Photonics

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2304-6732 / 2304-6732
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 993
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Latest articles in this journal

Published: 15 October 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Postfilamentation channel resulting from filamentation of freely propagating 744-nm, 5-mJ, 110-fs pulse in the corridor air is examined experimentally and in simulations. The longitudinal extension of postfilament was determined to be 55–95 m from the compressor output. Using single-shot angle-wavelength spectra measurements, we observed a series of red-shifted maxima in the spectrum, localized on the beam axis with the divergence below 0.5 mrad. In the range 55–70 m, the number of maxima and their red-shift increase with the distance reaching 1 μm, while the pulse duration measured by the autocorrelation technique is approximately constant. Further on, for distances larger than 70 m and up to 95 m, the propagation is characterized by the suppressed beam divergence and unchanged pulse spectrum. The pulse duration increases due to the normal air dispersion.
Published: 15 October 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
We review our recent experimental results on the cascaded Raman conversion of highly multimode laser diode (LD) pump radiation into the first- and higher-order Stokes radiation in multimode graded-index fibers. A linear cavity composed of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) inscribed in the fiber core is formed to provide feedback for the first Stokes order, whereas, for the second order, both a linear cavity consisting of two FBGs and a half-open cavity with one FBG and random distributed feedback (RDFB) via Rayleigh backscattering along the fiber are explored. LDs with different wavelengths (915 and 940 nm) are used for pumping enabling Raman lasing at different wavelengths of the first (950, 954 and 976 nm), second (976, 996 and 1019 nm) and third (1065 nm) Stokes orders. Output power and efficiency, spectral line shapes and widths, beam quality and shapes are compared for different configurations. It is shown that the RDFB cavity provides higher slope efficiency of the second Stokes generation (up to 70% as that for the first Stokes wave) with output power up to ~30 W, limited by the third Stokes generation. The best beam quality parameter of the second Stokes beam is close to the diffraction limit (M2~1.3) in both linear and half-open cavities, whereas the line is narrower (<0.2 nm) and more stable in the case of the linear cavity with two FBGs. However, an optimization of the FBG reflection spectrum used in the half-open cavity allows this linewidth value to be approached. The measured beam profiles show the dip formation in the output pump beam profile, whereas the first and second Stokes beams are Gaussian-shaped and almost unchanged with increasing power. A qualitative explanation of such behavior in connection with the power evolution for the transmitted pump and generated first, second and third Stokes beams is given. The potential for wavelength tuning of the cascaded Raman lasers based on LD-pumped multimode fibers is discussed.
Published: 15 October 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
This paper shows the possibility of transmitting 3D holographic information in real time with a TV frame rate over conventional radio channels by transmitting two two-dimensional signals in two image modes: depth map and surface texture of the object (mask + texture). The authors point out that it is similar to compression through eliminating the carrier and it is inherently similar to SSB (single-sideband modulation) but has higher resolution ability in reconstructing 3D images. It is also shown that such technology for transmitting 3D holographic information is in good agreement with the tasks of both aggregating and multiplexing 3D images when they are transferred from one part of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation to another and the creation of hyperspectral 3D images.
Published: 14 October 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
In the context of cutaneous carcinoma diagnosis based on in vivo optical biopsy, Diffuse Reflectance (DR) spectra, acquired using a Spatially Resolved (SR) sensor configuration, can be analyzed to distinguish healthy from pathological tissues. The present contribution aims at studying the depth distribution of SR-DR-detected photons in skin from the perspective of analyzing how these photons contribute to acquired spectra carrying local physiological and morphological information. Simulations based on modified Cuda Monte Carlo Modeling of Light transport were performed on a five-layer human skin optical model with epidermal thickness, phototype and dermal blood content as variable parameters using (i) wavelength-resolved scattering and absorption properties and (ii) the geometrical configuration of a multi-optical fiber probe implemented on an SR-DR spectroscopic device currently used in clinics. Through histograms of the maximum probed depth and their exploitation, we provide numerical evidence linking the characteristic penetration depth of the detected photons to their wavelengths and four source–sensor distances, which made it possible to propose a decomposition of the DR signals related to skin layer contributions.
