International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2394-6369 / 2394-6377
Published by: IP Innovative Publication Pvt Ltd (10.18231)
Total articles ≅ 537
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S Ravichandran, R M Madhumitha Sri, Mahrukh Mehraj, Chundru Sowmya
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 9, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcbr.2022.001

Abstract:
The last few decades have seen enormous advances in the area of bioinorganic chemistry, attracting scientists from various disciplines including chemistry, biology, agriculture and medicine. Metals are very important constituents preferred by nature that function in bio-chemical method for living organisms. Metal complexes are essential in the area of catalysis, material science, photochemistry and bio systems. Medicinal chemistry may exploit the unique feature of metal ions in concern with design of new drugs. The recent advancement in emerging field of inorganic chemistry, the act of transition metal complexes as therapeutic compound has becoming increasingly important. From the survey of literature inorganic chemistry have made possible formation that leads to number of transition metal complexes having organiclig and can be used as therapeutic agent. The present review paper focus the scope and recent progress in the area of bioinorganic chemistry with new opportunities to the synthesis of metal-based drugs.
Ashish Chandna, Sushma B J, Roshni Lalwani
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 9, pp 67-70; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcbr.2022.013

Abstract:
Women's health is one of the main goals of social and economic development of societies; therefore, problems and diseases compromising women's physical and mental health, such as premenstrual syndrome (PMS), are among health priorities.To estimate and compare the serum levels of calcium and magnesium in subjects with pre-menstrual syndrome and subjects without premenstrual syndrome during pre-and post-menstrual phases.: Healthy women (intern students, hospital staff, non-teaching staff, class 3 and class 4 staff) in the age group of 18-26 years having regular menstrual cycles for the past 6 months were included based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. PMS was diagnosed based on ACOG criteria. 5 mL of venous blood sample was collected in red stoppered plain tube and used for estimation of serum calcium and magnesium levels during premenstrual phase of menstrual cycle. We found that there was no significant difference in the serum calcium levels between cases and controls, but there was significant difference in serum magnesium levels between the cases and controls.Several factors like culture, socioeconomic status, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, dietary habits, age of menarche etc. have also been implicated. Prolonged stress exposure is believed to lead to persistent malfunctions of neuroendocrine system and cause PMS. Lack of micronutrients and certain hormonal agents and are also implicated in the development of PMS. We strongly recommend Lifestyle modifications which include mind-body approaches, aerobic exercise, and supplementation with vitamins, minerals, and complex carbohydrates. Early nutritional supplementation of with the diet rich in these minerals will be effective as preventive and therapeutic strategy.
G J Belwalkar, P E Jagtap, Vinayak Mane, Neha Shilwant, N S Nagane, Sushama Dhonde
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 9, pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcbr.2022.007

Abstract:
Diabetic nephropathy is accompanied with significant micro vascular risk and is the leading cause of kidney disease. Hence there is an immense need to detect early for better quality of the care of affected patients and treat effectively those at high risk of diabetic kidney disease. Our study was aimed to assess the levels of microalbuminuria, glycated hemoglobin, urinary creatinine, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) along with blood urea and serum creatinine in patients with type 2 DM, and to observe the incidence of microalbuminuria at tertiary care center; and correlate the presence of microalbuminuria to the duration of DM as well as with ACR. : Estimation of Blood sugar, Blood Urea, Serum Creatinine, Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Urinary micro albumin and creatinine was done. Values of urinary creatinine, microalbumin, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) showed highly significant (p<0.000) difference between the two age groups a) below 60 years and b) above 60 years of the age. Highly significant difference (p<0.000) was found among the results of the three groups based on duration of diabetes. We found microalbuminuria was more predominant in patients having age more than 60 years as well as in patients having more than 10 years of duration of DM. Routine screening for microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients will certainly helpful for early detection of renal damage and thus to minimize the burden of diabetic complications due to renal involvement. Hence addition of microalbuminuria along with diabetic profile for medical checkup will help to assess microalbuminuria at frequent intervals.
Gayatri Yadav, Jusmita Dutta, Seema Thambrakar
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 9, pp 38-43; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcbr.2022.008

