Journal of Advances in Microbiology

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EISSN : 2456-7116
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 628
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A. Nuhu, U. F. Obiora
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730473

Abstract:
Aim: The study was aimed at antibiotic susceptibility studies on Escherichia coli O157: H7 isolated from vegetables sold at Sokoto Central Market, Northwestern, Nigeria. Study Design: The study is a cross-sectional study involving sampling of vegetables sold at Central Market, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria. Place and Duration of Study: The study area is Shehu Shagari Central Market Sokoto were sample are collected and analyzed at central Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. The research was conducted over a period of six (6) months (January, 2019 – June, 2019). Methodology: A cross-sectional study involving sampling of vegetables sold at Central Market, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria. Vegetable samples were processed and inoculated unto sorbiol MacConkey’s agar (SMAC) at a pH of 7.2 for the isolation of Escherichia coli by streaking method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out on Escherichia coli which were isolated from the samples analyzed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Isolates DNA was extracted using MiniPrep kit (Zymo research (ZR) California, USA) and then samples were amplified in separate reactions using the GeneAmp PCR (Polymerised chain reaction) System 9700 thermocycler for Escherichia coli O157: H7 specific gene detection. Results: The presence of E. coli O157:H7 in vegetable samples was 2 (1.25%) and significantly low. High sensitivity patterns were observed against ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidine and cefuroxine. Resistance was found to be high for amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and gentamicin. Conclusion: Although there was significantly low prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in vegetable samples, investigation of non-0157 shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is therefore required.
, Sadiq Umar Maryam, Godiya Peter Mamman, Innocent Apameio Jesse, Agholor Kin, Yakubu Mahmud
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 29-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730472

Abstract:
Fluoroquinolones are widely used most effective medication, systemic antibacterial that have long been used against respiratory and Urinary Tract Infections. Fluoroquinolones are effective against both aerobic and anaerobic gram positive and negative bacteria, most especially Salmonella species. Resistance comes as a curse with antibiotics that occurs when bacteria change in some way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals or other agents designed to cure or prevent infections. The main problem connected with the therapeutic use of fluoroquinolones is the establishment of more virulent and resistant Salmonella species due to the development of either altered DNA-binding proteins or efflux pump mechanisms for antibiotics. It is currently a serious public health threat that affects people all around the world. When a Salmonella species develops resistance to fluoroquinolones, the fluoroquinolones are no longer effective in treating Salmonella infections. This review provides an overview of Salmonella infection, and discusses the fluoroquinolones, Mechanisms of antibiotics resistance in Salmonella, Pathogenesis of Salmonella species and clinical manifestations.
Adaobi Assumpta Abiye Somiari, Salome Ibietela Douglas, Renner Renner Nrior
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 19-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730471

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of this study is to screen and determine the biodegradation potential of the endophytic bacteria isolated from roots and leaves of mangrove plants. Methodology: In this work were isolated, identified and screened endophytic bacteria from roots of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Acrostichum aureum; the three major species of mangrove plants found in the Niger Delta. The roots were transported in a sterile bag to the Microbiology Laboratory and treated using standard Microbiological techniques. The organisms isolated include: Pseudomonas sp, Bacillus sp, Staphylococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Klebsiella sp, Azotobacter sp, Nitrobacter sp. and Nitrosomonas sp. These organisms were screened for their ability to degrade crude oil by analyzing them using an ultra-violet spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 600nm and through a colorimetric test that involves the use of 2,6, Dichlorophenol-indophenol (DCPIP) as the metabolic activity indicator for a 14 days period. Results: According to the colorimetric test, isolates that were positive hydrocarbon degraders were observed by a colour change from blue to colourless, which include: Pseudomonas sp, Staphylococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Klebsiella sp and Nitrobacter sp, while those that changed from blue to pink(an indication of a negative reaction) were: Nitrosomonas sp, Bacillus sp, Micrococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp, Azotobacter sp and Klebsiella sp. Amount degraded and percentage biodegradation ranged from Micrococcus sp 278.6 (6.2%) ˂ Azotobacter sp. 1242.8 (17.8%) ˂ Nitrosomonas sp 1392.9 (19.9%) ˂ Staphylococcus sp1543.0 (22.1%) ˂ Bacillus sp 17927.8 (25.6%) ˂ Nitrobacter sp 1935.7 (28%) ˂ Klebsiella sp 3392.9 (48.5%) ˂ Bacillus sp 3671.4 (52.5%) ˂ Pseudomonas sp 4942.8 (70%). Conclusion: Pseudomonas and Bacillus species demonstrated the highest potential to degrade crude oil and can therefore be used in bioremediation of water ecosystem impacted by crude oil. Hence, the scientific contribution of this research is related to identifying several culturable groups of bacteria that might be directed to these further biotechnological approaches.
, M. I. Kuleve, G. C. Ajugwo, I. I. Anekwe, V. K. Fadayomi
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 13-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730470

