Open Journal of Medical Imaging

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2164-2788 / 2164-2796
Current Publisher: Hans Publishers (10.4236)
Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 190
Archived in
SHERPA/ROMEO
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Latest articles in this journal

Mohsen Kamel Arid
Open Journal of Medical Imaging, Volume 11, pp 1-5; doi:10.4236/ojmi.2021.111001

Abstract:
Objective: To study the value of the filarial dance sign as a diagnostic sign in scrotal ultrasonography in human Bancroftian filariasis. Methods: We studied 3 patients with scrotal pain, with high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) of scrotum including power and color Doppler study. All patients underwent peripheral blood smear. Results: Multiple cystic spaces containing motile echogenic twisted tubular structures were observed in the 3 patients. Peripheral blood smears in the 3 patients confirmed the presence of microfilaria. Mild hydrocele in two patients. Conclusions: HRUS is a useful technique for diagnosing scrotal filariasis in symptomatic patients and is very useful in the follow-up treatment.
Mohsen Kamel Arid, Hamada M. Khater
Open Journal of Medical Imaging, Volume 11, pp 6-17; doi:10.4236/ojmi.2021.111002

Abstract:
Introduction: Owing to the advanced development of MRI science, it causes obvious great changes of many diseases that affect the female genital system and affect their fertility. Hemorrhagic gynecological diseases especially endometriosis affect young females and cause cyclic pain, in addition to infertility. So early detection is essential for proper treatment. Susceptibility-weighted (SWI) as one of the most recent newly created MRI sequences is highly sensitive to detect products of hemorrhage within different gynecologic disorders with 94.7% sensitivity being more meticulous than conventional MRI sequences as T1 and T2. Aim of the Work: A comparison between T1 and T2 as conventional MRI sequences with susceptibility-weighted images (SWI) in many gynecologic disorders by the detection of the presence of internal products of hemorrhage at any stage. Subjects and Methods: 48 consecutive patients from Benha University clinics (age range, 17 - 60 years; mean age, 35.67 years). The patients included in the study were presenting with pelvic pain, irregular menses, Dyspareunia, and swelling. All with suspicious diagnosis of ovarian and extra-ovarian lesions. 38 patients out of the 48 patients were known to contain hemorrhagic disorder; all the patients underwent MRI routine pelvis protocol adding SWI sequence. Results: There was a greatly significant difference between SWI and conventional MRI sequences T1and T2 with sensitivity 94.7%, 57.9% and 33.3% respectively. Conclusion: SWI is a promising tool in the evaluation of hemorrhagic foci within different gynecological disorders. The great ability of detecting hemosiderin foci increases the value of SWI over conventional MRI or US.
Mahmoud Mousa, Marwan Matar, Yasser Al Ajerami, Ahmad Naijm, Khalid Abu Shab, Sadi Jaber, Hazem Dawoud
Open Journal of Medical Imaging, Volume 11, pp 29-47; doi:10.4236/ojmi.2021.112004

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the time course and findings severity of COVID-19 infection at chest radiography based on a 6-point radiological severity score, and correlates these with patients’ age and gender. Methods: This is a retrospective study of COVID-19 patients who were admitted at European Gaza Hospital and evaluated between October 6, 2020, and November 30, 2020. Baseline and serial chest radiographs, up to 4 images per patient, were reviewed and assessed for predominant pattern, side, and location of lung opacity. Utilized a 6-point scoring system, which divides the chest X-ray into 6 zones, to assess chest X-ray changes and correlate them with the severity of infection, age, and gender of patients. Results: The study included 136 COVID-19 patients: (51/136, 37%) were males and (85/136, 62.5%) were females, while age ranged from 7 months to 90 years with a mean age of 41.7 ± (19.5) years. Negative Chest x-rays were more observed than positive images. Ground-glass opacity was the most frequent pattern with a decreasing trend from 1st to 4th chest X-ray (from 33.8% to 3.7%), followed by consolidation (from 16.2% to 2.9%). Also, the commonest pattern of opacity was seen in peripheral areas (27/136, 19.9%), lower zone location (23/136, 16.9%), and bilateral opacity involvement (43/136; 31.6%). No significant correlation was noticed between the patient’s gender, age, and severity score (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The 6-point chest X-ray severity score as a predictive tool in assessing the severity due to provide an assessment of the progression or regression pathway.
Bouassa Davy Melaine Kouakou, Konaté Issa, Kouamé Paul Bonfils Kouassi, Adoubs Célestin Bénié, Tsri Akoli Baudouin Bravo, Kesse Emile Tanoh, Allou Florent Kouadio, Brou Lambert Yao, Achie Jean-Régis Akobe, Sara Carole Sanogo, et al.
Open Journal of Medical Imaging, Volume 11, pp 18-28; doi:10.4236/ojmi.2021.111003

