Annual Review of Microbiology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0066-4227 / 1545-3251
Published by: Annual Reviews (10.1146)
Total articles ≅ 2,140
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Latest articles in this journal

Sue Wickner, Thu-Lan Lily Nguyen, Olivier Genest
Published: 10 August 2021
Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-032421-035644

Abstract:
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that folds and remodels proteins, thereby regulating the activity of numerous substrate proteins. Hsp90 is widely conserved across species and is essential in all eukaryotes and in some bacteria under stress conditions. To facilitate protein remodeling, bacterial Hsp90 collaborates with the Hsp70 molecular chaperone and its cochaperones. In contrast, the mechanism of protein remodeling performed by eukaryotic Hsp90 is more complex, involving more than 20 Hsp90 cochaperones in addition to Hsp70 and its cochaperones. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the basic mechanisms of bacterial Hsp90-mediated protein remodeling and the collaboration between Hsp90 and Hsp70. We describe the universally conserved structure and conformational dynamics of these chaperones and their interactions with one another and with client proteins. The physiological roles of Hsp90 in Escherichia coli and other bacteria are also discussed. We anticipate that the information gained from exploring the mechanism of the bacterial chaperone system will provide a framework for understanding the more complex eukaryotic Hsp90 system. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Guillaume Tahon, Patricia Geesink, Thijs J.G. Ettema
Published: 5 August 2021
Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-040921-050212

Abstract:
The discovery of the Archaea is a major scientific hallmark of the twentieth century. Since then, important features of their cell biology, physiology, ecology, and diversity have been revealed. Over the course of some 40 years, the diversity of known archaea has expanded from 2 to about 30 phyla comprising over 20,000 species. Most of this archaeal diversity has been revealed by environmental 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing surveys using a broad range of universal and targeted primers. Of the few primers that target a large fraction of known archaeal diversity, all display a bias against recently discovered lineages, which limits studies aiming to survey overall archaeal diversity. Induced by genomic exploration of archaeal diversity, and improved phylogenomics approaches, archaeal taxonomic classification has been frequently revised. Due to computational limitations and continued discovery of new lineages, a stable archaeal phylogeny is not yet within reach. Obtaining phylogenetic and taxonomic consensus of archaea should be a high priority for the archaeal research community. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Mariana G. Sartorio, Evan J. Pardue, Mario F. Feldman, M. Florencia Haurat
Published: 5 August 2021
Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-052821-031444

Abstract:
Secretion of cellular components across the plasma membrane is an essential process that enables organisms to interact with their environments. Production of extracellular vesicles in bacteria is a well-documented but poorly understood process. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced in gram-negative bacteria by blebbing of the outer membrane. In addition to their roles in pathogenesis, cell-to-cell communication, and stress responses, OMVs play important roles in immunomodulation and the establishment and balance of the gut microbiota. In this review, we discuss the multiple roles of OMVs and the current knowledge of OMV biogenesis. We also discuss the growing and promising biotechnological applications of OMV. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Matthew C. Fisher, Frank Pasmans, An Martel
Published: 5 August 2021
Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-052621-124212

Abstract:
Ancient enzootic associations between wildlife and their infections allow evolution to innovate mechanisms of pathogenicity that are counterbalanced by host responses. However, erosion of barriers to pathogen dispersal by globalization leads to the infection of hosts that have not evolved effective resistance and the emergence of highly virulent infections. Global amphibian declines driven by the rise of chytrid fungi and chytridiomycosis are emblematic of emerging infections. Here, we review how modern biological methods have been used to understand the adaptations and counteradaptations that these fungi and their amphibian hosts have evolved. We explore the interplay of biotic and abiotic factors that modify the virulence of these infections and dissect the complexity of this disease system. We highlight progress that has led to insights into how we might in the future lessen the impact of these emerging infections. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Fouad El Baidouri, Polona Zalar, Timothy Y. James, Amy S. Gladfelter, Anthony Amend
Published: 5 August 2021
Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-051421-121352

Abstract:
Since the emergence of the first fungi some 700 million years ago, unicellular yeast-like forms have emerged multiple times in independent lineages via convergent evolution. While tens to hundreds of millions of years separate the independent evolution of these unicellular organisms, they share remarkable phenotypic and metabolic similarities, and all have streamlined genomes. Yeasts occur in every aquatic environment yet examined. Many species are aquatic; perhaps most are amphibious. How these species have evolved to thrive in aquatic habitats is fundamental to understanding functions and evolutionary mechanisms in this unique group of fungi. Here we review the state of knowledge of the physiological and ecological diversity of amphibious yeasts and their key evolutionary adaptations enabling survival in aquatic habitats. We emphasize some genera previously thought to be exclusively terrestrial. Finally, we discuss the ability of many yeasts to survive in extreme habitats and how this might lend insight into ecological plasticity, including amphibious lifestyles. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Patricia D.A. Rohs, Thomas G. Bernhardt
Published: 5 August 2021
Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-120056

