International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2394-6369 / 2394-6377
Current Publisher: Creative Pharma Assent (10.18231)
Former Publisher: Diva Enterprises Private Limited (10.5958)
Total articles ≅ 433
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Latest articles in this journal

Syeda Shahana Jalees, Biochemistry, Syed Tamkeen Hussain
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 7, pp 411-415; doi:10.18231/j.ijcbr.2020.088

Abstract:
Meningitis is an active inflammatory condition of CNS. However prompt and precise aetiological diagnosis remains a challenge. Often a thorough CSF examination may not give a precise diagnosis. There is considerable urgency in establishing correct diagnosis in patients with tuberculous meningitis because specific therapy is most effective when initiated early in course of illness, delay may cause irreversible brain damage. Diagnosis often rests on circumstantial evidence such as history, typical CSF findings and other evidence for presence of tuberculosis such as acid fast bacilli in sputum, positive tuberculosis test and suspicious Chest x-ray. Under present study the role of enzymes such as adenosine deaminase and lactate dehydrogenase has been evaluated in diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. Result of the study suggest that adenosine deaminase level in CSF and serum may be a useful parameter along with other routine estimations. The enzyme activity is high in disease such as tuberculosis where cellular mediated immunity is stimulated. Estimation of lactate dehydrogenase levels may not be a specific parameter for tuberculous meningitis this requires further studies in patients of meningitis with different aetiological diagnosis. Keywords: Tuberculous meningitis, ADA, LDH in Serum and CSF.
Suryakant Nagtilak, Biochemistry, Prema Adhikari, Pawan Parashar, Community Medicine
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 7, pp 343-348; doi:10.18231/j.ijcbr.2020.074

Abstract:
Background: The risk factors of Metabolic syndrome (Mets), primarily favors the development of cardiometabolic alteration, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia leading to increase in morbidity. Life style and eating habits often increases the levels of Uric acid (UA) in circulation. Elevated UA & stress, exacerbates the pain and inflammation. The inflammatory response includes systemic increase in circulating inflammatory cytokines and acute phase protein, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Adiponectin (ADI) a cytokines primarily secreted by adipocytes exerts antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory & cardioprotective effects. Thus the purpose of the study is to establish a link between Adiponectin, Uric acid and hs-CRP which may further be used in diagnosis and thus can positively reverse many of the adverse effects of MetS. Material and Methods: Present study, an observational case-control study conducted on referred MetS patients attending OPD at Chhatrapati Shivaji Subharti Hospital, Meerut. Data collected on previously validated questionnaire from 235 subjects (156 with MetS and 79 non-MetS) assessed for anthropometric measurements, diabetic profile, ADI, UA & hs-CRP were evaluated by standard established techniques. Results: The results obtained from Mets patients were compared with non-MetS subjects, where ADI was significantly lower (P In Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient for the relationship between ADI and metabolic variables - ADI was positively correlated with age, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-C& LDL-C while negatively correlated with BMI, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, Triglyceride& VLDL-C. Serum hs-CRP levels were elevated with the increasing number of MetS components, being higher among those with > 2 components of MetS while adiponectin decreasing with the number of MetS components. Decreased levels were reported for ADI, whereas hs-CRP & UA levels were escalating. Conclusion: Higher levels of hs-CRP
Kamala Kanta Parhi, Biochemistry, M Anil Kumar, D Lakshmi Lalitha, Godaba Prasanna
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 7, pp 329-333; doi:10.18231/j.ijcbr.2020.071

