EISSN : 2075-4701
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 6,910
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Metals, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101642
Customized small batch orders and sustainable development requirements pose challenges for product quality control and manufacturing process optimization for steel production. Building a multi-quality objective process parameter optimization method that converts the original single target optimization into multi-objective interval capability optimization has become a new method to ensure product quality qualification rate and reduce production costs. Aiming at the multi-quality objective control problem of plate products, we proposed a novel multi-objective process parameter interval optimization model (MPPIO) with equipment process control capability and parameter sensitive analysis. The multi-output support vector regression method was used to establish a multi-quality objective prediction model, which was settled as a verification model for the process parameter optimization results based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). The process control capability functions of key parameters were fitted based on the real data in production. With these functions, each optimized particle of the classical PSO was converted into the particle beam of the MIPPO. The iteration process was weight controlled by calculating the Morris sensitivity between each input parameter and output index in the multi-quality objective prediction model, and finally the processing control window of each key parameter was determined according to the process parameter optimization results. The experimental results show that the MPPIO model can obtain the optimal parameter optimization results with the maximum processing capacity and meet the customized processing range requirements. The MPPIO model can reduce the difficulty of control and save production costs while ensuring the product properties is qualified.
Metals, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101643
Entropy is an important concept in thermodynamics, measuring the disorder in a system or, more precisely, the number of possible microscopic configurations of individual atoms or molecules of a system, i.e., microstates
Metals, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101641
The co-precipitation thermodynamics of the Li+–Fe2+/Fe3+–Al3+–F−–SO42−–PO43−–H2O system at 298 K is studied, aiming to understand the precipitation characteristics. Based on the principle of simultaneous equilibrium and the mass action law, the missing Ksp values of AlF3 and FeF3 were estimated. The results of thermodynamic calculation demonstrate that Al3+ and F− in the sulfuric acid leachate could be preferentially precipitated in the form of AlPO4 and FeF3 by the precise adjustment of the final pH value. Only a small amount of P and Fe was lost by the precipitation of Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O, FePO4, and Fe(OH)3 during the purification process. Controlling the oxidation of ferrous ions effectively is of critical significance for the loss reduction of P and Fe. Precipitation experiments at different pH value indicated that the concentration of Al3+ and F− in the leachate decreased as the final pH value rose from 3.05 to 3.90. When the final pH value was around 3.75, aluminum and fluoride ion impurities could be deeply purified, and the loss rate of phosphate ions and iron ions could be reduced as much as possible. Relevant research results can provide theoretical guidance for the purification of leachate in the wet recycling process of lithium-ion batteries.
Metals, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101633
Aluminum alloy components of high-speed trains have a great risk of being corroded by various corrosive medium due to extremely complex atmospheric environments. This will bring out huge losses and reduce the safety and stability of trains. In order to solve the problem, cold spray process was used for repairing the damage of the aluminum alloy components with Al-based powders. Microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior were studied. The results indicated that there were very few pores and cracks in the repaired areas after repairing. The average microhardness of the repaired areas was 54.5 HV ± 3.4 HV, and the tensile strength of the repaired samples was 160.4 MPa. After neutral salt spray tests for 1000 h, the rate of mass loss of the samples repaired by cold spray was lower than that of 6A01 aluminum alloy. The electrochemical test results showed that the repaired areas had a higher open circuit potential than 6A01 aluminum alloy. As a result, the repaired areas such as the anode protected its nearby substrate. The samples repaired by cold spray exhibited better corrosion than 6A01 aluminum alloy. Cold spray process and Al-based powders are applicable for repairing the aluminum alloy components of high-speed trains.
Metals, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101639
Selective laser melting (SLM) is a laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing technique extensively used in industry. One of the most commonly used alloys in SLM process is Ti-6Al-4V. However, its tribological properties when coated with N ion implantation is not well understood. In the ion implantation process used in this study, N2+ and N+ are accelerated to the energy of 60 keV and implanted to a fluence of 6 × 1017 at.cm−2. The effect of N ion implanted layer in terms of hardness values and how this implanted layer may affect wear process and wear rate is investigated in this paper. Sliding wear tests were conducted on SLM and conventionally processed samples implanted with N ions, followed by examining the wear tracks and coefficient of friction in order to explain the wear rate data obtained. The results showed that N+ implantation increased hardness within the depth of ~200 nm and reduced wear rate in SLM samples, while N2+ was not beneficial.
Metals, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101638
The paper presents the results of the analysis of the microstructure, mechanical properties, acoustic and magnetic characteristics of the metal of pipelines that are part of heat and power equipment, after long-term operation, made of structural and heat-resistant steels in the zones of localization of plastic deformation. Samples of 0.2 С steel and 0.12С-1Сr-1Mo-1V steel were studied in the initial state, as well as after operation for 219 and 360 thousand hours, respectively. As a result of the studies carried out for each sample, the phase composition was determined (qualitatively and quantitatively), and the following parameters of the fine structure were calculated: volume fractions of structural components of steel (pearlite and ferrite), scalar and excess ± dislocation density, curvature-torsion of the crystal lattice χ, amplitude of internal stresses (shear stress and long-range stresses). All quantitative parameters of the structure are determined both in each structural component of steel, and in general for each sample. The structure of the metal of all specimens after deformation before the formation of zones of stable localization of deformations consists of a ferrite-pearlite mixture, and for specimens after operation before fracture only of unfragmented and fragmented ferrite. Ferrite, which occupies the bulk of the material, is present both unfragmented and fragmented. For all samples, the ratios ≥ , χ = χpl, σL ≥ σd were calculated, which indicate whether there is a danger of the initiation of microcracks in metal samples. For specimens without operation and after operation without damage in zones of stable localization of deformations, these conditions are met, and for specimens after operation until destruction, they are not met. It was found that the structural-phase state in the zones of localization of deformations has a direct effect on the characteristics of non-destructive tests. Thus, for all investigated samples, the values of such parameters as the delay time of the surface acoustic wave, the attenuation coefficient, the amplitude of the received signal, and the intensity of magnetic noise in the zones of deformation localization were established.