Published: 14 October 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
We describe two methods, based on Michelson interferometery, that enable the determination of the absolute wavelength of current-modulated semiconductor lasers. By non-linear regression of the instantaneous frequency of the interference signal, the rate of change of the wavelength of the radiation can be inferred. Alternatively, the absolute wavelength can be directly calculated from the maxima and minima of the interference signal. In both cases a reference absorption line enables the determination of the absolute wavelength. Both methods offer respective advantages. The methods allow a highly resolved wavelength measurement under lower kilohertz range current-modulation with relatively little effort. As a result, we present the rates of wavelength change and absolute wavelengths exemplarily for a specific interband cascade laser. It is furthermore shown that the spectral dynamic range of the laser decreases with increasing modulation frequency.
Published: 14 October 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Chest X-ray fluoroscopy is a commonly used medical imaging method, which has a wide range of applications in the diagnosis of lung diseases and other fields. However, due to low contrast and relatively close linear attenuation coefficients, some early small lesions are difficult to detect in time. Using the X-ray fluorescent effect of high atomic number metal elements and metal atom-containing agents that can be enriched in the lesion, the fluoroscopy signal and the fluorescent signal emitted by the metal atoms can be detected at the same time during the fluoroscopy, and the images of the two can be integrated, which can theoretically enhance the contrast between the lesion and the surrounding tissue. Based on GEANT4, this paper conducts Monte Carlo simulations to explore the feasibility and enhancement effects of three enhancement schemes: the pencil beam spot scanning method, cone-beam collimation method, and slit scanning method, and discusses the specific geometric structure and material selection.
Published: 14 October 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
The development of novel high-gradient accelerating structures operating at THz frequencies is critical for future free-electron lasers and TeV scale linear colliders. To reach high energies with reasonable length requires high accelerating gradients of ~100 MV/m. The main limitation to reaching these high-energy gradients is the vacuum RF breakdown phenomenon, which disrupts normal accelerator operations. For stable operations and to understand the breakdown microscopic dynamics, a new device capable of detecting the breakdown occurrences is required. In this paper, we provide the design of a pulse length monitor based on an analog to digital converter for fast signal digitization without the need to use high-speed digitizers to be used in a commercial mm-wave heterodyne spectrometer.
Published: 14 October 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
It is well known that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a light field is conserved on propagation. In this work, in contrast to the OAM, we analytically study conservation of the topological charge (TC), which is often confused with OAM, but has quite different physical meaning. To this end, we propose a huge-ring approximation of the Huygens–Fresnel principle, when the observation point is located on an infinite-radius ring. Based on this approximation, our proof of TC conservation reveals that there exist other quantities that are also propagation-invariant, and the number of these invariants is theoretically infinite. Numerical simulation confirms the conservation of two such invariants for two light fields. The results of this work can find applications in optical data transmission to identify optical signals.
Published: 13 October 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
In this work, we proposed a flexible broadband metamaterial perfect absorber (FBMPA) by exploiting a pasted conductive-graphene ink on a polyimide substrate. For the flat FBMPA, an absorption over 90% was found to cover a wide frequency range (from 7.88 to 18.01 GHz). The high-absorption feature was polarization-insensitive and regarded as stable with respect to the oblique incidence up to 30 degrees of electromagnetic wave. The high absorption was maintained well even when the absorber was wrapped. That is, the FBMPA was attached to cylindrical surfaces (with the varying radius from 4 to 50 cm). For both flat and curved states, the absorption mechanism was explained by the perfect impedance matching and the dielectric loss of the proposed absorber. Our work provides the groundwork for the commercialization of future meta-devices such as sensors, optical filters/switchers, photodetectors, and energy converters.
Published: 13 October 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
It is crucial to be time and resource-efficient when enabling and optimizing novel applications and functionalities of optical fibers, as well as accurate computation of the vectorial field components and the corresponding propagation constants of the guided modes in optical fibers. To address these needs, a novel full-vectorial fiber mode solver based on a discrete Hankel transform is introduced and validated here for the first time for rotationally symmetric fiber designs. It is shown that the effective refractive indices of the guided modes are computed with an absolute error of less than 104 with respect to analytical solutions of step-index and graded-index fiber designs. Computational speeds in the order of a few seconds allow to efficiently compute the relevant parameters, e.g., propagation constants and corresponding dispersion profiles, and to optimize fiber designs.
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