Abstract:
Introduction: The major chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiac ailments and diabetes are global health burden and the dietary habits playing a significant role in setting these among other factors. There is an assumption that non-vegetarian diet produces more free radicals (FR) when compared to vegetarian food. However recent studies showed an equal contribution of FR injury in vegetarians too. The assessment of the FR markers may provide an analytical report in correlation with different dietary pattern. Materials and Methods: In this comparative study, the individuals (age group of 15 to 50 years) with their dietary habits of vegetarian (n=60) and of non-vegetarian diet (n=60), were included. The serum was analysed for the parameters, fasting blood sugar (FBS), Lipid Profile, MDA, IMA and oxidised LDL (oxLDL). The quantitative variables were analysed by appropriate statistical methods and the p value is considered statistically significant. Results: The comparative values are expressed as mean SD for vegetarians and non-vegetarian groups and it is evident that the FBS and lipid profile and oxLDL were statistically non-significant. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ischemia modified albumin (IMA) are significantly raised in non-vegetarian group in comparison to the vegetarian group (p Conclusion: Based upon the dietary patterns in the healthy individuals, the oxidative stress markers i.e. MDA, IMA are showed conspicuous difference and oxLDL is not significant. The ratio of IMA/MDA in non vegetarians has been considered for the intensity of the oxidative stress beyond the specified ratio (18.44). Keywords: Oxidative stress, Dietary patterns, Vegetarians, Non vegetarians, Oxidised LDL, Malondialdehyde, Ischemia modified albumin
R Amirtha Jansi Rani, Biochemistry, P Deepa, R Shanthi
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 7, pp 403-407; doi:10.18231/j.ijcbr.2020.086

Abstract:
Atherogenic dyslipidemia is a condition characterised by an elevation of triglycerides and small-dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) and a reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL Cholestrol). Prevalence studies from India is less and are of small scale in nature. There are no studies among medical and paramedical professionals that document the prevalence of dyslipidemia in India. In order to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in young asymptomatic medical and paramedical professionals, the following study was done with lipid profile and with Atherogenic Index of plasma (AIP), Castelli’s Risk Ratio I&II (CRR I&II). From May 2016 to August 2016, a cross-sectional study was done among medical and paramedical professionals (N=120) aged between 18-40 years working in a tertiary care hospital. Fasting and post prandial blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, atherogenic ratios and BMI were calculated. Among the 120 participants (80 doctors; 40 nurses), 43(35.8%) were males and 77(64.1%) were females. Out of 120 participants, 79 (65.8%) had BMI within the normal range, 37 (30.8%) had BMI 25-30 and 4 (3.4%) of them had BMI 30-35. Atherogenic dyslipidemia is a potent marker of coronary artery disease risk, especially among asymptomatic young individuals. Indices for coronary risk assessment are more potent than lipid profile. They can be used as effective screening tool in clinical settings and epidemiological studies. Young individuals engaged in white collar jobs must be screened for atherogenic dyslipidemia from an early age to prevent coronary artery disease. Keywords: Atherogenic dyslipidemia, Prevalence, South India, Crosssectional study, Medical professionals.
Gayathri Dilliraj, Biochemistry, K Sumathi, B Shanthi, V S Kalai Selvi, Jamuna Rani
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 7, pp 400-402; doi:10.18231/j.ijcbr.2020.085

Abstract:
Introduction: The HbA1c levels, in general reflects the diabetic patients Glycaemic control status over the previous 3 months. HbA1C concentrations may be increased by Anaemia due to iron deficiency, independent of glycaemia in diabetic patients. Henceforth this study serves to find if there is a positive correlation between the iron deficiency anaemia status & the HbA1c levels amidst the diabetic population. Materials and Methods: Cases-100 iron-deficiency anaemia patients with diabetes having controlled plasma glucose levels, Controls -100 non-anaemic diabetic individuals. The study was done in the premises of Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital. HbA1c levels was measured by ion exchange chromatography, ferritin by particle enhanced turbidometric immunoassay method, fasting plasma glucose by GOD - POD method. Results: We found that HbA1c was elevated (7.3±0.9) in iron-deficient diabetic individuals compared to normal level (5.4±0.6) in controls. Conclusion: The study showed that there was a positive correlation between the iron deficiency anaemia status and increased HbA1c levels in the controlled diabetic population. Hence forth, the clinical significance of evaluating the iron deficiency anaemia status in diabetic patients has been proved to be significant in planning their further course of prompt diabetic management. Keywords: Iron deficiency anaemia status, Glycosylated Haemoglobin level, (HbA1c), Diabetes mellitus.
Sridevi, Shravya R Ginnaram, Amrut Arvindrao Dambal, Sushritha Y Ready, Abhinav R Pingle
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 7, pp 374-379; doi:10.18231/j.ijcbr.2020.080