Abstract:
Hepatitis infections are global public health concern more especially hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections which can easily be transmitted from mothers to newborn babies through contact with body secretions. This research was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Viral Hepatitis B and C infections among pregnant women in Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital Lafia, Nasarawa State. Cross sectional study design was carried out from January 2017 to December 2017 among 374 pregnant women. Blood sample was collected from each pregnant woman and screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit produced by Nantong Diagnos Biotechnology Co., Ltd., China. Overall prevalence infections of viral hepatitis B and C among the participant was 35(9.4%) and 18(4.8%) respectively. Hepatitis B prevalence was higher than Hepatitis C (P>0.05). Some of the pregnant women were found to be multi-gravida patients ranged from 20-29 years of age with prevalence of 9.6% HBV and 5.1% HCV (P> 0.05). The findings of this research suggest need to initiate public awareness to reduce disease load and transmission; immunization to all pregnant women and their newborn babies.
V. N. Agi, O. A. Ollor, C. A. Azike, D. B. Naziga
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730468

Abstract:
Background: Gastritis is an inflammation of the protective lining of the stomach which has been a global burden in the past decades. It can be caused by irritation, excessive alcohol use, chronic vomiting, stress, or the use of certain medications such as aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs. It may also be caused by Helicobacter pylori- a gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral (helical) bacterium usually found in the stomach. Methodology: A cross-sectional, hospital-based study aimed at determining the prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori amongst patients presenting with presumptive gastritis was carried out at gastroenterology clinic of Rivers State University Teaching Hospital Port Harcourt. Two hundred and forty two (242) male and female participants were recruited randomly for the study, their stool samples were analyzed using On Site H. pylori antigen® (USA) and fecal occult blood (ROSTEC™) Rapid Diagnostic Test Kits, while characteristics and symptoms for gastritis were assessed with pretest questionnaires. Data generated from this study were statistically analyzed using MS Excel 2007 and represented in charts and tables. Results: The prevalence rate of H. Pylori was found to be 55% in Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH) with a higher prevalence among females than males and an increase in prevalence but decline above 49 years. Conclusion: H. pylori testing should be regarded as an important aspect in clinical practice to help in treatment and better eradication of the infection in patients; this will lead to a significant decrease in gastritis in patients of different age group whether with symptoms or asymptomatic.
V. Obike-Martins, M. S. Fashola, N. C. Oji, V. O. Nwaugo, F. U. Uchenna, I. N. Okwy-Irokanulo, E. Enya
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 54-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i630469

