Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2322-2956
Published by: Academic World Research (10.14196)
Total articles ≅ 27
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Chika Celen Okangba
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Volume 8, pp 840-857; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjpas.v8i3.2575

Abstract:
The key to effective case management of malaria is prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria which is necessary to prevent morbidity and mortality. Accurate and practical malaria diagnostic such as immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test can avert unnecessary treatments and save lives. Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in most tropical countries. The urgency and importance of obtaining results quickly from the examination of blood samples from patient with suspected malaria is possible with the introduction of rapid malaria diagnostic test. Rapid diagnostic tests are useful in guiding therapeutic intervention, can be accessible to rural and urban populations, easy to perform and to interpret, affordable, requires no sophicated equipment and prompt treatment of malaria. The use of rapid diagnostic test in the case management of malaria has a lot of challenges which includes: persistent of histidine rich protein 2 in circulation after therapy and parasite death, effect of genetic diversity, lack of quality control on microscopy examination, poor transportation and storage condition, poor regulatory mechanism, lot-to-lot variation, parasite density and lack of extensive training prior to the use of rapid diagnostic test and supervision.
Patrick Makokoro
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Volume 8, pp 833-839; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjpas.v8i1.2592

Abstract:
While much has been done to address the situation of children around the world, much more needs to be done to ensure that the rights of all children are protected and that they are able to live up to their full potential. More needs to be done specifically to address the low funding and resource allocation to Early Childhood Development (ECD), slow implementation of polices, limited access to services particularly by the poor and vulnerable, variability in the quality of services as well as the lack of coordination amongst service providers in different sectors. As more country early childhood development networks emerge, it is important to look at the role advocacy networks play in ensuring that children are supported through holistic efforts that meet their health, nutrition, educational and cognitive developmental needs. This paper takes a case study approach looking at the impact of Advocacy Networks and the role played by the Zimbabwe Network of Early Childhood Development Actors in addressing early childhood development policy gaps and membership challenges in Zimbabwe.
Patrick Sibanda
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Volume 7, pp 794-801; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjpas.v7i7.2529

Abstract:
The major focus of this review is to explore the context of sign bilingual education within the epistemologies and discourses of Cummins’s Linguistic Interdependence Theory. In the exposition of the theory, it is clearly articulated by Cummins (1981) that the extent to which instruction in the first or mother language is effective in achieving proficiency of the first language is dependent on the transfer of this proficiency to second or target language. According to Cummins, this can only occur provided that there is an adequate input of the second language and motivation to learn it. While this hypothesis was initially targeted at languages of the same modality, current evidences point to the possibility of adapting the hypothesis to sign bilingual education which is premised on the equitable use of sign and oral languages. Some literature fiercely challenges the validity of the transferability between languages of varying modality. In the ultimate however, studies confirm that regardless of difference in modality between sign and oral languages, transfer can still occur not only at the conceptual, metalinguistic, linguistic and phonological levels but also at pragmatic, semantic and grammatical levels. Accordingly, the transfer which is envisaged by this theory is not a mere hypothesis but has been contextualised within sign bilingual education in countries such as Scandinavia, USA and UK. This transfer between sign and oral languages practices is also not limited to experiential activities such as reading and writing but also extends to cognitive skills. From these arguments, the treatise concludes that Cummins’s Linguistic Interdependence theory is indeed compatible with the sign bilingual model of educating deaf children in mainstream schools, that sign bilingual education cannot have any other theoretical basis besides that which recognises the interdependence of sign and oral languages and that this proposition has linguistic benefits for all children regardless of hearing status. On these bases, recommendations are proffered with regards to early exposure and proliferation of policies that recognise equality of languages and cultures regardless of modality and orientation.
Patrick Sibanda
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Volume 7, pp 816-822; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjpas.v7i9.2555