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: Literature review have hypothesized that the rising incidence of metabolic syndrome worldwide has been associated with an increased risk of thyroid disorders. The aim & objective of our study was to diagnose patients with metabolic syndrome based on IDF criteria, to estimate T3, T4, TSH levels among these patients and to observe the correlation between thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: Our study was a hospital based age and sex matched cross-sectional study with a total of 120 participants (60 cases and 60 controls) between 30 - 50 years old conducted at Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India. Ethics approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Results: Our study found that both men and women with metabolic syndrome had a higher percentage of thyroid disorders compared to the controls without metabolic syndrome. Among the cases, women were found to present with more thyroid abnormalities than men. Conclusion: Routine screening with thyroid function tests should be implemented for all patients with metabolic syndrome, especially females. The coexistence of these two entities can increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Early detection and intervention can help reduce the progression of CVD. Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome(MetS), Cardiovascular Disease(CVD), Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine(T3).
Ranjith Kumar Chikine, Biochemistry, Manoj Aravind Bhumi, Community Medicine
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 7, pp 367-373; doi:10.18231/j.ijcbr.2020.079

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Boric acid affinity method, (Nycocard reader II) compare and correlate these values with those values of DCCT standardized method, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (D-10, Biorad). As well as to check the boric acid affinity may or not work as an alternative to the costly high performance liquid chromatography method for glycated hemoglobin. Materials and Methods: People visit the clinical laboratory of S.V.S medical college for their HbA1c, to know their glycemic status. A total of40 subjects were included in this cross sectional study irrespective of their glycemic condition after exclusion criteria. Subjects with either anaemia (Haemoglobin less or equal 10% was considered as anaemia)or underlying abnormal haemoglobinopathies or addiction of alcohol or opiates or medication on salicylates and those not willing to give consent were not included. HbA1c levels were measured by both the techniques on the same blood sample of individual participants. Results: The mean SD age of the study group was 52 17.16 years. The HbA1c values of individuals by HPLC method were between 4.7% - 14.3% were taken in this study. Their whole blood HbA1c levels estimated by HPLC and boric acid affinity in terms of mean SD were 7.57 2.64 and 7.67 2.48 respectively. This difference was not statistically significant which indicates no value differences in these two methods under standard conditions and trained techniques. A highly positive correlation was established between these two methods as 0.98, which was statistically significant (p Bablok regression analysis demonstrated similar performance of HPLC and BAA methods for estimating HbA1c with Intercept close to zero and slope close to one. The precision of the boric acid affinity method is not better than HPLC, but it is within IFCC suggested limits. Conclusion: The study revealed that the Boric acid affinity and the HPLC methods show very strong corre
Naved Ahmad, Biochemistry, Mushir Ahmad, Mohd Javed, General Medicine
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 7, pp 349-353; doi:10.18231/j.ijcbr.2020.075