Abstract:
Background: The demand for wood and wood products for use in construction and building has resulted in a surge in sawmilling activities especially in Nigeria with resultant incessant emissions into the environment. Aims: This study was therefore aimed at investigating the air quality status and microbial composition of air around two different sawmill facilities. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out within sawmilling sites at the Ahiaeke and Okigwe Timber markets in Abia and Imo states of Nigeria respective during the dry and rainy seasons. Methodology: Air quality determination was done in–situ using hand held environmental sensor meters (HANNA Air Monitors, Rhodes Island, USA). Bacterial and fungal concentration (cfu/m3) in the air of saw-mill sites were evaluated by passive air sampler. Petri dishes containing nutrient agar, MacConkey and Sabouraud dextrose agar were exposed at intervals of 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes at four designated points as 0m, 50m, 100m and 500m (control). Results: Seasonal trends were observed in the levels of air pollutants from both sites in this study. PM2.5 and PM10 were at the peaks during the dry season at both sites (Ahiaeke and Okigwe) reaching 134ppm and 275ppm respectively for Ahiaeke whilst it was 39ppm and 65ppm respectively for Okigwe at ground level (0m). There was a continual decline in the values observed for H2S and CH4 as the distances decreased at both sites during dry seasons at 100m while at 500m (control) nothing was detected. It was determined that sampling times of 10minutes yielded countable bacterial growth of 7.4cfu/m3 and 6.2cfu/m3 at the 0m and 50m distances respectively at the Ahiaeke site. A sampling time of 30minutes yielded increased bacterial load of 9.9cfu/m3 and 8.4cfu/m3 at the 0m and 50m distances respectively at same site. A similar trend was observed for total bacterial, coliform and fungal counts at the Okigwe site. Nucleotide sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments retrieved from bacterial isolates in this study were deposited in the GenBank nucleotide sequence database under accession nos. MK621199, MK621103, MK621201, MK640631, MK640622, MK640625, MK640623, MK640628, MK640630, MK621201, MK643270, MK621195, MK640785, MK640842 and MK640843 for the bacterial isolate whereas the fungal isolates were deposited with MK621199, MK621202, MK640642 and MK640638. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study are not only useful in providing information on the prevailing air quality but also justify the need for epidemiological research in the area to ascertain the level of impact of continuous gaseous emission from the sawmill on the pollution of the sites.
, Jude Ejiofor Amadi, Kenneth Udeh Ekwealor, Onyekachi Omaka, Odira Johnson Oledibe
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 42-53; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i630467

Abstract:
Contamination of maize by toxigenic fungi is the process that occur yet in the field. Aflatoxin contamination in several foodstuffs has been a recurrent problem. This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of selected fungicides in the control of aflatoxin-producing fungi affecting growth in pre-harvest maize (Zea mays L). Maize seeds treated with organic and synthetic fungicides were sown immediately after land preparation comprising of 13 plots. Five plants each were randomly selected from 13 plots for collecting data for 12 weeks at 2 week interval. Effect of organic and synthetic fungicide in the control of aflatoxin production on the growth parameters of maize showed that maize treated with Azadirachta indica recorded significant growth in the leaf area for all treatments for weeks 8, 10 and 12 while at week 6, maize treated with Cymbopogon citratus showed significant growth in the leaf area at 0.05% for TLg25%, TLg75% and TLg100%. Maize treated with synthetic fungicide (mancozeeb) showed significant growth in the leaf area for weeks 8, 10, 12 in all treatments. Maize treated with Azadirachta indica recorded a significant difference in the plant height for week 4, 10 and 12 in all treatments. For maize treated with Cympobogon citratus, weeks 2 and 8 recorded no significant difference in the plant height but showed a significant growth in the plant height at weeks 4 and 12 (for all treatments) while weeks 6 and 10 recorded significant growth in the plant height for some of the treatments. Maize treated with synthetic fungicide showed significant growth in the plant height for weeks 4, 10 and 12. Fungal isolates identified in this study were: Aspergillus spp. Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp., with Aspergillus spp. having the highest frequency of occurrence of 4 in treatments TAi100%, TLg75%. The result showed that both organic and synthetic fungicide were effective in the control of aflatoxin-producing fungi on the maize yield but was more effective with the organic fungicide. The use of Azadirachta indica and Cymbopogon citratus is recommended as a means of biofungicides to control aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize.
Adriana Rodríguez Pérez, Juan Fernando Cárdenas González, Dalila Contreras Briones, María Eugenia Torre Bouscoulet, Víctor Manuel Martínez Juárez, Juana Tovar Oviedo, Francisco Navarro Castillo,
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i630463

