The Canadian Entomologist
ISSN / EISSN : 0008-347X / 1918-3240
Published by: Cambridge University Press (CUP) (10.4039)
Total articles ≅ 16,366
Latest articles in this journal
The Canadian Entomologist pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2021.46
Orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), has been successfully reared in the laboratory for more than 20 years in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The rearing method has been developed to the point where it efficiently produces large numbers of wheat midge continuously under laboratory conditions for use in experiments on wheat midge biology and for screening wheat lines for crop resistance. Adult survival was extended by providing high humidity, and oviposition was increased by simulating natural dawn and dusk conditions and by supplying preflowering spring wheat to adults. Preventing desiccation of the wheat midge larvae in the wheat spikes before overwintering in soil and providing optimal cold conditions for a long enough period to break larval diapause enabled successful adult emergence. We provide data to facilitate the coordination of timing of wheat midge emergence from diapause with the wheat susceptible period. The method can be readily scaled up for screening many lines for resistance or scaled down for small experiments. Here, we report details of the rearing method so that others can implement it for research on the management of this internationally important pest.
The Canadian Entomologist pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2021.45
Several Drosophila species (Diptera: Drosophilidae) have become serious economic pests of berry and soft-skinned stone fruits around the world. Prominent examples are Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), D. melanogaster (Meigen), D. hydei (Sturtevant), and D. immigrans (Sturtevant). Information on the biology and ecology of Drosophila is important for a better understanding of these important fruit pests and, ultimately, for fruit protection. In this study, the gut bacteriomes of these four Drosophila species were surveyed and the differences among bacterial communities were characterised. The 16S rRNA genes of gut microbes were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq technology (Illumina, San Diego, California, United States of America), followed by α-diversity and β-diversity analyses. The results show that bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae (Kluyvera and Providencia; phylum Proteobacteria) dominated all four Drosophila species. Specific dominant gut bacterial communities were found in each Drosophila species. The dominant families in D. melanogaster and D. suzukii were Enterobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae, and Acetobacteraceae. In the intestine of D. hydei, Enterobacteriaceae had a proportion of 56.99%, followed by Acetobacteraceae, Spiroplasmataceae, and Bacillales Incertae Sedis XII. In D. immigrans, besides Enterobacteriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Comamonadaceae, and Sphingobacteriaceae also had high relative abundance. These data expand current knowledge about the putative function related to gut microbes – for example, the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, inorganic ions, lipids, and secondary metabolites. This knowledge provides a basis for further metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic investigations.
The Canadian Entomologist pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2021.44
The elm zigzag sawfly, Aproceros leucopoda Takeuchi (Hymenoptera: Argidae), was reported for the first time in North America during the summer of 2020. Characteristic zigzag defoliation was reported in the province of Québec, Canada, on the community science website, iNaturalist. Field trips conducted to the site resulted in the collection of live specimens (a few larvae and a cocoon from which an adult emerged) and onsite observation of diagnostic defoliation and empty cocoons, confirming the presence of this exotic species in Canada. Subsequent inspection of elm trees by naturalists and scientists in the south of the province led to the conclusion that the species is more widely distributed than first expected and that the invasion is not localised to a small area. Preliminary genetic data pointed to a possible European origin of the Canadian population, but conclusive assignment to source will require examination of more specimens and the collection of reference sequences from different European and Asian populations. This is a good example of the importance of community science in the detection of new invasive species.
The Canadian Entomologist pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2021.43
Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), was first recorded in North America from Europe about 150 years ago and can be a significant pest of canola in Western Canada. Because parasitism of P. xylostella in Canada is generally low, the introduction of one or more additional exotic parasitoids from Europe is being considered to increase the suppression of P. xylostella populations. Life table studies to determine the impact of parasitoids on diamondback moth populations in Europe were conducted in northwestern Switzerland in 2014–2016. Net reproductive rates were found to be less than one in seven out of eight life tables, suggesting that P. xylostella populations in Switzerland are mostly driven by immigration and recolonisation. In total, seven primary parasitoid species and one hyperparasitoid were associated with diamondback moth. Pupal parasitism by D. collaris reached up to 30%, but because generational mortality was mainly driven by abiotic mortality factors and predation of larvae, the overall contribution of pupal parasitism was low (< 6%). In regions of Canada, where P. xylostella may have increasing populations and low larval mortality, the addition of D. collaris may be a promising approach. Life table studies across Canada are necessary to determine the need for such intervention.
