Open Journal of Civil Engineering

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2164-3164 / 2164-3172
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 365
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Ahmed Elyamani, Nabil A. Abd El-Tawab Bader, Mahmoud Algohary, Ragab Abou El Hassan
Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, pp 28-59; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2021.111003

Abstract:
The cemetery of the royal family, who ruled Egypt from 1805 to 1952, is one of the masterpieces of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Historic Cairo. It is a complex building from massive stone masonry walls supporting hemispherical domes and is very rich with the marble decorative elements. Unfortunately, it suffers nowadays from serious cracking due to on-going structural damage. Almost all the structural elements are cracked. Besides, the continuous rise in the groundwater table affects both its structural stability and aesthetics. A detailed inspection was carried out to identify and explain all the manifested damage by the structural elements of the cemetery. The differential settlement damage was found to be very noticeable in the form of many diagonal cracks that are active and threaten the overall stability of the cemetery. The construction history was investigated and found to have a clear effect on the noticed damage. Examination of the construction materials and deterioration products was carried out by inspecting representative samples of the stone, the marble, the mortar, the plaster and the salt. They were examined using different analysis techniques including the Polarized Microscope, the Stereo Microscope, the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) provided with Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) unit. This examination helped in identifying the type of the used stone, the mortar components, the types of salts affecting the structure, and the deterioration manifested by the marble. It seems that the cemetery needs an urgent conservation project to stop the deterioration and keep it safe for the next generations.
Yasmine Binta Traore, Adamah Messan, Kinda Hannawi, Jean Gerard, William Prince, François Tsobnang
Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2021.111001

Abstract:
Oil Palm Shell (OPS) concrete can be used in different fields of construction. To determine more accurately the fields of application, it is important to know and understand the behaviour of OPS concrete over the long term and when it is in aggressive environments. This paper presents the results of studies conducted on the durability of OPS concrete. Water absorption capacity, electrical resistivity and apparent diffusion of chloride ions have been measured on different concrete samples. In addition, the behaviour of OPS concretes to carbonation was studied in an environment rich in carbon dioxide. Results show that OPS concrete has an absorptivity of 0.97 kg/m2·h1/2, an electrical resistivity of 64.37 Ω·m and an apparent diffusion coefficient of chloride ions of 3.84 × 10-12 m2/s after 90 days. All these results of OPS concrete are very close to those of concrete with normal aggregate and other lightweight concrete, which mean OPS concretes have globally good properties with regard to durability.
Mathioro Fall, Déthié Sarr, Elhadji Malick Cissé, Daouda Konaté
Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, pp 60-69; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2021.111004

Abstract:
This study focuses on the valuation and optimization of local materials to meet the challenge of sustainable development. Faced with climate change and the preservation of the environment, research into eco-materials is necessary to reduce the energy bill while ensuring comfort and safety. The objective is to make a comparative characterization of the physico-mechanical properties of compressed earth bricks made from local materials: clay, laterite and sand. These are, on the one hand, bricks made from clay and laterite, reinforced with a percentage of sand varying between 20% and 30% in steps of 5%., were made. On the other hand, these same mixtures stabilized with 5% cement (CEM II-32.5) are also used to produce bricks. A characterization of the raw materials was made before studying the physico-mechanical properties of the bricks themselves. This involved evaluating the water absorbency and compressive strength of stabilized and unstabilized bricks. The results show that the absorptivity of stabilized clay bricks is acceptable up to 25% sand because it is less than the 15% maximum value set by Cameroonian standard NC-104: 2002-06. However, that of stabilized laterite bricks is higher than the maximum value set by the standard. The compressive strengths, for clay bricks stabilized with 5% cement and for laterite bricks with 0% sand added, are all greater than 2 MPa and therefore are acceptable. In addition, clay bricks with 20% sand and stabilized with 5% cement are recommended because they have the most optimal physico-mechanical properties.
Humphrey Danso, Frank Appiah-Agyei
Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, pp 153-165; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2021.111010

Abstract:
The utilization of palm kernel shells (PKS) as an alternative to conventional materials for construction is desirable to promote sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the properties of lightweight concrete produced with different sizes of PKS of 6, 8, 10, 12 mm and mix (consisting of 25% each of the four sizes). RPK sizes were used to replace coarse aggregate in the concrete and cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The tests performed on the concrete are dry density, compressive strength, flexural strength, EDS and SEM. It was revealed that the densities of the concrete specimens were all less than 2000 kg/m3, which implies that the PKS concrete satisfied the requirement of lightweight concrete for structural application. The compressive strength of the 12 mm PKS concrete specimens at 28-day of curing was 10.2 MPa which was 4% to 15.9% better than the other PKS sizes concrete. The flexural strength of the 12 mm PKS concrete specimens at 28-day of curing was 2.85 MPa which was also 3.2% to 57.07% better than the other PKS sizes concrete. It was also revealed by the SEM analysis that there was a good bond between the palm kernel shells and the mortar. A high calcium-silicate content was found in the concrete which resulted in a Ca/Si ratio of 1.26 and Al/Si ratio of 0.11. The study therefore concludes that size variations of PKS as replacement of coarse aggregate have an influence on the properties of the lightweight concrete and recommends 12 mm PKS for use by construction practitioners for lightweight concrete structural application.
Mehrzad Zahabi, Aly Said
Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, pp 119-133; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2021.111008