Abstract:
Most bacteria are surrounded by a peptidoglycan cell wall that defines their shape and protects them from osmotic lysis. The expansion and division of this structure therefore plays an integral role in bacterial growth and division. Additionally, the biogenesis of the peptidoglycan layer is the target of many of our most effective antibiotics. Thus, a better understanding of how the cell wall is built will enable the development of new therapies to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacterial infections. This review covers recent advances in defining the mechanisms involved in assembling the peptidoglycan layer with an emphasis on discoveries related to the function and regulation of the cell elongation and division machineries in the model organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
E. Maggie Sogin, Manuel Kleiner, Christian Borowski, Harald R. Gruber-Vodicka, Nicole Dubilier
Published: 5 August 2021
Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-051021-123130

Abstract:
Possibly the last discovery of a previously unknown major ecosystem on Earth was made just over half a century ago, when researchers found teaming communities of animals flourishing two and a half kilometers below the ocean surface at hydrothermal vents. We now know that these highly productive ecosystems are based on nutritional symbioses between chemosynthetic bacteria and eukaryotes and that these chemosymbioses are ubiquitous in both deep-sea and shallow-water environments. The symbionts are primary producers that gain energy from the oxidation of reduced compounds, such as sulfide and methane, to fix carbon dioxide or methane into biomass to feed their hosts. This review outlines how the symbiotic partners have adapted to living together. We first focus on the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of these symbioses and then highlight selected research directions that could advance our understanding of the processes that shaped the evolutionary and ecological success of these associations. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Xiuyun Tian, Hao Ding, Weixin Ke, Linqi Wang
Published: 4 August 2021
Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-060321-045510

Abstract:
Quorum sensing (QS) is one of the most studied cell-cell communication mechanisms in fungi. Research in the last 20 years has explored various fungal QS systems that are involved in a wide range of biological processes, especially eukaryote- or fungus-specific behaviors, mirroring the significant contribution of QS regulation to fungal biology and evolution. Based on recent progress, we summarize in this review fungal QS regulation, with an emphasis on its functional role in behaviors unique to fungi or eukaryotes. We suggest that using fungi as genetically amenable eukaryotic model systems to address why and how QS regulation is integrated into eukaryotic reproductive strategies and molecular or cellular processes could be an important direction for QS research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Graham J. Britton, Jeremiah J. Faith
Published: 4 August 2021
Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-041321-042402

Abstract:
Despite identification of numerous associations between microbiomes and diseases, the complexity of the human microbiome has hindered identification of individual species and strains that are causative in host phenotype or disease. Uncovering causative microbes is vital to fully understand disease processes and to harness the potential therapeutic benefits of microbiota manipulation. Developments in sequencing technology, animal models, and bacterial culturing have facilitated the discovery of specific microbes that impact the host and are beginning to advance the characterization of host-microbiome interaction mechanisms. We summarize the historical and contemporary experimental approaches taken to uncover microbes from the microbiota that affect host biology and describe examples of commensals that have specific effects on the immune system, inflammation, and metabolism. There is still much to learn, and we lay out challenges faced by the field and suggest potential remedies for common pitfalls encountered in the hunt for causative commensal microbes. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Robert Landick
Published: 4 August 2021
Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-051721-043826

Abstract:
Cellular life depends on transcription of DNA by RNA polymerase to express genetic information. RNA polymerase has evolved not just to read information from DNA and write it to RNA but also to sense and process information from the cellular and extracellular environments. Much of this information processing occurs during transcript elongation, when transcriptional pausing enables regulatory decisions. Transcriptional pauses halt RNA polymerase in response to DNA and RNA sequences and structures at locations and times that help coordinate interactions with small molecules and transcription factors important for regulation. Four classes of transcriptional pause signals are now evident after decades of study: elemental pauses, backtrack pauses, hairpin-stabilized pauses, and regulator-stabilized pauses. In this review, I describe current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these four classes of pause signals, remaining questions about how RNA polymerase responds to pause signals, and the many exciting directions now open to understand pausing and the regulation of transcript elongation on a genome-wide scale. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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