Annual Research & Review in Biology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2347-565X / 2347-565X
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 1,652
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George Mafany, Edith Brunelle Mouafo Tamnou, Armel Zacharie Ekoa Bessa, Joséphine Ndjama, Gisèle Liliane Machuetum, Frank Aristide Tchouape Noubouossie, Moise Nola
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 126-137; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1230470

Abstract:
Groundwater samples were collected during April and August 2016 from five hand-dug wells in Soa subdivision, Cameroon, Africa, with the aim to assess the microbiological quality of them and the health risk they (it) posed to the population in the study area. The low piezometric levels (9 – 20 m) and the little variation in curb-stone heights (0.58 – 1.05 m) suggest that the wells are vulnerable to pollution. The physicochemical parameters show that the groundwater of Soa is acidic and poorly mineralized. The residents (population that is) dominated by students are not connected to the supply of water, making them to take recourse to groundwater for potable and general domestic use. Bacteriological analysis of the water samples focused on the search and listing of heterotrophic mesophilic aerobic bacteria (HAMB). Also, bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family were isolated, identified and listed (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Shigella, Citrobacter, Providencia). The analyses were carried out through standard, selective and conventional gallery culture media, using surface spreading, streaking and sub-culturing techniques. Different ions were also measured for the physicochemical component according to the usual analytical techniques. The low values of oxidability recorded clearly indicated the organic pollution of the study area. The organic matter was found largely influencing the increase in bacterial load (which is high and varied). The presence of these germs degrades the quality of the water, which varies from one site to the other, with the important factors being the proximity of the sources of pollution to the well and its poor maintenance. As local populations are using these ground waters without any prior treatment, they are prone to health risks over the period time.
A. O. Oluyege, K. O. Ojo
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 111-119; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1230468

Abstract:
Aim: Many food animal production facilities are sited close to human residence. This research work seeks to establish the occupational and environmental burdens of unsafe acts and conditions in backyard poultry production sites in the area of study in order to validate the compliance level of poultry farmers to common safety regulations. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, from February 2017 to December 2019. Methodology: A well-structured questionnaire was administered to farm managers and residents within the area of study. Data on poultry management attitudes and history of water use were collected. The coordinates of the poultry sites, natural water bodies, source area and their relative distances were determined using the Geographical System Information Software, Mapit GIS. Fecal droppings from poultry birds were randomly sampled with a sterile swab stick and transferred into a factory-packed polythene bag. The suspension of the fecal droppings was streaked on Eosin Methylene Blue agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours. Waste-water, soil from disposal sites, and poultry feed samples were also collected in sterile universal bottles, serially diluted and cultured. E. coli isolates were characterized using relevant biochemical tests. The modified paper disc-diffusion method was used to determine the isolates’ sensitivity to nine tested antibiotics. The results were interpreted based on the procedures of the clinical and laboratory standard institutes. Results: Majority of the poultry farms under survey, 83% adopted the intensive ranging system of farming while few adopted the free range system. Layers were the most reared, 50%. There was no documented health, safety and regulatory protocols used on all the farms leading to variations in poultry management practices. Accumulated poultry droppings were periodically disposed between 3-4 days into open fields, flowing water bodies and pits. Among the three adopted waste disposal options, disposal into open field was rampant, 67%. Also, some of the poultry farmers, 42% applied the collected poultry droppings as farm yard manure. Family members constitute the major labor force, 92% on the farm. There were contacts between few of the farmers and their clients during routine farm activities. Majority of the farmers, 83.3% were not kitted with commonly-used personal protective equipment while coverall was only used by few. The five natural water bodies found within the area of study were majorly used for agricultural, domestic, and, recreational purposes. There was history of diarrhea in respondents, 12% with exposure to the water bodies. Socio-demographic data show that young, married-males with tertiary education comprise the major farming population. The relative distance of poultry farms to residential site is ≤ 6 meters while the proximity of poultry farms to natural water sources is between 160 meters to 4,596 meters. Antibiotic sensitivity test shows that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria were present in poultry droppings, waste water and soil from poultry waste disposal sites. Bacterial resistance to the fluoroquinolones, sulphonamide, tetracycline, aminoglycoside and penicillin was high. Conclusion: The findings on unsafe act audit of the poultry production sites assert that safety of public health is dependent on the quality of water and soil found in human environment. Unsafe acts and conditions with the inherent occupational hazards in poultry production sites are attributed to non-functional health, safety and environment management system. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in poultry droppings constitute biological hazard to humans. Exposure to these biological hazards predisposes the public to infections. Human and environmental health can be improved by reviewing the national guidelines and standards for environmental pollution control.
, Yakubu Ismaila Uwaidem, Moses J. Falade
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 120-125; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1230469

