ISSN / EISSN : 0300-483X / 1879-3185
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 10,949
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Sulfur mustard, a chemical warfare agent known to be a vesicant of skin, readily diffuses in the blood stream and reaches internal organs. In the present study, we used the analog (2-chloroethyl)-ethyl-sulfide (CEES) to provide novel data on the systemic diffusion of vesicants and on their ability to induce brain damage, which result in neurological disorders. SKH-1 hairless mice were topically exposed to CEES and sacrificed at different time until 14 days after exposure. A plasma metabolomics study showed a strong systemic impact following a self-protection mechanism to alleviate the injury of CEES exposure. This result was confirmed by the quantification of specific biomarkers in plasma. Those were the conjugates of CEES with glutathione (GSH-CEES), cysteine (Cys-CEES) and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC-CEES), as well as the guanine adduct (N7Gua-CEES). In brain, N7Gua-CEES could be detected both in DNA and in organ extracts. Similarly, GSH-CEES, Cys-CEES and NAC-CEES were present in the extracts until day14. Altogether, these results, based on novel exposure markers, confirm the ability of vesicants to induce internal damage following dermal exposure. The observation of alkylation damage to glutathione and DNA in brain provides an additional mechanism to the neurological insult of SM.
Phthalate plasticizers are commonly used in various consumer-end products. Human salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (hsALDH) is a detoxifying enzyme which defends us from the toxic aldehydes. Here, the effect of phthalates [Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and Dibutyl phthalate (DBP)] on hsALDH has been investigated. These plasticizers inhibited hsALDH, and the IC50 values were 0.48 ± 0.04, 283.20 ± 0.09 and 285.00 ± 0.14 µM for DEHP, DEP and DBP, respectively. DEHP was the most potent inhibitor among the three plasticizers. They exhibited mixed-type linear inhibition with inclination towards competitive-non-competitive inhibition. They induced both tertiary and secondary structural changes in the enzyme. Quenching of intrinsic hsALDH fluorescence in a constant manner was observed with a binding constant (Kb) of 8.91 × 106, 2.80 × 104, and 1.31 × 105 M-1, for DEHP, DEP and DBP, respectively. Computational analysis showed that these plasticizers bind stably in the proximity of hsALDH catalytic site, reciprocating via non-covalent interactions with some of the amino acids which are evolutionary conserved. Therefore, exposure to these plasticizers inhibits hsALDH which increases the risk of aldehyde induced toxicity, adversely affecting oral health. The study has implications in assessing the safety of packaged food items which utilize phthalates.
Bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) are iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized naturally by magnetotactic bacteria, made up of nano-sized inorganic crystals enclosed by a lipid bilayer membrane. Due to several superior characteristics, such as the narrow size distribution, uniform morphology, high purity and crystallinity, single magnetic domain as well as easy surface modification, increasing biomedical and biotechnological applications of BMs have been developed. The attracted wide attentions raise the urge for the evaluation of safety and toxicity. In this work, we performed a rather comprehensive and systematic assessment of in vitro and in vivo toxicity of BMs from MSR-1, including the cytotoxicity, mice bodyweights, blood test, organ coefficients, inflammation, and hemocompatibility study. We found that BMs have good biocompatibility except for influences on the immune response as demonstrated by enhanced activation of the complement system and inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation when used with an excessive concentration. BMs induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in macrophages at a dose-dependent manner but did not cause cell membrane damage and cell cycle arrest until the concentration is approximately 40 times the clinical dosage. We anticipate our work will guide modifications of BMs and expand their future applications.
In vitro cytotoxicity assay is an ideal alternative method for the in vivo toxicity in the risk assessment of pollutants in environment. However, modes of action (MOAs) of cytotoxicity have not been investigated for a wide range of compounds. In this paper, binomial and recursive partitioning analysis were carried out between the cytotoxicity and molecular descriptors for 8981 compounds. The results showed that cytotoxicity is strongly related to the chemical hydrophobicity and excess molar refraction, indicating the bio-uptake and chemical-receptor interaction through π and n electron pair play important roles in the cytotoxicity. The decision tree derived from recursive partitioning analysis revealed that the studied compounds could be divided into 25 groups and their structural characteristics could be used as structure alert to identify active and inactive compounds in cytotoxicity. The descriptors used in the decision tree revealed that chemical ionization and bioavailability could affect the cytotoxicity for ionizable and highly hydrophobic compounds. Comparison of MOAs based on Verhaar’s classification scheme showed that many inert or less inert compounds were inactive substance, and many reactive or specifically-acting compounds were active substances in the cytotoxicity. In vitro toxicity assay instead of in vivo toxicity assay can be used in the environmental hazard and risk assessment of organic pollutants. The descriptors used in the binomial equation and decision tree reveal that chemical hydrophobicity, ionization and solubility play very important roles for identification of active and inactive compounds. The results obtained in this paper are valuable for understanding the modes of action in cytotoxicity and in vivo-in vitro toxicity relationship.
