European Journal of Environment and Public Health

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2468-1997 / 2542-4904
Published by: Veritas Publications LTD (10.21601)
Total articles ≅ 95
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European Journal of Environment and Public Health, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11262

Abstract:
Vaccine refusal has been a recurring situation that transpires both in mainstream and social media for over a decade even up to this day. With the goal towards national health recovery, this editorial letter calls for science-based information campaigns on vaccines against COVID-19 in all possible venues. It discusses the background from which the call is grounded, theoretical arguments that explain people’s intention behavior, and the importance of information campaigns. This call hopes to increase COVID-19 vaccine literacy programs and encourage high vaccine acceptance and intention among Filipinos.
, , Betty Burston, Guogen Shan, Christopher Cochran, Fuzai Yin, Lianying Wang, Ruiji Liu
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11261

Abstract:
Worldwide, healthcare policy change ranks among the top three issues in the public’s consciousness. This study introduces a case study of pediatric hospitalizations at one hospital in Northern China. It seeks to assess whether pediatric hospitalization access, costs, and costs structures favorably changed after selected health policy reforms were implemented in China. A census of all hospital pediatric discharge data from 2015 to 2018 were collected from a general public tertiary hospital in Northern China. Using generalized linear regression, changes in charges for length of stay, daily charges, total charges per discharge, and drug charges and medical service fees as a percent of total charges were analyzed as a function of two independent variables - policy changes regarding the merger of two health insurance programs, and the zero-markup drug pricing policy. These variables were included as dummy variables for the pre-and-post change periods. The covariates used included patient age, sex, and the year. After the policy implementation, significant decreases (P<.01) were found in the length of the hospital stay (-0.49 days) and drug and medical charges (-7.63%) as a percent of total charges. A significant decrease also occurred (P<.01) in the number and percent of pediatric patients served who were self-pay after the merger of the NCMS insurance plan into the URBMI. Drug costs as a proportion of total costs also decreased significantly (P<.01). Thus, the findings revealed that the zero-markup drug pricing policy was associated with a significant decrease (P<.01) in the mean percentage markup for drug charges (P<.01). Accordingly, both health policy changes were associated with positive effects on pediatric healthcare expenditures, and access. This research suggests that as these two policies are fully implemented at public tertiary hospitals throughout China, pediatric hospital care may become even more accessible and drugs less costly.
, Ayat R A Hijazi, Zeinab Jammoul, Sukaina Fares
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11111

Abstract:
Background: The irrational use of antibiotics is one of the leading causes to antibiotic resistance affecting the public’s health. This study aimed at examining the public’s knowledge, attitude, and practice in a Southern village of Lebanon. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted in Haddatha Village-Beint Jbeil in South Lebanon during the month of October 2017. The target population for the survey included Lebanese adults (21 years of age or older) that had been living in the Village for at least the past 3 years. Results: All households were targeted, of whom 91 agreed to participate (86%), within the same household, we surveyed only one member. More than half of the respondents were misinformed about antibiotics usage to treat viral infections (60.4%), almost 30% reported that it cures all infections and 26.4% assumed that they can stop taking the antibiotic before completing the course if their symptoms improved. Half of the respondents (48.4%) conveyed expecting their physicians to prescribe antibiotics to treat common cold. On the other hand, 60% do not usually seek medical care when sick because they think that it is not needed. The results, also, showed that almost 30% take antibiotics without a physician’s prescription. Approximately, half of the population reported consuming leftover antibiotics (50.5%), with only 5.6% waiting more than 4 days to start an antibiotic course. Conclusion: This study reflects several misconceptions and poor knowledge regarding antibiotics use, with an exhibition of contentious attitude and practice. Therefore, it is recommended to advocate for policies to control the misuse of antibiotics through public health interventions targeting individuals and their families to limit antibiotic resistance.
, Oyediran Emmanuel Oyewole, Isaac Oluwafemi Dipeolu
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11095

