International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2088-8708 / 2088-8708
Total articles ≅ 4,146
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Yohanssen Pratama, Lit Malem Ginting, Emma Hannisa Laurencia Nainggolan, Ade Erispra Rismanda
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Volume 11, pp 5488-5496; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp5488-5496

Abstract:
Presence system is a system for recording the individual attendance in the company, school or institution. There are several types presence system, including the manually presence system using signatures, presence system using fingerprints and presence system using face recognition technology. Presence system using face recognition technology is one of presence system that implements biometric system in the process of recording attendance. In this research we used one of the convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures that won the imagenet large scale visual recognition competition (ILSVRC) in 2015, namely the Residual Networks-50 architecture (ResNet-50) for face recognition. Our contribution in this research is to determine effectiveness ResNet architecture with different configuration of hyperparameters. This hyperparameters includes the number of hidden layers, the number of units in the hidden layer, batch size, and learning rate. Because hyperparameter are selected based on how the experiments performed and the value of each hyperparameter affects the final result accuracy, so we try 22 configurations (experiments) to get the best accuracy. We conducted experiments to get the best model with an accuracy of 99%.
Nada N. Tawfeeq, Sawsan D. Mahmood
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Volume 11, pp 5089-5098; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp5089-5098

Abstract:
New communication and networking paradigms started with wireless sensor actuator networks (WSANs) to introduce new applications. One of these is the automatic gain control system (AGC). It will enable a high degree of the decentralized and mobile control. In this study, neural networks (NN) with fuzzy logic (one of the techniques of artificial intelligence (AI)) is used to enhance the control performance depending on the link quality. The NN and fuzzy inference system (FIS) with Mamdani’s method used to build a model reference, adaptive controller, for recompensing for delay time packets losses, and improving the reliability of WSAN. Between 88.62% and 99.99%, validation data is obtained for the medium and high conditions of operation with the proposed algorithm. Experimental and simulation results show a promising approach.
Nour Alsumairat, Mahmoud Alrefaei
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Volume 11, pp 4922-4931; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp4922-4931

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the hybrid vehicle routing problem (HVRP) at which the vehicle consumes two types of power: fuel and electricity. The aim of this problem is to minimize the total cost of travelling between customers, provided that each customer is visited only once. The vehicle departs from the depot and returns after completing the whole route. This optimization problem is solved using a modified simulated annealing (SA) heuristic procedure with constant temperature. This approach is implemented on a numerical example and the results are compared with the SA algorithm with decreasing temperature. The obtained results show that using the SA with constant temperature overrides the SA with decreasing temperature. The results indicate that SA with decreasing temperature needs twice the number of iterations needed by the SA with constant temperature to reach a near optimum solution.
Mohammed Al-Smadi, Mahmoud Hammad, Qanita Bani Baker, Saja Khaled Tawalbeh, Sa’Ad A. Al-Zboon
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Volume 11, pp 4999-5008; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp4999-5008

Abstract:
Currently, the whole world is fighting a very dangerous and infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus, called COVID-19. The COVID-19 is rapidly spreading around the world due to its high infection rate. Therefore, early discovery of COVID-19 is crucial to better treat the infected person as well as to slow down the spread of this virus. However, the current solution for detecting COVID-19 cases including the PCR test, CT images, epidemiologically history, and clinical symptoms suffer from high false positive. To overcome this problem, we have developed a novel transfer deep learning approach for detecting COVID-19 based on x-ray images. Our approach helps medical staff in determining if a patient is normal, has COVID-19, or other pneumonia. Our approach relies on pre-trained models including Inception-V3, Xception, and MobileNet to perform two tasks: i) binary classification to determine if a person infected with COVID-19 or not and ii) a multi-task classification problem to distinguish normal, COVID-19, and pneumonia cases. Our experimental results on a large dataset show that the F1-score is 100% in the first task and 97.66 in the second task.
Suraya Zainuddin, Nur Emileen Abd Rashid, Idnin Pasya, Raja Syamsul Azmir Raja Abdullah,
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Volume 11, pp 5144-5152; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp5144-5152

Abstract:
Small vessels detection is a known issue due to its low radar cross section (RCS). An existing shore-based vessel tracking radar is for long-distance commercial vessels detection. Meanwhile, a vessel-mounted radar system known for its reliability has a limitation due to its single radar coverage. The paper presented a co-located frequency modulated continuous waveform (FMCW) maritime radar for small vessel detection utilising a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) configuration. The radar behaviour is numerically simulated for detecting a Swerling 1 target which resembles small maritime’s vessels. The simulated MIMO configuration comprised two transmitting and receiving nodes. The proposal is to utilize a multi-frequency FMCW MIMO configuration in a maritime environment by applying the spectrum averaging (SA) to fuse MIMO received signals for range and velocity estimation. The analysis was summarised and displayed in terms of estimation error performance, probability of error and average error. The simulation outcomes an improvement of 2.2 dB for a static target, and 0.1 dB for a moving target, in resulting the 20% probability of range error with the MIMO setup. A moving vessel's effect was observed to degrade the range error estimation performance between 0.6 to 2.7 dB. Meanwhile, the proposed method was proven to improve the 20% probability of velocity error by 1.75 dB. The impact of multi-frequency MIMO was also observed to produce better average error performance.
Dhuha Dheyaa Khudhur, Muayad Sadik Croock
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Volume 11, pp 5379-5389; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp5379-5389