Abstract:
Background: Thyroid hormones & TSH are associated with the etiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and probably contribute to the development of the various complications of T2DM. The association of thyroid hormones & TSH with cardiovascular diseases in confirmed hypothyroid patients is still not clear. Aim & Objectives: The aim of our study is to determine the correlation of HbA1c with thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in known patients of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: This was a case control observational study carried out among total of 172 patients (100 patients and 72 controls). They were divided into in to two groups cases which are hypothyroid patient and control group. Blood sample (3 ml) was collected and Fasting blood sugar, complete lipid profile were assayed on Vitros 250 auto analyzer Johnson and Johnson USA. The circulating thyroid hormones assayed for T3, T4 and TSH by enzyme linked florescent assay (ELFA) technique using Vidas auto-analyzer. Glycosylated hemoglobin measured by kit based method where anticoagulated whole blood used as sample. Body weight and height were measured for body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2). Results: Our study demonstrate that Mean of BMI, W.C, FBS, HbA1c, TC, TG, LDL and VLDL were higher in cases as compared to HDL which is higher in control group as compared to case group, Our study also shows that serum T3 values correlates positively and significantly with waist circumference and triglyceride also, while T4 correlates positively and significantly with waist circumference, fasting sugar level, triglycerides and LDL-C while correlates only positively with, HbA1c and HDL-C, whereas TSH correlates positively only with LDL and HDL Levels. Conclusion: Our study concludes that the cumulative quantification of indicators like TSH & HbA1c will function as a biomarker for hypothyroid patients who are at risk to develop CVD in their later stages of life. Keywords: Glycosylat
T Vivian Samuel, Biochemstry, Anshika Garg
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 7, pp 325-328; doi:10.18231/j.ijcbr.2020.070

Abstract:
Introduction: Cancer cervix is one of the leading causes of death in women worldwide. It is a slow progressive carcinoma and if detected early mortality can be reduced. Most cases occur in low economic women and in developing countries. So, if a low-cost diagnostic tool is utilised it can be detected early. Aims and Objectives: To estimate serum adenosine deaminase and gamma glutamyl transferase activity in carcinoma cervix patient and in healthy controls.so that it can be used as a supportive diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted on 30 patients of clinically diagnosed cervical cancer in the age group of 30-70 years and 30 age matched controls. Serum Adenosine Deaminase and Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase was determined using Galanti and Giusti Method and Carboxy substrate method respectively. student’s ‘t’ test was used to compare the results. Results: A significant increase in adenosine deaminase and Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase were observed in cervical cancer patients when compared to controls with a p value of less than 0.0001. Conclusion: By present study we conclude that serum adenosine deaminase and gamma glutamyl transferase may be used for diagnostic purposes as support parameters and may be included further for finding the prognosis. Such biochemical parameters are cheap, rapid, easy to test and can be effectively analysed even in the smaller laboratories which have not been exposed to any advanced technology Keywords: Cervical cancer, Adenosine deaminase, Gamma glutamyl transferase.
Divmehar Kaur, Medicine, Harvinder Singh, Maninder Kaur, G K Bedi, R P S Sibia, Biochemstry
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research, Volume 7, pp 317-319; doi:10.18231/j.ijcbr.2020.068

Abstract:
Introduction: Elevation of serum ferritin levels leads to serious complications. Increased serum ferritin levels leads to increased oxidative stress, further leading to inflammation, endothelial damage and consequently increasing the risk of hypertension. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate and compare serum ferritin levels in the hypertensive patients and control group. Material and Methods: The present study was a hospital-based observational and analytical study. The study was conducted over a period of 1 year on 102 patients. The study group comprised of 51 patients (diagnosed with hypertension), and the control group comprised of 51 (age and gender matched) individuals. The levels of serum ferritin were analysed by the Sandwich ELISA method. Result: The results of the present study show that, the mean value of serum ferritin was 293.27 ± 219.84 ng/ml in study group and 72.23 ± 29.75 ng/ml in control group. The mean SBP was 151.45 ± 14.77 mm/Hg in study group and 109.88 ± 5.43 mm/Hg in control group. The mean DBP was 95.56 ± 7.46 mm/Hg in study group and 72.43 ± 2.97 mm/Hg in control group. The results of the present study indicate that the difference between the mean serum ferritin and mean SBP, mean DBP among the study group and control group was found to be significant statistically (p= Conclusion: The present study concluded that there exists a positive correlation between the mean serum ferritin levels and hypertension among the study group (patients with hypertension). Keywords: Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Oxidative stress.
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