The Canadian Entomologist pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2021.42
Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) are soil animals with extremely low dispersal abilities that experienced allopatric differentiation. To clarify the morphological and phylogenetic differentiation of the endemic harvestman Zepedanulus ishikawai (Suzuki, 1971) (Laniatores: Epedanidae) in the southern part of the Ryukyu Archipelago, we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates based on CO1 and 16S rRNA sequences of mtDNA, the 28S rRNA sequence of nrDNA, and the external morphology. A phylogenetic tree based on mtDNA sequences indicated that individuals of Z. ishikawai were monophyletic and were divided into clade I and clade II. This was supported by the nrDNA phylogenetic tree. Although clades I and II were distributed sympatrically on all three islands examined (Ishigaki, Iriomote, and Yonaguni), heterogeneity could not be detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism of nrDNA, indicating that clades I and II do not have a history of hybridisation. Also, several morphological characters differed significantly between individuals of clade I and clade II. The longstanding isolation of the southern Ryukyus from the surrounding islands enabled estimation of the original morphological characters of both clades of Z. ishikawai.
The Canadian Entomologist pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2021.41
The foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are among the serious insect pests found in greenhouses. The efficacy of microbial control against these insects has been demonstrated and can be enhanced by the combination of different microbial agents. This study evaluated the efficacy of Bacillus pumilus Meyer and Gottheil PTB180 and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn PTB185, used alone and together, to control these two aphids both in the laboratory and in greenhouse on tomato, Solanum lycopersicum Linnaeus (Solanaceae), and cucumber, Cucumis sativus Linnaeus (Cucurbitaceae), plants. The results from the laboratory tests showed an increase in mortality induced by all biological treatments. In the greenhouse, all treatments induced mortality rates significantly higher than that of the control for A. solani. Similarly, all treatments performed better than the control against A. gossypii, significantly reducing its reproduction. Furthermore, we found no additive effects when mixing products nor negative interactions affecting survival for the bacteria investigated. These microorganisms therefore have potential for use in biological control.
The Canadian Entomologist, Volume 153; https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2021.37
The Canadian Entomologist, Volume 153; https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2021.36
The Canadian Entomologist pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2021.40
The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), can remain inside dry and deformed reproductive structures of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus (Malvaceae), known as dry bolls, during the cotton fallow to infest the next cotton crop. In this study, the influence of cotton cultivars and sowing densities on the formation of dry bolls was evaluated. In addition, dry bolls were dissected and internal structures that were related to boll weevil development were estimated. Finally, the presence and survival of boll weevils inside dry bolls were evaluated. The results indicate that the number of dry bolls, empty pupal cells, and emergence holes was influenced by cultivar and not by sowing density. Almost one-quarter (22.53%) of adult boll weevils examined was found alive inside the dry bolls after 10 weeks, which is slightly longer than the duration of cotton fallow in Brazil’s main cotton-producing regions. Therefore, remaining inside the dry bolls is an important survival strategy for boll weevils during the cotton fallow period, and cotton cultivars with a greater propensity for the formation of dry bolls might favour survival of the pest during this period.
The Canadian Entomologist pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2021.39
Learning of chemical stimuli by insects can occur during the larval or adult life stage, resulting in changes in the imago chemotaxic behaviour. There is little information on learning in Tortricidae, and associative learning through metamorphosis is unknown in this group. Here, we evaluate the influence of olfactory aversive learning in Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) during the immature stage and determine if memory persists after metamorphosis. Larvae (10–12 days old) were conditioned to associate the odour of ethyl acetate with pulses of aversive electric shock. Insects were exposed to air, to the ethyl acetate odour, and to shock, in isolation or combination. After conditioning, both larvae and adults were tested in a two-choice olfactometer. Larvae exposed only to air or ethyl acetate increased legibility. Larvae trained with ethyl acetate and shock simultaneously exhibited significant avoidance to ethyl acetate. Avoidance was still present for at least 72 hours after metamorphosis. Thus, G. molesta has the ability to associate an odour to an aversive stimulus precociously, and this association is maintained through metamorphosis and persists into adulthood.