Metals, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101637
Spray-formed hypereutectic Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy is the candidate for automotive and aerospace industries due to its superior wear resistance, lower thermal expansion coefficient and density, and higher thermal conductivity. This paper aims to investigate the bonding properties of hypereutectic Al-25Si-4Cu-1Mg alloys using the transient liquid phase (TLP) method with Cu as an interlayer. To obtain the suitable bonding parameters, the interfacial microstructure and shear strength of Al-25Si-4Cu-1Mg joints were investigated with the effect of different bonding temperatures and holding times. The results showed that TLP bonding between Al-Si-Mg-Cu alloy was mainly realized by large amounts of Al2Cu intermetallic compounds (IMCs), primary Si and α-Al phases. With the brazing temperature increasing, the width of the brazing seam gradually increased, and the voids began to be produced. With the holding time increasing, θ-Al2Cu phases approached into the base metal and Si particles in the brazing seam were obviously coarsened. With the formation of θ-Al2Cu phases into the base metal, more Si particles were segregated at the interface between brazing seam and base metal, and the shear test confirmed that it was the weakest bonding location. Finally, the effect of bonding parameters on the joint strength indicated that the joint brazed at 540 °C for 7.5 min presented the best shear performance with the shear strength reaching 75 MPa because the size of Si particles in the brazing seam was closest to the size of Si particles in base metal under this parameter.
Metals, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101630
Isothermal compressions of as-cast near-α Ti90 titanium alloy were carried out on a Gleeble-3800 simulator in the temperature range of 860–1040 °C and strain rates of 0.001–10 s−1. The deformation behavior of the alloy was characterized based on the analyses of flow curves, the constructions of Arrhenius constitutive equations and the processing map. The microstructure evolution of the alloy was analyzed using the optical microscopic (OM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The results show that the kinking and dynamic globularization of α lamellae is the dominant mechanism of flow softening in the α + β two-phase region, while the dynamic recovery (DRV) of β phase is the main softening mechanism in the β single-phase region. The dynamic globularization of α lamellae is mainly caused by the wedging of β phase into α laths and the shearing of α laths due to imposed shear strain. The activation of prismatic and pyramidal slip is found to be easier than that of basic slip during the deformation in the α + β two-phase region. In addition, the Schmid factor of equiaxial α is different from that of lamellar α, which also varies with the angle between its geometric orientation and compression direction (CD). Based on the processing map, the low η region within the temperature range of 860–918 °C with a strain rate range of 0.318–10 s−1 should be avoided to prevent the occurrence of deformation instability.
Metals, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101634
The present study highlights the effect of the cooling rate on the microstructure formation of Si–Mo ductile iron. In this study, experiments were carried out for castings with different wall thicknesses (i.e., 3, 5, 13, and 25 mm) to achieve various cooling rates. The simulation of the cooling and solidification was performed through MAGMASOFT to correlate the cooling conditions with the microstructure. The phase diagram of the investigated alloy was calculated using Thermo-Calc, whereas the quantitative metallography analyses using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy were performed to describe the graphite nodules and metallic matrix morphologies. The present study provides insights into the effect of the cooling rate on the graphite nodule count, nodularity, and volumetric fractions of graphite and ferrite as well as the average ferritic grain size of thin-walled and reference Si–Mo ductile iron castings. The study shows that the cooling rates of castings vary within a wide range (27 °C–1.5 °C/s) when considering wall thicknesses of 3 to 25 mm. The results also suggest that the occurrence of pearlite and carbides are related to segregations during solidification rather than to cooling rates at the eutectoid temperature. Finally, the present study shows that the longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocity is in linear dependence with the number of graphite nodules of EN-GJS-SiMo45-6 ductile iron.
Metals, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101631
The inventory of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generated in nuclear power plants is continuously increasing, and it is very important to maintain the structural integrity of SNF for economical and efficient management. The cladding surrounding nuclear fuel must be protected from physical and mechanical deterioration, which causes fuel rod breakage. In this study, the material properties of the simplified beam model of a SNF rod were calibrated for a drop accident evaluation by considering the pellet–clad interaction (PCI) of the high burnup fuel rod. In a horizontal drop, which is the most damaging during a drop accident of SNF, the stress in the cladding caused by the inertia action of the pellets has a great effect on the integrity of the fuel rod. The failure criterion for SNF was selected as the membrane plus bending stress through stress linearization in the cross-sections through the thickness of the cladding. Because the stress concentration in the cladding around the vicinity of the pellet–pellet interface cannot be simulated in a simplified beam model, a stress correction factor is derived through a comparison of the simplified model and detailed model. The applicability of the developed simplified model is checked through dynamic impact simulations. The developed model can be used in cask level analyses and is expected to be usefully utilized to evaluate the structural integrity of SNF under transport and in storage conditions.