Abstract:
Malaria is endemic in most countries within the African continent and accounts for high morbidity and mortality in those countries. The Nigerian Government launched the National Malaria Strategic Plan 2014-2020 to address the high burden of malaria in the country. However, like the previous plans, this plan focused more on the vulnerable groups to malaria (i. e. pregnant women, children under five years old and people living with HIV/AIDS) as the target population for the interventions. Men being the heads of the family in most African societies make all health decisions for the family. Many interventions that did not involve men do not succeed because of the decision roles men play in the family. An understanding of the knowledge and perception of men regarding malaria causes prevention, and management would assist in developing interventions aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to the disease in the community as well as achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 3.3, which focuses on Ending the Epidemic of Malaria. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the knowledge and perception of malaria among Hausa married men in Mokola community, Ibadan.The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. A three-stage sampling technique was used to recruit 302 Hausa married men based in Mokola; stratified into the Hausa and Yoruba (Okesu) axis, systematic random sampling was used to select the houses and balloting was used when a house had more than one married man. A validated semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Knowledge, perception and preventive practices were measured on a 22-point, 26-point and 14-point scales, respectively. Knowledge scores of 1≤13 and scores >13 were categorized as poor and good, respectively. Perception scores of 0≤16 and scores >16 were categorized as poor and good, respectively. Preventive practice scores of 0≤8 and scores ˃8 were categorized as poor and good, respectively. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square test at p˂0.05 level of significance. Respondents’ mean age was 36.4 years, with trading accounting for 97.7% respondents’ occupation. Respondents whose monthly income range from N30,000-N75,000 accounted for 56.0%. Monogamy was practised by 75.5% with 73.2% having less than 5 children. Most respondents (76.2%) correctly defined malaria, with 22.2% obtaining information on malaria from the electronic media. Majority (99.3%) of respondents acknowledged to buying of drugs as one of the roles men should play in the treatment of malaria in their households. Most respondents, 89.1%, had good knowledge on definition of malaria and 97.0% had a good perception towards malaria management in their families with 51.6% of respondents reporting that a family member had malaria less than a month ago. Respondents who used ITN as prevention against malaria for their families accounted for 80.8%. Overall, 78.5% of respondents practised right preventive practice against malaria. The test of association between level of education and knowledge of malaria showed that only knowledge on symptoms of malaria was associated with the respondents’ level of education (p = 0.012). Test of association between level of education and perception of malaria revealed that perception of the respondents on causes of malaria was significantly associated with their level of education (p = 0.003). The test of association between respondents’ knowledge and perception on malaria revealed that knowledge and perception were significantly associated (p < 0.001), also the test of association between knowledge and the preventive practices of respondents revealed a statistically significant association exists between knowledge level and preventive practices against malaria (p= 0.028). Majority of respondents had good knowledge and perception on malaria and only few reported practicing malaria preventive measures involving spending money for their households. Interventions such awareness through the electronic media and community mobilization on malaria preventive measures focusing on men should be carried out in other communities.
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11097

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has produced a significant psychological impact on the student population and the greatest alteration of traditional educational practices in recent history. The consequences of the pandemic on the mental health of students and their educational trajectories will likely endure globally for years to come. Online education seems to have come to stay permanently in education systems, and we may be at the beginning of a new era in learning methods. The present study reflects on the need to provide students with quick and effective assistance for their mental health problems, and to implement evaluation systems on online teaching to limit its negative impact on the learning process.
, Alan Becker, Gebre Kiros, Sandra Suther, Aaron Hilliard, Richard Gragg, Fran Close, Cynthia M. Harris
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11096

Abstract:
Physicians do not receive formal environmental health training in medical schools. The objectives of this study were to provide health care providers with basic environmental medicine training to better advise, treat or refer patients in the community and to observe any differences in the environmental medicine learning gains pre/post- test assessment. To rectify the problem of the lack of physicians’ training related to environmental hazards, we conducted an environmental health workshop which targeted physicians living near Health Zone 1, Superfund ash sites. Fifty health care providers from both St. Vincent Family Medicine and Department of Health, Duval County Health Department (DOH-Duval) participated in a pre-test survey before the training and a post-test survey following the training. We used a non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test to compare pre- and post- knowledge of training participants. At the 10% level of significance, the number of incorrect answers significantly declined in the post-training survey compared to the pre-training survey for all participants from both facilities combined (p=0.083). Site-specific analysis show, while a significant difference was found for participants from the St. Vincent’s site (p=0.084), the difference for participants from the DOH-Duval site was not significant (p = 0.102), although the number of incorrect answers declined. The training resulted in learning gains for the 50 participants and the evaluations were very positive with 100% of physicians recommending this training to other health care providers. Additionally, training participants gave a high mark for the environmental medicine pocket guide. In 2019, the ash sites are 90% remediated and cleanup is expected to be completed in 2022. There is still a need for additional training for physicians due to other active sites (i.e., Kerr-McGee) in the community. This study highlights the importance of providing environmental hazards training to physicians and the approach by which it could be delivered effectively.
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11055