Abstract:
Background: Acute intestinal invagination or intussusception is the most common abdominal surgical emergency in infants, but it can occur at any age. Performing an ultrasound scan at the slightest clinical suspicion contributes to early diagnosis and therapeutic management. Objective: To show the relevance of ultrasound in the therapeutic management of the child’s intussusception through a correlation between the ultrasound diagnosis and the clinical and/or per operative diagnosis. Patients and Methods: It was a retrospective study of 24 cases from July 2017 to September 2020 (30 months) in the Medical Imaging and Paediatric Surgery departments of Teaching Hospital of Bouaké. We included only patients from 0 to 15 years old who had digestive symptoms, an abdominal ultrasound scan. These patients were eligible for surgery. Data analysis was performed with Epi info 7 software. Results: Median age was 17.2 months [02 - 120]. Male gender predominated (83.3%). Clinico-biological data were dominated by abdominal pain (79.2%), vomiting (75%) and rectorragies (33.3%), with Ombredanne’s triad in 33.3% and hyperleukocytosis (70.8%). Ultrasonography showed invaginated coves (95.8%) sitting in the right angl iliac fossa, peri-umbilical and right flank in 73.9%. Cockade image coupled with the sandwich image accounted for 95.6%. Superficial adenopathies (45.8%) and peri-lesional fluid effusion (20.8%) were associated with it. An occlusive syndrome complicating intussusception was observed in 41.67% associated with intra-peritoneal effusion of fluid (25%). There was a significant diagnostic agreement between the clinic, ultrasound and surgery according to the Fisher’s exact test (p = 0.002). That between ultrasound and surgery was calculated at 95.4%. Conclusion: This study allowed us to show a good clinical-echo-surgical concordance. Ultrasound is therefore an undeniable diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tool in the exploration of intussusception, hence the interest of its prescription in the shortest possible time by the clinician.
El-Hadji Amadou Lamine Bathily, B. Ndong, O. Diop, M. S. Djigo, K. Gueye, A. Kokou, G. Thiaw, G. Mbaye, L. A. D. Diouf, M. Soumboundou, et al.
Open Journal of Medical Imaging, Volume 10, pp 62-71; doi:10.4236/ojmi.2020.101006

Mohamed Farouk Agag, Moutaz M. Kamal Elsharkawy, Ahmed Khedewy Ahmed
Open Journal of Medical Imaging, Volume 10, pp 73-88; doi:10.4236/ojmi.2020.102007

Abstract:
Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy and consists of the compression of the median nerve as it courses through the carpal tunnel. Carpal tunnel syndrome was diagnosed by history and physical examination, electrodiagnostic studies (EDX) were used to confirm the diagnosis. However, these studies are painful for most of the patients with high incidence of false positive or false negative results. Ultrasound is a low cost, short time and non-invasiveness technique that could be used to assess a number of parameters of the median nerve (MN) in cases of CTS. Objective: To assess the utility of high resolution ultrasound (HRUS) in assessment of median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome through different ultrasound diagnostic criteria in patients with clinical and electrodiagnostic evidence of CTS. Patients and Methods: This study included a total of 60 participants divided into 2 groups; group A, the patients group included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and group B, the control group who included 30 sex and age-matched healthy individuals. All the included cases were subjected to full history taking, full general and general examination. Nerve conduction studies were performed using a Caldwell Sierra Wave and the NCS consisted of sensory median nerve conduction tests using standard techniques. High resolution US was performed by using an Aplio 400 Ultrasound System. The following measurement was recorded in each of the included subjects including cross sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve, flattening ratio (FR) of median nerve and palmar bowing (PB) of the flexor retinaculum. Results: There was high statistically significant difference in the mean CSA and mean PB between the cases with CTS and healthy control. No statistically significant difference in the mean FR between the cases with CTS and healthy control. Optimal CSA cut-off value to differentiate between cases with CTS and control was (10.2 mm2) and the optimal PB cut-off value to differentiate between cases with CTS and control was (3.3 mm). Positive correlation was detected between the CSA and PB with increasing the severity of CTS. Conclusion: Electrophysiological studies are the most utilized diagnostic methods for diagnosing nerve entrapment including median nerve in CTS. Hugh resolution ultrasound (HRUS) is non- invasive sensitive diagnostic tool in diagnosing CTS.
Patrick Mailleux, Marylène Clausse
Open Journal of Medical Imaging, Volume 10, pp 89-95; doi:10.4236/ojmi.2020.102008