Abstract:
Melasma, also called ‘chloasma’, is a common skin condition of adults in which light to dark brown or grayish pigmentation develops, mainly on the face. Although it can affect both genders and any race, it is more common in women. Melasma is an acquired pigmentary disorder described as symmetrical blotchy or splotchy hyperpigmented macules and patches. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid profile with anti TPO and iron, uric acid level, in male and female patients. It is a cross-sectional observational study done on 76 females and 25 male who were diagnosed with melasma and thyroid profile with anti TPO, serum iron and uric acid levels were measured. In our study females were more affected then males. In females Mean ± SD value of serum TSH (5.1±2.51) and anti-TPO (11.2±3.1) levels were increased when compared to males(4.9±2.54) and (9.2±1.9). Serum iron value was low in females (83.7±30) than males (90±29). All biochemical parameter were not significant but anti TPO and FT3 showed significant (P<0.001) in female with compared to male. Serum uric acid (3.56±0.77) and serum iron (83.7±30) Mean± SD value was low in melasma females than males which is not significant. Females Mean±SD value of T3 (1.30±0.62) and T4(6.8±1.9), FT4 (1.2±0.44) were non significance showed than compared to males and not significant to males T3 (1.33±0.66) and T4(7.1±1.6), FT4 (1.3±0.67) respectively. Melasma is more severe in females than males. Thyroid profile is not the accurate parameter but anti TPO, and iron level are predictive marker of melasma.
Janardan Nimbolkar, Shubha Chogle, Rittu Chandel, Aruna Poojary, Shubhra Kar
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 9, pp 22-27; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcbr.2022.005

Abstract:
SST2 is a member of interleukin 1 receptor family biomarker and the concentration of its soluble isoform increases with cardiac stress leading to cardiac fibrosis. It has 2 isoforms the ligand forms sST2L and soluble form. In acute or chronic heart failure the soluble form is highly prognostic and predictive of mortality. It’s a prospective study of patients aged 45 to 90 with reduced ejection fraction and cardiomyopathy. Sample collected for day 1,5,30. There outcome assessed at day 30 and mortality on one year follow up. Total 79 patients studied, 57 LVF cases and 22 healthy controls. 50 males, 29 females, Cardiomyopathy 24 cases. Mean sST2 value 137.7829±89 (SD). At 30 days outcome and one year mortality with significant P value 0.000. As the age increases sST2 levels rises. For cardiomyopathy patients sST2 (141±78). At day 5 and 30 patients improved with decrease in levels where worsened patients had persistent high values. Those patient with more than 250 or implausible values had worse outcome or expired. Most important those responded to appropriate treatment values significantly improved. For cardiomyopathy patients values remained high persistently and ultimately required cardiac transplant or definitive line of treatment. sST2 is diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with HFrEF presenting as acute or chronic heart failure. Significant p values for 30 days outcome and mortality. In cardiomyopathy patients with persistent high levels were bad prognostic indicator and suggests consideration of definitive line of treatment.
K U Pavitra Krishna, E Siva Dhas
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 9, pp 79-85; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcbr.2022.016

Abstract:
Malnutrition due to poor feeding habits, is still a serious public health issue especially among women. So, awareness about importance of balance diet for a healthy living is needed for them. The objective of this study was to assess the dietary patterns of 50 women faculty in Arul Anandar College, Madurai and provide nutrition education and to assess the impact of nutrition education. In this regard the dietary pattern of women faculty were assessed and awareness about healthy diet and stress free life using various modes were imparted and the impact was assessed using KAP. Dietary pattern assessment revealed that, most study participants were non vegetarians and consumed three meals a day, pressure cooking was the predominant method adopted for cooking cereals and pulses. Inadequate intakes of pulses, green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products were observed. Frequent intake of carbohydrate rich foods, fats and oils but an infrequent intake of protein rich foods and vitamin and minerals rich foods in a week. Malnutrition were linked to low intakes of pulses and beans; milk and dairy products; vegetables and fruits food groups. After nutrition education, the scores for knowledge and attitude have increased than scores for practice. Women of the study population had an unhealthy dietary pattern. So, nutrition education were provided and the impact was assessed using KAP scores and after the education KAP scores have increased than before.
Shaikh Mahmood, Samreen Sadaf, Ruksana Kausar, Syyeda Anees
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 9, pp 86-89; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcbr.2022.017