Abstract:
Lightweight aggregates are increasingly used in concrete construction. They reduce concrete selfweight furnishing a structural advantage. In contrast, the mechanical properties and durability of lightweight concrete can become the governing factor on lightweight aggregate replacement ratios. Alkali-Silica Reactison (ASR) and compressive strength of mortar samples with expanded slate, expanded glass or perlite, covering the spectrum of internal porosity and weight of lightweight aggregates, were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to evaluate the contribution of the aggregates’ porosity and chemical composition in inhibiting ASR. Perlite, owing to its highly porous microstructure and lower matter excelled in ASR expansion while chemical composition and denser microstructure of the heavier expanded slate resulted in more signified late ASR expansion and higher compressive strength. An attempt in visual inspection of ASR attack of alkali metal ions on silica-rich expanded glass using an ultra-accelerated exposure to sodium hydroxide solution was made.
Son Tung Pham, Phi Son Vo, Dac Nhat Nguyen
Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, pp 70-80; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2021.111005

Abstract:
Artificial lift plays an important role in petroleum industry to sustain production flowrate and to extend the lifespan of oil wells. One of the most popular artificial lift methods is Electric Submersible Pumps (ESP) because it can produce high flowrate even for wells with great depth. Although ESPs are designed to work under extreme conditions such as corrosion, high temperatures and high pressure, their lifespan is much shorter than expected. ESP failures lead to production loss and increase the cost of replacement, because the cost of intervention work for ESP is much higher than for other artificial lift methods, especially for offshore wells. Therefore, the prediction of ESP failures is highly valuable in oil production and contributes a lot to the design, construction and operation of oil wells. The contribution of this study is to use 3 machine learning algorithms, which are Decision Tree, Random Forest and Gradient Boosting Machine, to build predictive models for ESP lifespan while using both dynamic and static ESP parameters. The results of these models were compared to find out the most suitable model for the prediction of ESP life cycle. In addition, this study also evaluated the influence factor of various operating parameters to forecast the most impact parameters on the duration of ESP. The results of this study can provide a better understanding of ESP behavior so that early actions can be realized to prevent potential ESP failures.
Jinchao Zhang, Xiaolong Li, Chao Fang, Xingquan Mao, Wenyun Li, Longyun Li, Yi Zhou
Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, pp 167-178; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2021.112011

Abstract:
The load-response correlation is a great concern for the management and maintenance agency of bridges. Based on both the load test data and the long-term structural health monitoring data, this study aims to characterize the variation in the girder-end longitudinal displacement of a long-span suspension bridge, i.e., the Zhaoyun Bridge in Guangdong Province of China. The load test provides a valuable chance to investigate the structural deformation in high loading levels, while the structural health monitoring system records the real-time, in-site, and long-term measurements in the normal operational stage of bridges. During the load test, the movement direction of the main girder is found to depend on the relative position of the center of gravity of the girder and the loading vehicles. However, over the period of normal operation, the quasi-static displacement at the ends of the main girder along the bridge axis is dominated by the temperature variations, rather than the traffic loading. The temperature-induced deformation is considerable so it should be filtered out from the structural total responses to highlight the live load effects or the anomalies of the bridge. As a case study, the temperature-displacement baseline model of the Zhaoyun Bridge is established and then utilized to identify the erroneous measurements in the structural health monitoring system. This paper serves as a reference for the structural behavior interpretation and performance evaluation of similar bridges.
Jie Sun
Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, pp 14-27; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2021.111002

Abstract:
The application of digital technology in the field of construction is still in its infancy, and the existing concrete framework of digital technology application in the construction industry and the study of applied ecological elements are not enough. The ecological elements of digital technology application in the construction industry are important factors that promote the healthy operation of the entire digital technology application ecosystem. Using grounded theory, we compiled the data of 33 researchers who participated in semi-structured interviews, and obtained 4 main categories and 9 sub-categories of ecological elements of digital technology application in the construction industry. Among them, the digital technology application mechanism is the core category of ecological application elements. We also used the Bass model to analyze the application trend of digital technology in the construction industry. In 2040, the number of construction companies applying digital technology will reach 98.66% of the maximum market potential.
Jaime García-Pérez, Eric García-López
Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, pp 179-199; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2021.112012

Abstract:
The reliability optimization process in earthquake engineering requires that the expected present value of the total cost is minimized, including the initial cost as well as the damage costs caused by earthquakes, which include indirect costs. One of these costs is concerned with how much society is willing to invest for preserving human life. Ethical principles, on which to base the assessment of this cost, are presented and discussed in this work. Individual and social values are analyzed. Finally, an optimal seismic design coefficient with the results obtained is calculated for a site with low seismicity.
Waseem Ahmad Khatri, Mohammed Al Mehthel, Sami Al Ghamdi, Nezar Al Khalifa
Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, pp 216-234; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2021.112014

Abstract:
Rubblization technique has been extensively used to repair the damaged concrete pavement and has proven successful in developed countries like the US and Europe. It has not been fully adopted in developing region like the Middle East and this paper presents the design and construction challenges posed while assessing damaged concrete runway in empty quarter of Saudi Arabia. A number of design options for repairs for runway pavement were considered and rubblization was chosen as a preferred option for repair. This paper includes the consideration for the assessment and adoption of the concrete rubblized modulus value using the falling weight deflectometer, optimization of the tests for the whole runway using the Heavy Weight Deflectometer HWD testing to replace pits, safely working around the utilities, reasonable assumption of drop height of the pavement and installation of utility conduits in the rubblized layer. Findings of the paper demonstrates resolving technical issues which are not very well covered in the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) EB-66 such as the additional test strips, minimum areas of rubblization for assessment using test pits, drop in the height of concrete surface and fixing of utilities in rubblized pavement. The case study demonstrates that the rubblization can be successfully carried out in remote locations like empty quarter of Saudi Arabia with carefully carried out detailed site investigations, adopting correct assumed design rubblization modulus, quality control using HWD, protection of utilities while rubblizing and use of polymer modified asphalt for successful project deployment.
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