Abstract:
This paper sought to analyse the dynamics involved in the cost and funding of inclusive education in developing and/or poor countries. The paper explores the cost-effectiveness of inclusive education by analyzing its measurability and sustainability. The literature that was reviewed reveals that the cost of inclusive education is less expensive but more sustainable than that of the traditional system in which general and special education are programmed and financed separately. The paper concludes that while it was difficult to find literature on the measurement of the cost of inclusive education in developing countries, it can be deduced from literature on middle-income and developing countries that inclusive education can cost up to 41% less than that of the traditional parallel system. However, this a can only be achievable if developing and/or poor countries embrace the central principles of inclusion and adopt best practices in these regards. Further research is certainly required on cost-effectiveness of inclusive education and the possibility of coming up with a model for calculating the real opportunity cost of foregoing the traditional more exclusive parallel systems often practiced in developing countries.
Patrick Sibanda, Mandlenkosi Moyo
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Volume 7, pp 802-807; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjpas.v7i7.2533

Abstract:
This article discusses the science and practice of parenting. It unravels the system and process of parenting through exploration of various theories and strategies that are involved in the definition of ideal parenting. The article explores how parenting can either contribute to peace building or to violent behaviour in later life. The article critically considers the theories of parenting, which include the attachment and the social learning theories. In that context, various parenting styles are examined to establish best practices of parenting. Ideal parenting is perceived as one of the strategic factors in minimizing or promoting the prevalence of violence in community settings. This article implores how imperative it is for communities to deliberately invest in the natural and strategic institution of family by empowering contemporary parents and young people who are future parents in the science and practice of parenting. This leads to the conclusion that if the parenting processes are by and large positive, then they will automatically lead to a healthy living of the child in his or her later adult life. Such would manifest in a non-violent peace loving personality as a function of good, positive parenting. On the contrary, negative parenting is the major source of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) which can be a barrier to peace building initiatives. In the ultimate, the article recommends the adoption of a holistic approach to parenting, that is, the merging of multiple theoretical approaches and practices. This recommendation is premised on the hypothetical notion that the ideal parenting style is one which draws from the various styles and theoretical models utilising the strengths of each as a way of coming up with the ideal strategy. It is further recommended therefore that for parenting to be improved, it is important that a special academic discipline on parenting is created.
Patrick Sibanda
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Volume 7, pp 808-815; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjpas.v7i9.2554

Abstract:
The purpose of this review was to, using literature, examine the various challenges faced in the implementation of inclusive education in Zimbabwe. Existing opportunities for the implementation of inclusive education were also explored. Literature indicates that challenges of implementing inclusive are more visible in sub-Saharan Africa than in the other parts of the world. The main challenges that were identified during review and synthesis of literature as affecting Zimbabwe in particular included lack of resources, inaccessibility of schools, ambiguity or complete lack of policies and laws, structural barriers, cultural stereotypes and negative attitudes, lack of political will, low teacher-pupil ratio, curriculum inaccessibility and research concerns. It also emerged from the review that opportunities such as the vast interest the government of Zimbabwe has invested in general education since 1980 which has culminated in the construction of several mainstream schools and training of specialist and special education teachers can be exploited for full inclusion of learners with disabilities. From the information gathered, the review concluded that the major causes of the many challenges affecting Zimbabwe are lack of political will, unclear policies and lack of funding. Meanwhile, the existing opportunities were seen to have potential for the successful implementation of inclusive education in Zimbabwe. On these bases, the review recommended mainly raising awareness among educational stakeholders, standardization of training, policy review, improved funding and restructuring of the implementation strategy.
Patrick Sibanda
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Volume 7, pp 823-832; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjpas.v7i11.2556

Abstract:
The study sought to interrogate the extent administrators, teachers and deaf children in the few mainstream schools that used sign bilingual education in Zimbabwe were aware of the benefits of sign bilingual education. The study adopted the mixed methods approach which is grounded in the philosophy of pragmatism. Employing the sequential explanatory design, the study involved 100 teachers, 30 administrators and 30 deaf children from schools that used sign bilingual education from the Bulawayo Metropolitan Province for the quantitative phase. One administrator and 6 teachers per school were engaged in the qualitative phase. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data while personal face-to-face and focus group interviews (FGIs) were used to collect qualitative data. The integrated results of the study indicated evidence of awareness of the benefits of sign bilingual education in the education of deaf children in inclusive mainstream schools in Zimbabwe. From the results, the study concluded that such awareness implied potential for more effective practice of sign bilingual education in the country in order to advance these benefits. Ultimately, the study recommended further research and proposed a framework of practice termed ‘Sibanda’s Framework of the Practice of Sign Bilingual Education in Zimbabwe.
Patrick Sibanda
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Volume 7, pp 781-793; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjpas.v7i5.2541