Abstract:
Older adults experienced the trepidation of COVID-19 as they are seriously the most affected in confirmed deaths. The aging population experienced the mayhem of health vulnerabilities and detrimental effects of the pandemic that aggravate their health issues. Consequently, the relentless call to meet the health needs of the older adults is inevitable. Hence, this article discusses the psychological, physical, and social needs of the elderly population amid a global health crisis. It introduces the significance of mattering for the aging society, stress on scientific-based physical activities, and concludes on the need for more research on gerontology in the post-coronavirus period. It also highlights that practitioners in the aging field need to circumvent discriminatory verbal or behavioral communication that may exacerbate ageism among the older adults. Policymakers, social workers, and medical practitioners should strengthen their efforts to prioritize geriatric health needs and expedite health interventions that can mitigate the impact of COVID-19 to the elderly.
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11057

Abstract:
Children experience sorrow, anxiety, depression, and lack of support and care after losing their parents. Moreover, orphan children in center-based care live in institutional surroundings. Family environment deprivation and group living can manifest in psychological problems— even in the best programs. This research aims to elucidate how interior space architecture can instrumentally alleviate children’s post parental loss psychological issues. Relevant literature exploring environmental psychology was reviewed and analyzed. The researcher proposes a scheme to direct children home design to minimize children’s psychological problems, including detailed descriptions of design interventions.
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11056

Abstract:
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) originated from China and spread globally within a short period. The spread of the first and second wave of COVID-19 were influenced by factors such as population density and weather changes. Areas that are densely populated have reported increased confirmed cases of COVID-19 compared to less populated areas. The main reason for this could be the fact that it is difficult to practice social distancing in overpopulated countries. With regards to temperature changes, most respiratory infections affect people when temperatures are low. This is exaggerated when there is increased air pollution in the environment. Economic factors have prevented countries to conduct a lockdown of epicentre towns and cities. This is in fear of an economic shut down because some cities are economic cornerstones of countries. Politically, most political leaders have failed to lockdown their countries for the fear of losing political support from their citizens. Further, some traditional and religious beliefs have also influenced the spread of COVID-19, thereby leading to increased morbidity and mortality globally. The spread of COVID-19 has been worsened by peoples negative perceptions and misinformation that COVID-19 is a myth, and thus relax to adhere to the recommended preventive measures. Besides, comorbidities, poor health-seeking behavior, and lack of vaccines, inadequate treatment modalities and test kits have worsened the failure to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. The initiation and implementation of COVID-19 vaccination programs will help reduce the disease burden. However, there is need to improve the awareness and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines globally. Low COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and uptake due vaccine hesitancy have been reported globally. Hence, there is a need for continuous community sensitisation and education programmes and campaigns on the benefits of vaccines in containing disease outbreaks.
, Rameen Fatima, Roheen Sohaira, Maham Fatima
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11058

Abstract:
Introduction: Healthcare ethics is of prime importance and medical students should learn to incorporate it in their everyday practices. Our study aimed to assess and compare the knowledge of medical ethics among students enrolled in a government and a private medical college of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November-December 2019 among 380 medical students who were recruited via convenience sampling after getting their informed consent. A pre-tested, self-administered structured questionnaire was used to assess knowledge. Data was analyzed by Statistical Package of Social Sciences version 22. Results: Majority, 323 (85%) regarded medical ethics as important while 138 (36.3%) had acquired their knowledge from different workshops. Almost half, 187 (49.2%) had knowledge regarding Hippocratic Oath. When asked regarding ethical scenarios, 69 (18.2%) students in government medical college were of the opinion that a doctor can refuse to perform abortion even if law allows it as compared to 57 (15.0%) in private medical college (p=0.019). Moreover, 80 (21.1%) students in government medical college strongly disagreed that a patient who wishes to die should be assisted in doing so, as compared to 45 (11.8%) in private medical college (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Students had knowledge and were aware of the importance of ethics in their profession. The ones belonging to government medical college held stronger views regarding ethical scenarios as compared to the ones in private medical college.
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