Abstract:
The garden snail, Limicolaria flammea is a seasonal pest of several horticultural crops in most of the agroecological areas in Nigeria. The level of damage to crops is especially enormous in the South because of its ability to feed on different crops and the timing of abundance, the early rain season, which usually coincide with onset of rain-fed crop production which expose seedlings and grown-up crop plants to serious damage. In this study, we recorded occurrence data of Limicolariaflammea in okra, carrot, sweet potato, lettuce and maize within a single multi-crop organic farm in order to understand its food preference. Activities of the predatory beetle larvae, Drilus sp was observed within the environment. The appearance of the larvae was described and its interaction with L. flammea was studied to generate some data on the proportions of snail mortality caused by Drilus sp and other mortality factors that naturally regulate the population dynamics of L. flammea within the environment. There was no statistically significant difference in the average number of snails recorded in the different cropping fields [F (4,15) =1.369, P=0.291]. The activities of Drilus larvae against L. flammea was higher in okra and carrot plots as snail mortality due to the larvae attack were significantly higher compared to what was recorded in other crop plots [F (4, 30) =3.998, P=0.01].The Drilus larvae predate on L. flammea by appertural entry, biting through the soft tissues around the mantle to gain entrance and moult into instar larvae within the snail shell in 15-20 days, leaving its exuviae behind in the shell in all the specimens observed (n=40). The Drilus species being reported in this study is morphologically distinct from other described species in available literature. The study suggested that the Drilus species is less known and there are potentials that the species could be useful in inundative biocontrol approaches for the management of pestiferous gastropod populations.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 88-94; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1230466

Abstract:
Sunset Yellow (SY) is an organic azo dye that is used extensively as a coloring agent in many industries, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals ,and foodstuffs. Many studies have conflicting results about the genotoxicity effect of SY. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide additional data concerning SY genotoxicity in human lymphocytes by using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) assay. Four concentrations of Sunset Yellow (1, 5, 20 ,and 50 mg/ml) were used on human lymphocyte cultures. Positive and negative controls were mitomycin C and distilled water, respectively. Compared to the control, SY caused a significant increase in CAs and SCEs frequencies at all concentrations. A total of five types of CAs were observed, such as gaps, fragments, RCF, stickiness,and polyploidy. According to the present results, high concentrations of SY are genotoxic in vitro to cultured human lymphocytes. To determine its full genotoxicity potential, SY should be tested in other test systems.
, Sunday Dele Oyeyemi
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 95-110; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1230467

Abstract:
Aim: Fruits and common vegetables are now becoming too expensive for the poor consumers in Nigeria. The search for cheap, readily available and (locally sourced for the people in need of) nutritious food prompted this research work. Study Design: Six underutilized wild vegetables (Solanum microcarpon, Strichium sparganophora, Crassocephalum crepidiodes, Solanum nigrum, Myrianthus arboreus and Sterculia tragacantha) from Ado- Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria were evaluated for their nutritional, mineral and anti-nutritional potentials. Place and Duration of Study: The collection of the samples were done in the month of December, 2020 in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria and air dried for three weeks. Methodology: Young shoots of five indigenous vegetables were collected, washed thoroughly, air dried, pulverized and analysed using standard methods of AOAC. Results: The proximate analyses of the vegetables indicated that the moisture content, ash, fat, crude fiber, crude protein and carbohydrates ranged as follows: 6.17-8.85%, 4.73-6.59 %, 2.00-3.13%, 3.89-7.27%, 7.77-12.23% and 63.84-70.61% respectively. The total energy ranged from 1,367.85 to 1,467.85KJ/100g with low Coefficient of Variation (CV%) of 2.22. Mineral contents are of the following order K>Mg>Ca> P>Na>Fe>Zn. The result of the mineral ratio showed that the calculated mineral ratio for Na/K, K/ Na, Ca/P, Ca/Mg, Ca/K, Zn/Cu and [K/(Ca+Mg)] were below the critical level. The calculated mineral safety indexes (MSI) were lower than the tabulated values. The anti-nutrient contents (Cyanide, Saponins, and Oxalate) were below the threshold levels, Conclusion: Low MSI means that the vegetables could not pose health risk when consumed. The low anti-nutrient contents of the samples is an indication that the consumer would not suffer from mineral overload. The nutrition and mineral potentials of these vegetables could suggest their uses as nutritional supplements and are highly promising for food security and sustainability for the populace.
B. Bishop, F. B. P. Abang, S. Attah
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 70-77; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1230464