Abstract:
The study was aimed at examining methods and strategies used by rural secondary schools of Zimbabwe in managing risky adolescent sexual behaviour with the view of recommending more protective practices and improving on the existing ones. Literature is replete with cases of high incidences of risky adolescent sexual behaviours in schools in various countries and the need for methods for managing them thereof. The study utilized a mixed methods sequential explanatory research design with 200 teachers chosen using cluster sampling for the quantitative phase and 10 teachers purposively sampled for the qualitative phase of the study. The results of the study indicated that the most common risky adolescent sexual behaviours included premarital and unprotected sex, dating older partners and having multiple partners. Prostitution was also found to be causing concern, although it was not widespread. Corporal punishment was found to be the most dominant method used for managing risky adolescent sexual behaviour, although protective methods such as counselling, information dissemination, parental engagement and social academic supports were also used. Of note was that the positive or protective methods lacked precision in their practice. The schools had also to some extent established programmes such as Scripture Union (SU), Career Guidance and Counselling Clubs (CGCCs) and Sex Education programmes as means of combating risky sexual behaviour among adolescent students. They also used resource persons. However, these programmes were not well established and properly utilized. From the results, the study concluded that management of risky adolescent sexual behaviour in rural secondary schools of Zimbabwe was not premised on theoretically sound methods and programmes and was therefore bound to be ineffective. The study also concluded that girls were more predisposed to risky adolescent sexual behaviour than boys. The study then recommended in favour of training and awareness workshops as well as gender mainstreaming towards capacitating teachers in rural schools with skills and strategies for protective management of risky adolescent sexual behaviour.
Soheil Abbasi, Payam Khourdustan, Rasoul Sayyadi, Siavash Vahabzadeh, Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Volume 7, pp 774-780; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjpas.v7i5.2527

Abstract:
Health, safety and environmental management system (HSE.MS) policies plays an important role in implementation of HSE factors in industrial fields and helps to reduce accident, injuries and hurt to environment. One of the key elements of HSE.MS is policy that is drafted and implemented in organizations. The purpose of this study is to provide an appropriate template for policy writing. At first, the HSE policies of many organizations were examined. Then these policies were classified according to missions, visions, and goals/commitments. The total of the collected policies was 190. Finally, according to these classifying, we proposed a proper HSE management system policy template. The proposed template helps managers of various organizations to write a proper HSE policy.
Doris Fovwe Ogeleka, Ogechi Nmai, Oghenekohwiroro Edjere, Angela Nwudu, Felix Ebodaghe Okieimen
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Volume 7, pp 762-773; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjpas.v7i3.2437

Abstract:
Petroleum crude oil refining to generate useful products releases noxious gases such as sulphur (IV) oxide, nitrogen (IV) oxide and carbon (IV) oxide, which dissolve in rainwater to form acid rain. This research was to ascertain the impact of the refining process on the rainwater quality in a peri-urban area where residents depend on precipitation for domestic use, including cooking. Rainwater samples were collected from some locations in close proximity to a refinery in Warri and characterized in terms of physico-chemical parameters, and heavy metals proximal contents using methods recommended by America Public Health Association. For the period under study, results revealed that pH was relatively low in all the rainwater samples. Mean pH values obtained ranged from 4.20 ± 0.17 to 6.24 ± 0.04. Turbidity values ranged between 2.00 ± 0.20 NTU and 12.5 ± 0.83 NTU. Although the levels of heavy metals notably, lead, copper, cadmium and zinc were low, total iron was slightly significant in some samples. Water with low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations could adversely affect water bodies, aquatic life, soils, plants and cause lots of aesthetic damage to structures. Similarly, possible percolations into underground water aquifers can affect humans that use such water, including rainwater for most domestic uses.
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