Abstract:
Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common chronic, progressive systemic inflammatory arthritis of unknown cause. It affects approximately 1-2% of the population worldwide. It is a form of autoimmune disease principally synovial tissues. As the pathophysiology involves affecting cell mediated immune response, adenosine deaminase may have a role in rheumatoid arthritis. As it involves bones and joints, it is likely that it alters the levels of Serum Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium as well as Alkaline Phosphatase which may be helpful in diagnosis or management of the disease. 1. To evaluate the role of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) as a marker of cell mediated immunity in Rheumatoid Arthritis. 2. To estimate serum alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium as prognostic markers of Rheumatoid arthritisA cross-sectional, case control study with convenient sampling was undertaken after Institutional Ethical Clearance & informed consent. 30 patients of Rheumatoid Arthritis presenting to the orthopaedic outpatient department of Owaisi Hospital and Research Centre, Hyderabad were taken as cases along with an equal number of age and sex matched controls from January 2021 to June 2021. ADA levels were estimated by colorimetric assay on ErbaChem 7 semiautoanalyser. Serum Alkaline phosphatase, Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium were estimated on Cobas C311 autoanalyzer. There was a significant increase in levels of Adenosine Deaminase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Serum Phosphorus, while the levels of Calcium and Magnesium were significantly reduced in rheumatoid arthritisADA as a marker of cell mediated immunity reflects monocyte / macrophage activity and was increased in our study suggesting immunological and inflammatory process in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (R.A). It can be used as a non invasive marker of chronic inflammation and may provide additional information about disease prognosis.Increased levels of Alkaline Phosphatase and Phosphorus associated with low Calcium and Magnesium suggest increased bone resorption in R. A and are useful as markers of disease activity.
Abhinav Manish, Pratibha Pamdey
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 9, pp 28-30; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcbr.2022.006

Abstract:
Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia Tsutsugamushi (formally Rickettsia) due to bite of the mite, and is increasing every year, and becomes a important cause of acute febrile illnesses. Due to lack of specific diagnostic facilities in most rural setups and non-specific clinical presentations, it becomes a challenge for clinician to correctly diagnose it on clinical examination. Clinically it presents with non-specific febrile illnesses with constitutional symptoms such as fever, rash, myalgia and headache or with organ dysfunction involving kidneys, lungs, liver, central nervous system or with circulatory collapse with hemorrhagic features. Eschar is the characteristic lesion which is present at the bite site of mite. Later an ulcer with black necrotic centre and regional lymphadenopathy occurs. Renal involvement in the form of Acute Renal Failure is seen very occasionally in these patients. So this Case-control study is designed for a period of six months which are october-2018 to march-2019, comparing 80 ELISA(Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay) confirmed cases of scrub typhus and 50 healthy controls. Statistically significant difference in Urea, Creatinine and Uric acid levels were found between two groups, using 't'-test with the significance value of P<0.0001.
Wilma Delphine Silvia C R, Aparajeeta Bora
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 9, pp 4-10; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcbr.2022.002

Abstract:
D- dimer assays are most widely used in clinical practice to exclude a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis. D- dimer assays vary in instrumentation, calibration standard, method of capture and antibody used. These differences impose significant influence on the characteristics of the assays during operation. In this review, we have outlined the general properties and limitations of different D-dimer assays and provided clinical perspective on the role of D-dimer test in the diagnosis and prognosis of venous thromboembolism.
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