Abstract:
Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of Prosopis seed coat fermented with rumen content at different levels as energy source on the serum biochemical composition and heamatological indices of broiler chickens. Study Design:Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance in a completely randomized design. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Livestock Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Between November 2016 and January 2017. Methodology: The study was in two phases; the starter and finisher phase, in each of the phases, there were five dietary groups and fermented Prosopis africana seed coat meal (FPASCM) was included at 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% to replace maize. The total of two hundred and sixty (260), day- old Zartech broiler chicks were randomly distributed to five dietary treatments with four replicates of 52 chickens per treatment and each replicate had 13 birds. The birds were raised on deep litter and fed ad-libitum and drinking water provided daily and performance was monitored. At the end of the eight week, blood was collected via the wing web for serum and haematological assay. Results: The results of haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed varying levels of fermented Prosopis africana seed coat are presented in Table 3.There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between treatments for parameters measured except for PCV and haemogobin. The PCV values ranged from 25.00 -28.25% and haemoglobin values ranged from 8.35 -9.40g/dl. It was observed that most of the haematological indices measured fell within the normal reference range values. The results of serum biochemical assay revealed that serum glucose 45.85-107.22 mg/dl varied significantly (P<0.05) among the dietary treatments. Birds served 25% FPSCM had the highest value while those served 15% FPASCM recorded least value. Conclusion: Based on the observations from this study, it was concluded that FPASCM could be included in the diets of broiler chickens up to 25% without compromising the health of the birds.
, Olaitan Daniel Johnson, Adewale Akeem Yusuff
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 78-87; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1230465

Abstract:
Aim: Globally, burden of liver and kidney diseases has been on the increase in recent times. The present study therefore investigates the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective potentials of unripe plantain Musa paradisiaca on CCl4-induced oxidative damage in albino rat. This was with the aim of providing a locally available and potent therapeutic alternative to the conventional drugs used in the management of liver and kidney diseases. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti between July 2018 and January, 2019. Methodology: Twenty-five adult male albino rats were placed into seven groups of 5 animals each. Group I animals received distilled water throughout the duration of the experiment, while group II were exposed to CCl4 only. Groups III, IV, V and VI received 3 ml/kg b.w of CCl4 intraperitoneally but were post treated with 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of unripe plantain extract respectively while group seven were post-treated with silymarin by oral gavage. Animals were sacrificed for the excision of the liver and kidney. Activities of creatinine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as levels of urea, uric acid, bilirubin and lipid profile were assessed. Tissue antioxidant level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also determined. Results: Exposure to CCl4 caused a significant derangement in lipid profile, resulting in the increase in serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) while high density lipoprotein (HDL) level was diminished. Liver and kidney biomarkers (ALT, AST, ALP, CK, urea, uric acid and bilirubin were also significantly elevated in the serum relative to the control animals following exposure to CCl4. Activities of antioxidant enzymes in the serum were markedly inhibited by CCl4 exposure. Treatment with Musa paradisiaca extract caused a dose-dependent restoration of all biochemical parameters determined, while histopathological observation was in agreement with biochemical results. Conclusion: These findings showed that Musa paradisiaca extract exhibited positive modulatory effects on the liver and kidney subjected to oxidative attack, hence, its potential usefulness in the management diseases associated with these organs.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 59-69; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1230463

