International Journal of Growth and Development

Journal Information
EISSN : 2524-213X
Published by: Phoenix Research Publishers (10.25081)
Total articles ≅ 57
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Johanna Slim, Jose Villar, Gabriela Guerrero Varela, Francisca Hernandez Castillo, Angélica Buchán Durán, Maria De La Luz Lozada Guzmán, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Sandy Savini, Pilar Vazquez Arango, Alan Stein, et al.
International Journal of Growth and Development pp 11-33; https://doi.org/10.25081/ijgd.2018.v2.60

Abstract:
Introduction: It is unclear if the assessment of early child development can be carried out using a group approach, as opposed to individually. Objective: To compare scores obtained from children aged 22 to 26 months assessed either in small groups or individually using the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment (INTER-NDA), which measures cognition, language, motor skills, behavior, attention and socio-emotional reactivity. Methods: A small group based strategy for administering and scoring the INTER-NDA was developed. Thirty-six preschool children attending four Centros de Cuidado y Atención Infantil of the Sistema Nacional para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia (DIF) of Mexico were assessed in small groups of three children by a teacher specifically trained in the INTER-NDA. A second teacher, unaware of the group results, assessed the children individually on a different day. The sex, age, weight, length and head circumference of the children at the time of assessment were recorded. Results: INTER-NDA domain scores for group and individual assessments were statistically significantly correlated (range r=0.35 to r=1.00) for all domains except receptive language (r=0.25, p=0.14). Bland-Altman analysis showed agreement between group and individual scores for the language, behavior, attention and socio-emotional reactivity domains, and consistency (but not agreement) between group and individual scores for the cognitive and motor domains. None of the differences between group and individual scores examined were statistically significant, even after adjusting for the children’s age, sex, nutritional status and location of the preschool. Conclusion: INTER-NDA domain specific scores obtained following group and individual assessment of children aged 22 to 26 months are consistent. It is feasible for trained preschool teachers to administer INTER-NDA at both group and individual level.
Agba A. A. Gadah-Eldam Ekhlas A. I. Mohammed
International Journal of Growth and Development pp 34-43; https://doi.org/10.25081/ijgd.2018.v2.63

Abstract:
This was a longitudinal study to investigate the growth monitoring of Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants, (weight, length and head circumference) from birth to 6 months of age. 84 LBW infants delivered at Omdurman Maternity were included in the study, normal birth weight or preterm infants were excluded. Data was collected by questionnaire included background of the families and Infant's health and feeding. Mothers were interviewed first in the wards 3-4 h after delivery, then during home visits after 2 w and monthly follow up monitoring were used up to 6 mo. Infant's birth weight was taken immediately after birth and classified as LBW (1500-
, Durg Vijay Rai
International Journal of Growth and Development pp 01-04; https://doi.org/10.25081/ijgd.2018.v2.56

Abstract:
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are transforming health services throughout the world. Health information and technologies (HITs) involve application of information processing using computer for storage, retrieval, sharing and use of information and knowledge for communication by a pharmacist. Similarly electronic prescription (EP) services have made the dispensing and reimbursement processes more efficient. Maintenance of patient record become easy by using ICTs. Barcode identification of medicines can be used to reduce medicine administration errors and to improve the medication history of patients. Telecare using digital communications technology provides healthcare consultations and other health care services to rural, old & handicap patients easily and improves their access to healthcare by reducing their hospital attendance. In developing countries like India, it is quite a challenging task to provide access to information and communication technologies. As the geographical diversity is also a challenging for implementation of ICTs at everywhere. Information and technologies are giving a way to access the data all over the globe. ICTs have brought transformation in education in all over the world. Information and technologies are removing barriers from learning education. ICT applications are becoming indispensable tools for traditional and vocational education. In the field of pharmaceutical sciences, ICTs can further enhance the quality of education. As lots of modifications and newer drugs are coming in the market, it is quite a challenging task to a pharmacist to update knowledge to serve the society in an efficient way. ICT can be utilized in health care to improve quality of patient centric services.
Hamid Y. Hussein Waleed Al Faisal
International Journal of Growth and Development pp 44-48; https://doi.org/10.25081/ijgd.2018.v2.64