Abstract:
Cyber-physical system (CPS) is a modern technology in the cyber world, and it integrates with wireless sensor network (WSN). This system is widely used in many applications such as a smart city, greenhouse, healthcare, and power grid. Therefore, the data security and integrity are necessary to ensure the highest level of protection and performance for such systems. In this paper, two sides security system for cyber-physical level is proposed to obtain security, privacy, and integrity. The first side is applied the secure sockets layer (SSL)/transport layer security (TLS) encryption protocol with the internet of things (IoT) based message queuing telemetry transport (MQTT) protocol to secure the connection and encrypt the data exchange between the system's parties. The second side proposes an algorithm to detect and prevent a denial of service (DoS) attack (hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) post request) on a Web server. The experiment results show the superior performance of the proposed method to secure the CPS by detecting and preventing the cyber-attacks, which infect the Web servers. They also prove the implementation of security, privacy and integrity aspects on the CPS.
Agustami Sitorus, Eko K. Pramono, Yusnan H. Siregar, Ari Rahayuningtyas, Novita D. Susanti, Irwin S. Cebro, Ramayanty Bulan
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Volume 11, pp 4825-4832; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp4825-4832

Abstract:
Since the COVID-19 pandemic, automated liquid dispensers have been increasingly developed to assist transmission prevention. However, data availability of automatic liquid dispenser mechanism's technical characteristics is not yet widely available. This causes frequent over or under design in its development. Therefore, we specifically measure push and pull forces engineering characteristics generated by the automatic liquid dispenser mechanism. A wire mechanism-based automatic liquid dispenser apparatus was used to experiment. A load-cell sensor was used to detect the force that occurs from a servo motor controlled by a microcontroller. The force data (push and pull) will be sent directly to the database server cloud with a recording frequency of every second. Three types of fluid treatment levels are used i.e. water, liquid soap, and hand sanitizer gel. Three types of fluid volume treatment levels used were 50 ml, 150 ml, and 250 ml. Each treatment level combination is carried out at the servo motors rotation steps 180°, 150°, 120°, 90°, 60°, and 30°. The results show that no significant differences were found in maximal forces required to release the water, liquid soap, and hand-sanitizer gel. It is also known that the volume of the fluid has a very significant effect on the amount of push and pull forces generated.
Fadhil S. Hasan, Mahmood F. Mosleh, Aya H. Abdulhameed
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Volume 11, pp 4794-4809; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp4794-4809

Abstract:
Spread spectrum (SS) communications have attracted interest because of their channel attenuation immunity and low intercept potential. Apart from some extra features such as basic transceiver structures, chaotic communication would be the analog alternative to digital SS systems. Differential chaos shift keying (DCSK) systems, non-periodic and random characteristics among chaos carriers as well as their interaction with soft data are designed based on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in this brief. Because of simple structure, and glorious ability to correct errors. Using the Xilinx kintex7 FPGA development kit, we investigate the hardware performance and resource requirement tendencies of the DCSK communication system based on LDPC decoding algorithms (Prob. Domain, Log Domain and Min-Sum) over AWGN channel. The results indicate that the proposed system model has substantial improvements in the performance of the bit error rate (BER) and the real-time process. The Min-Sum decoder has relatively fewer FPGA resources than the other decoders. The implemented system will achieve 10-4 BER efficiency with 5 dB associate Eb/No as a coding gain.
Mohammed Abbas Waheed, Azzad Bader Saeed, Thanaa Hussein Abd
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Volume 11, pp 5127-5136; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp5127-5136

Abstract:
The rapid growth of both mobile users and application numbers has caused a huge load on the core network (CN). This is attributed to the large numbers of control messages circulating between CN entities for each communication or service request, however, making it imperative to develop innovative designs to handle this load. Consequently, a variety of proposed architectures, including a software defined network (SDN) paradigm focused on the separation of control and data plans, have been implemented to make networks more flexible. Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) architecture has been suggested for this purpose, which is based on separating base band units (BBU) from several base stations and assembling these in one place. In this work, a novel approach to realize this process is based on SDN and C-RAN, which also distributes the control elements of the CN and locates them alongside the BBU to obtain the lowest possible load. The performance of this proposed architecture was evaluated against traditional architecture using MATLAB simulation, and. the results of this assessment indicated a major reduction in signalling load as compared to that seen in the traditional architecture. Overall, the number of signalling messages exchanged between control entities was decreased by 53.19 percent as compared to that seen in the existing architecture.
Waleed Obaid, Abdul-Kadir Hamid, Chaouki Ghenai, Mamdouh El Haj Assad
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Volume 11, pp 4751-4758; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp4751-4758

Abstract:
There are many water pumping power systems that exist nowadays relying on conventional and renewable energy sources such as mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, wind turbines, and diesel generators. Few designs utilize thermoelectric modules for the purpose of enhancing the reliability and the performance of the system in order to provide water supply to isolated zones continuously. The use of thermoelectric (TE) modules is increasing due to their reduced prices and the possibility of using them in different applications depending on the required specifications of motors and other connected loads. This paper proposes a renewable energy system design for water pumping applications in Sharjah (Latitude 25.29°N and Longitude 55°E), United Arab Emirates. The system involves TE modules for operating the three-phase AC water pumping motor, voltage regulator, voltage boost converter, and three-phase power inverter while considering the changes of temperature values which affect the performance of the thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules. The aim is integrating TEG modules to cover the increasing demand of water in rural areas since rainy days in Sharjah are limited and the temperature is high. The performances of the proposed system will be demonstrated using Simulink simulations for the overall blocks of the proposed system.
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