Abstract:
Intralobar sequestration (ILS) is a complex lung lesion where part of a lower lobe lacks communication with the tracheobronchial tree and receives an aberrant arterial blood supply from the systemic circulation. That systemic artery is usually large, originating from the thoracic aorta or the abdominal aorta and its upper branches. We describe a case of ILS where a large systemic artery coming up from below the diaphragm is formed by the convergence of many very small serpiginous arteries coming up from the area of the celiac trunk and common hepatic artery: a kind of “rete mirabile”. This peculiar morphology was not described before.
Hamidou Deme, Nfally Badji, Léra Géraud Akpo, Oumou Dieng, Abdoulaye Dione Diop, Fallou Galass Niang, Mouhamadou Hamine Toure, Ibrahima Faye, Malick Diouf, Aicha Ndichout, et al.
Open Journal of Medical Imaging, Volume 10, pp 96-104; doi:10.4236/ojmi.2020.102009

Abstract:
Stroke represents the 2nd cause of mortality and 1st cause of physical disability in the adult population. In Senegal, it represents 30% of hospitalization and 2/3 of the mortality in the department of neurology in the capital city, Dakar. Objective: To specify the types of stroke and to evaluate diagnostic delays in Senegal’s regional hospitals. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentric study for 4 years (from 2014 to 2017) including any patient presenting a clinical suspicion with a CT scan confirmation of stroke in one of the 9 regional hospitals in Senegal with a recruitment period of 6 months per hospital. CT scans were performed with a 16 slices machine in 6 hospitals, 4 slices in 2 hospitals and 2 slices in 1 hospital. We studied the types and location of strokes, the associated signs and the time from stroke onset to admission and the time from admission to CT scan. Results: 655 patients were retained including 322 men and 333 women for an M/F ratio of 0.96. The average age was 63 years (range: 7 years, 112 years). High blood pressure was noted in 59.2% of patients and diabetes in 10.7% of patients. Strokes were ischemic in 76% of cases involving the middle cerebral artery in 73% of cases and hemorrhagic in 24%, of which 80.7% were deep localized. A mass effect was noted in 7.5% of cases, an engagement in 6.9% of cases and ventricular hemorrhage in 2.7% of cases. The delay between the onset of the deficit and admission was less than 6 hours in 10.6% of patients. The time between the onset of stroke and admission to hospital was specified in 416 patients (63.5%) of the study population, it was less than 6 hours in 10.6% of patients, between 6 hours and 24 hours for 29.3% and more than 24 hours for 60.1%. Between admission and the CT scan, the time was precise in 459 patients (70%), it was less than 6 hours in 37.9%, between 6 hours and 24 hours in 43.6 % and more than 24 hours in 18.5%. Conclusion: CT is central to the diagnosis of stroke in rural areas. However, there is a significant delay in diagnosis and management.
Eri Matsuyama, Megumi Takehara, Du-Yih Tsai
Open Journal of Medical Imaging, Volume 10, pp 17-29; doi:10.4236/ojmi.2020.101002

Abstract:
Classification of breast density is significantly important during the process of breast diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to develop a useful computer-ized tool to help radiologists determine the patient’s breast density category on the mammogram. In this article, we presented a model for automatically classi-fying breast densities by employing a wavelet transform-based and fine-tuned convolutional neural network (CNN). We modified a pre-trained AlexNet model by removing the last two fully connected (FC) layers and appending two newly created layers to the remaining structure. Unlike the common CNN-based methods that use original or pre-processed images as inputs, we adopted the use of redundant wavelet coefficients at level 1 as inputs to the CNN model. Our study mainly focused on discriminating between scattered density and heterogeneously dense which are the two most difficult density cat-egories to differentiate for radiologists. The proposed system achieved 88.3% overall accuracy. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed method, the results obtained from a conventional fine-tuning CNN model was compared with that from the proposed method. The results demon-strate that the proposed technique is very promising to help radiologists and serve as a second eye for them to classify breast density categories in breast cancer screening.
Pedro Furtado
Open Journal of Medical Imaging, Volume 10, pp 165-185; doi:10.4236/ojmi.2020.104016

Abstract:
In the context of automated analysis of eye fundus images, it is an important common fallacy that prior works achieve very high scores in segmentation of lesions, and that fallacy is fueled by some reviews reporting very high scores, and perhaps some confusion with terms. A simple analysis of the detail of the few prior works that really do segmentation reveals scores between 7% and 70% in sensitivity for 1 FPI. That is clearly sub-par with medical doctors trained to detect signs of Diabetic Retinopathy, since they can distinguish well the contours of lesions in Eye Fundus Images (EFI). Still, a full segmentation of lesions could be an important step for both visualization and further automated analysis using rigorous quantification or areas and numbers of lesions to better diagnose. I discuss what prior work really does, using evidence-based analysis, and confront with segmentation networks, comparing on the terms used by prior work to show that the best performing segmentation network outperforms those prior works. I also compare architectures to understand how the network architecture influences the results. I conclude that, with the correct architecture and tuning, the semantic segmentation network improves up to 20 percentage points over prior work in the real task of segmentation of lesions. I also conclude that the network architecture and optimizations are important factors and that there are still important limitations in current work.
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