Abstract:
Recently, the removal and degradation capacity of different environmental contaminants such as heavy metals, organic solvents, oils, plastics, pesticides and herbicides, from sites contaminated by low-cost materials has been studied, with promising results. These adsorbents include agricultural and industrial waste, clay minerals, live and dead microorganismos, and others materials. The objective of this investigation was study the tolerance and removal capacity of pentachlorophenol by the environmental polluting fungus Fusarium solani, by UV-visible spectrophotometry method. The fungal strain grew on LMM supplemented with 80 mg/L of PCP about 6% of growth relative to control (118 mg of dry weight without of pesticide) was obtained. The highest adsorption was obtained at pH 5.0, at 28oC after 24 hours of incubation with 1 g of fungal biomass, and 100 rpm. If we increase the PCP concentration, the removal capacity decrease, and if the biomass concentration is increase, the removal is most efficient, and the laccase activity is increase in presence of 10 mg/L of PCP, with a degradation of 63% at 15 days of incubation.
I. A. Onyimba, O. J. Egbere, C. E. Odu, A. I. Ogbonna, J. J. Ndzembuin, A. C. Ngene,
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 14-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i630464

Abstract:
Aim: Consequent from increased demands for lipase enzymes for various purposes, the soil environment of Jos North LGA of Plateau State, Nigeria was surveyed for lipase-producing fungi. Materials and Methods: Soil samples (300 g each) were collected randomly in triplicates from five locations (Terminus, Agwan Rukuba, Gada Biu, Farin Gada and Katako) in Jos North metropolis. Physicochemical properties (soil type, pH, temperature) and fungal counts of the soils were determined. Fungal isolates from the soil samples were preliminarily screened on phenol red agar for lipase production. Lipase activities of isolates with higher lipolytic potentials were determined using the spectrophotometric method with p-nitrophenyl dodecanoate serving as lipid substrate. Results: The soil samples were mostly of sandy and loamy types. Mean pH and temperature ranges of the soils were 6.7-7.5 and 23.5ºC - 26.8ºC respectively. Total fungal counts of the soil samples ranged between 2.0 x 103 cfu/g and 3.9 x 104 cfu/g with Angwan Rukuba having the highest count. Fungal isolates from the study included Aspergillus niger (100%), Aspergillus ochraceus (60%), Fusarium sp. (20%), Penicillium sp. (40%), Rhizopus stolonifer (60%) and Rhizopus sp (60%). R. stolonifer produced the highest lipolysis zone diameter (3.69 mm) on phenol red agar. A lipase activity of 0.183µmol/min/ml was recorded for R. stolonifer while A. niger, Fusarium sp. and Rhizopus sp. had equal lipase activities of 0.184µmol/min/ml. Conclusion: The findings show that the soil environment of Jos North LGA contain lipase-producing fungi which could be harnessed for industrial and environmental purposes after optimising the lipase production process.
, Stephen Y. Gbedema, Marcel T. Bayor, Vivian E. Boamah, Hayford Odoi
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 38-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i530462

Abstract:
Introduction: Soil and aquatic microorganisms have been the major sources of novel antimicrobial agents over the past years. The continues use of these agents against pathogenic organisms have resulted in multi-drug resistant pathogens, hence, the need to search for new and potent antimicrobial agents. Methods: In this study, microorganisms were isolated from 24 samples collected from soil, the Kakum River (water and sediments) and the Gulf of Guinea (water and sediments). The microorganisms present in these samples were screened for their antimicrobial producing potentials. Results: A total of 138 microorganisms were isolated out of which thirty-six (36) showed growth–inhibitory activity against at least one of the test organisms used for the screening. The extract of a selected isolate, GKSE1, showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. pyogenes, E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. typhorium and S. dysentriae with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 1.563–6.250 mg/mL. The extract was stable in aqueous solution for more than three months and also had activity after autoclaving at 121oC for 15 minutes. TLC analysis of the crude extract revealed 5 spots with 2 regions of inhibition in a bioautography assay. Conclusion: This study has shown that microorganisms isolated from soil, Kakum River and the sea has the potential to produce antimicrobial agents with the isolate GKSE1, identified as Enterococcus faecalis having excellent activity.
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