Abstract:
Background: Obesity and overweight are recognized as major global public health phenomena. Its long term consequences are many chronic conditions like hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, and many more. Childhood obesity is complex and multidimensional, which has been identified as a public health priority. Objectives: To assess the impact of a multi-approach population-based childhood obesity intervention over three years at school population in Dubai. Methodology: Follow up was conducted on about 260000 students in the age range of 5-18 years (grades 1 –12) over about 180 private schools in Dubai, United Arab Emirates in three consequence academic years 2014-2015, 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. BMI measurement as per WHO growth charts was used at the beginning of each academic year (September). Wide variety of interventions have been designed an applied like health promotion, school nutritional education activities, Food labelling, happy schools initiatives, 10/10 initiative physical activity platform, parents awareness, students health file initiative, City Makers (blue team initiative), community participation (private –public partnership, Governmental stockholders intersect oral collaborations school canteen policy and guideline. Results: The current study revealed that about 10.1% of the total students in private schools in Dubai in the academic year 2014-2015 were obese. Obesity prevalence during the academic year 2015-2016 was 9.88%. The study reflected that prevalence of obesity among student population at private schools in Dubai during the academic year 2016-2017 was 8.9%. The study revealed that the trend of obesity prevalence among students population at private schools in Dubai is declining over that last three academic years (2014-2015, 2015-2016 and 2016-2017) showing that about 1.2% total reduction during the three year period of applying effective intervention program. Conclusion: Multi approach public health intervention for childhood obesity is significant. Maintaining intervention need to be revised, re assessed, monitored and there is a need for strengthening sustainable long term approach through governmental and nongovernmental accountability.
Madia Kazmi
International Journal of Growth and Development, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.25081/ijgd.2017.v1i1.36

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to analyze the introduction of early continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP) for children admitted in PICU in correcting respiratory distress with or without hypoxaemia and impending respiratory failure in order to improve respiratory function, avoid the need for mechanical ventilation and its complications. Objective: To determine the outcome of early bubble CPAP in children admitted in paediatric intensive care of Abbasi Shaheed hospital. Methods: This pilot study is being conducted in paediatric intensive care of paediatric unit 2 department at Abbasi Shaheed hospital Karachi. The study was conducted from march 2016 to December 2016. The study design was cross-sectional study and sample technique was non probability(purposive).Total 70 patients of both genders having age ranging between 0-12years exhibiting clinical features of respiratory distress with hypoxaemia (SpO2 <92%) and impending respiratory failure initially received oxygen supplementation through bCPAP delivered via an underwater tube through nasal prongs. Data regarding outcome after receiving bCPAP and need for mechanical ventilation was collected and analyzed. Results: Oxygen was initiated by bCPAP in 70 patients. Out of these, forty-one (58.5%) were male and twenty-nine (41.2%) were females. The age group ranges from 0- 12years. Forty-nine (70%) patients survived after bCPAP and shift to ward. Twenty-one (30%) were intubated for worsening distress and hypoxaemia. Eight (11.4%) were removed from vent, put on bCPAP and survived. Ten (14.2%) expired on ventilatory support. Conclusion: According to our results early bubble CPAP supplementation helps in correcting respiratory illness and contributes to reduce the number of children requiring endotracheal tube intubation and mechanical ventilation. In addition to the benefits mentioned above, it is a simple device which can be made locally, very cheap and effective.
Tracy Roake
International Journal of Growth and Development, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.25081/ijgd.2017.v1i1.53

Abstract:
Introduction: Corniche is a tertiary referral hospital with an iconic presence in the community of Abu Dhabi. Since opening in 1977, 1,200 employees representing 60 nationalities support more than 8,000 births annually. The authors conducted an audit to determine the retention of knowledge within a multidisciplinary multi-cultural team in relation to PROMPT 2 shoulder dystocia training. Hypothesis: Organizations that have multi-cultural teams, should apply annual training due to inconstant knowledge retention levels. A pre audit was conducted over a 12 month period using an audit tool. Clinicians demonstrated 3 skills prior to the training, thereafter PROMPT training was provided on the same day. In 2015 a post audit was conducted over 12 month period, clinicians performed the same 3 skills. This study was conducted to determine the value of annual training for multi-cultural teams. Results: Hypothesis testing analysis using 2-sample T-test and Chi Square comparing the correct and incorrect method for the 3 skills, P value’s was determined as < 0, 05 indicating there is knowledge retention after a year interval of PROMPT 2 shoulder dystocia training. PROMPT training has contributed to reduce brachial plexus injury, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and term admissions to neonatal unit. Conclusion: Embedded knowledge is critical in healthcare practice. This study demonstrated that multidisciplinary multi-cultural team training is beneficial to knowledge retention when applied annually.
Ibrahim Ahmed Bani
International Journal of Growth and Development, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.25081/ijgd.2017.v1i1.5

