemical oxygen demand, compared with Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia No. 82 Th. 2001 concerning water quality management and water pollution control. Results: The results of the measurement of the chemical oxygen demand value of the Bajak river were 51.8 mg/L (starting point) and 238 mg/L (end point). The value of chemical oxygen demand in resident wells is as follows: resident well 1 of 12.2 mg/L, resident well 2 of 9.12 mg/L, resident well 3 of 3.05 mg/L, residential well 4 mg/L of 33.05 mg/L. L, resident well 5 is 3.05 mg/L, resident well 6 is 15.2 mg/L, resident well 7 is 27.4 mg/L and resident well 8 is 3.05 mg/L. Conclusion: The value of chemical oxygen demand in the Bajak river exceeds the quality standard, while the value of chemical oxygen demand in resident wells shows that the farther from the tofu waste treatment plant, the smaller the concentration value of chemical oxygen demand.