Abstract:
For most conispirally-coiled Gastropods with determinate growth, the geometry of spirally-winding whorls is usually constrained by a strong negative correlation between whorl growth rate and the number of whorls reached at adulthood, as originally reported by the late S.J. Gould. Yet, beyond the tight control of shell-shape at the species level – resulting from this constraint – what about the amplitude of the intra-specific variability of whorl growth-rate, partly contributing to the variability of the overall shell-size at the species level? I address the issue by designing and implementing a new, indirect method for routinely evaluating whorl growth-rate, thereby aiming at considerably saving measurement time, and making it possible to easily achieve repeated measurements across samples large enough to reach statistical significance. This approach was applied to a series of eight common land snail species. The amplitude of intra-specific variability in whorl growth, evaluated this way, proves: (i) being markedly different among the eight investigated species (by a factor that can exceed 2x); (ii) being, yet, high enough, in all cases, to require compensating variations in the adult number of whorls, so as to limit the resulting consequences on the amplitude of the intra-specific variability of adult shell-size. Despite those marked differences in the amplitudes of intra-specific variability of whorl growth-rate among species, no significant relationship was observed between intraspecific variability of whorl growth rate and species-specific shell-shape types (discoidal/globular/elongate) and only weak positive relationship was observed with species-specific typical shell sizes. However, a rather strong positive correlation was found, as expected, between the degree of intra-specific variability of the whorl growth-rate and the degree of intra-specific variability of the number of whorls reached at adulthood (with the yet unexplained exception of one among the eight investigated species).
Elizabeth Simões Do Amaral Alves, João Manoel Da Silva, Micheline Thais dos Santos, Yamina Coentro Montaldo, Paula Cibelly Vilela Da Silva, Tania Marta Carvalho Dos Santos, Elizabeth Sampaio De Medeiros
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 44-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1230461

Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of post-dipping on milk production, composition, and quality of cows with subclinical mastitis. Samples of mast milk from two different dairy farms were analyzed in two moments: before the post-dipping implantation and after 30 days, the samples were conditioned to the refrigeration temperature in an isothermal box and sent to the laboratory for the following analyzes: California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Fat, Protein, Lactose, Total Solids (TS), Non-Fat Solids (NFS) and microbiological tests, as well as individual milk weighing. The experimental design was completely randomized and arranged in a split-plot scheme, submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) by the F test. The post-dipping practice during 30 days resulted in the means and standard deviation of the analyzes of the studied variables, where the values of SCC, CMT, and microbiological score profile were statistically significant. The highest etiological agent found was Staphylococcus spp. The fat and lactose profile increased in both farms, but there was no significant difference. Protein increased in both farms, but in farm I, there was no significant difference and in farm 2, there was a significant difference. Total Solids, Non-greasy solids, and weighing had a percentage increase, but the means of weight did not differ statistically. The post-dipping technique was an effective measure in the control of subclinical mastitis and brings health benefits to the mammary gland.
D. O. Etim, N. I. Okon
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 51-58; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1230462

Abstract:
Momordica charantia Linn, commonly called bitter-melon or ampalaya, is a vigorous, tendril-bearing, frost tender, annual vine of the cucurbitacae family reported to play significant role in health and nutrition. Chlorotic spot symptoms were observed on this plant during a visit to some Gardens in Baccocco Cross River State, Nigeria in 2021. The aim of this study was to identify the virus infecting this plant and investigate the ability of Trichoderma viride to control the virus. Infected leaf samples of M.charantia were collected and maintained on young seedlings of cucumber through mechanical inoculation which was further used to test the ability of Trichoderma viride as biocontrol agent, the sample was further tested against RT-PCR. Result obtained from Gene sequence analysis revealed 87 % nucleotide sequence identity with Morroccan watermelon mosaic virus. This is the first report of MWMV infecting M. charantia in Nigeria. The result further showed that Trichoderma viride was very effective in the control of virus the pathogen.
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