Abstract:
Introduction: At a time of unpredictable challenges for health, whether from a changing climate, emerging infectious diseases, or the next microbe that develops drug resistance, one trend is certain: the ageing of populations is rapidly accelerating worldwide. For the first time in history, most people can expect to live into their 60s and beyond. The consequences for health, health systems, their workforce and budgets are profound. A healthy city is one that is continually creating and improving those physical and social environments and expanding those community resources which enable people to mutually support each other in performing all the functions of life and developing to their maximum potential. Aim: This presentation focuses on the city as a setting for health promotion and on the role of healthy city projects in promoting healthy aging. Methodology: The main approach of this study is to provide a review of previous research about successful and healthy ageing that have been utilized by many countries in their policy responses towards the demographic changes brought about by ageing. Results: These will be illustrated in this paper through case studies. Conclusion: In the context of the healthy city programs, various activities to promote the health of older citizens have been carried out.
Mohammad Alkot
International Journal of Growth and Development, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.25081/ijgd.2017.v1i1.16

Abstract:
Background: In real practice, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) is often diagnosed at a late stage as its clinical manifestations pass unnoticed and spirometry is almost not utilized. Objectives: To clarify the possibility of early detection of COPD by family physicians at the primary health care level. Methods: The study was conducted during the winter season (2015) in Al-Shohadaa family health center, Al-Shohadaa city, Menoufia governorate, Egypt. All patients ≥ 40 years, smoking ≥ 20 pack-years and attending the center with respiratory symptoms were subjected after their consent to a spirometry to check for early COPD diagnosis. Results: Although based on spirometry 33 out of 192 had COPD (18 (9.4%) had GOLD I and 15 (7.8%) had ≥ GOLD II, respectively), there was no significant difference in the type and the number of respiratory symptoms between Non-COPD and early COPD patients. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the presenting symptoms specially in early stages could not discriminate patients with COPD, so availability of spirometry in addition to training of family physicians at the family health care settings is a mandatory challenge for early COPD diagnosis.
Mohammed Abd Alnafia Saeed
International Journal of Growth and Development, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.25081/ijgd.2017.v1i1.44

Abstract:
General tinnitus knowledge: What is tinnitus? Involuntary sound perception originating in the head Tinnitus can be caused by: Hearing loss Exposure to loud sounds Extreme stress or trauma Acoustic neuroma Injury to ears, neck or head and heart disease Neurophysiological models indicate the mechanism of tinnitus in an increase in spontaneous activity in the absence of acoustic stimuli. General notes on Tinnitus: 1- Any Tinnitus treatment must be used in connection with counseling and possible other treatment. 2- Tinnitus is a perception of involuntary sound. It must be audible to the person, it originates in the head (McFadden 1982). 3- It is most commonly referred to as ringing in the ears. 4- Produced centrally, with peripheral influences (e.g. Cochlear damage). Exact mechanism(s), or epidemiology is unknown. 5- Noise type can vary from pure tones over modulated noise to crackling sounds that varies significantly with time & Large intensity variations. 6- Not a ‘phantom’ perception for the patient, it is real 7- Tinnitus can be described in many different forms, for example: Ringing, Chirping, Clicking, Pulsating, Continuous, Sudden A-Geriatric tinnitus Presby tinnitus, defined as tinnitus that accompanies the progressive hearing loss of presbycusis; is classified as: type 1 (normal aging affecting the cochlea), and type II (preexistent sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by multiple systemic complaints, especially of sensory ones). B-Pediatric tinnitus has an incidence of 13% in children who passed an audio metric screening test, and 23-60% in those with hearing loss, 44% in secretory otitis media, but only 3% complain spontaneously because that the child considers tinnitus to be a normal event. There is no significant difference between children with tinnitus and those without in terms of hearing level, age, gender, or etiology of the deafness. Despite the fact that often children do not mention it, tinnitus may incite behavioral problems.
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