Toxicology, Volume 462; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2021.152933
Lead (Pb) is a toxic metal that affects the male reproductive system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn) intake between recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) and tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) in preventing male testis damage induced by low-dose Pb. Forty-five mice were randomly divided into control, Pb, and Pb + Zn groups. They were given distilled water ad libitum with 0, 200 mg/L Pb2+, or 15 mg/L Zn2+ mixed with 200 mg/L Pb2+ for 90 consecutive days. The Zn levels in the blood and testis of the Pb group were significantly lower than those of the control group. The Pb levels in the blood and testis of the Pb + Zn group were significantly lower than those of the Pb group. Additionally, a significant decrease in sperm density and viability, with a significant increase in sperm abnormality rate and DNA fragmentation index, was observed in the Pb group. Zn supplementation significantly improved the above sperm parameters. Moreover, Zn supplementation decreased low-dose Pb-induced lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione, total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and copper/Zn-SOD levels. Furthermore, Zn treatment improved glycolysis products and lactate transporters in Pb-treated mouse testes. Our findings suggest that Zn intake between RDAs and UL can act as a therapeutic agent in protecting against the reproductive impairments associated with Pb exposure.
Imidacloprid is an insecticide belonging to neonicotinoids, a class of agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that shows higher affinities in insects compared to mammals. However, recent evidence show that neonicotinoids can bind to the mammalian receptors, leading to detrimental responses in cultured neurons. We developed an analytical strategy which uses mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (targeted approach) and high-resolution acquisitions (untargeted approach), which were applied to quantify imidacloprid and to identify its metabolites in biological tissues after oral treatments of mice. Mouse dams were treated with doses from 0.118 mg/kg bw day up to 41 mg/kg day between gestational days 6-9. Results showed quantifiable levels of imidacloprid in plasma (from 30.48 to 5705 ng/mL) and brain (from 20.48 to 5852 ng/g) of treated mice, proving the passage through the mammalian blood-brain barrier with a high correspondence between doses and measured concentrations. Untargeted analyses allowed the identification of eight metabolites including imidacloprid-olefin, hydroxy-imidacloprid dihydroxy-imidacloprid, imidacloprid-nitrosimine, desnitro-imidacloprid, 6-chloronicotinic acid, 5-(methylsulfanyl)pyridine-2-carboxylic acid and N-imidazolidin-2-ylidenenitramide in plasma and brain. Moreover, analysis of embryonic tissues after oral treatment of mouse dams showed detectable levels of imidacloprid (816.6 ng/g after a dose of 4.1 mg/Kg bw day and 5646 ng/g after a dose of 41 mg/Kg bw day) and its metabolites, proving the permeability of the placenta barrier.
Triadimefon is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent, which is widely used in agriculture to control mold and fungal infections. It is considered an endocrine disruptor. Whether triadimefon exposure can inhibit the development of fetal adrenal glands and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thirty-two pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Dams were gavaged triadimefon (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day) daily for 10 days from gestational day (GD) 12 to GD 21. Triadimefon significantly reduced the thickness of the zona fasciculata of male fetuses at 100 mg/kg, although it did not change the thickness of the zona glomerulosa. It significantly reduced the serum aldosterone levels of male fetuses at a dose of 100 mg/kg, and significantly reduced serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Triadimefon significantly down-regulated the expression of Agtr1, Mc2r, Star, Cyp11b1, Cyp11b2, Igf1, Nr5a1, Sod2, Gpx1, and Cat, but did not affect the mRNA levels of Scarb1, Cyp11a1, Cyp21, Hsd3b1, and Hsd11b2. Triadimefon markedly reduced AT1R, CYP11B2, IGF1, NR5A1, and MC2R protein levels. Triadimefon significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AKT1 and ERK1/2 at 100 mg/kg without affecting the phosphorylation of AKT2. In contrast, it significantly increased AMPK phosphorylation at 100 mg/kg. In conclusion, exposure to triadimefon during gestation inhibits the development of fetal adrenal cortex in male fetuses. This inhibition is possibly due to the reduction of several proteins required for the synthesis of steroid hormones, and may be involved in changes in antioxidant contents and the phosphorylation of AKT1, ERK1/2, and AMPK.
Non-human primates (NHPs) have played a vital role in fundamental, pre-clinical, and translational studies because of their high physiological and genetic similarity to humans. Here, we report a method to isolate primary hepatocytes from the livers of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after in situ whole liver perfusion. Isolated primary macaque hepatocytes (PMHs) were treated with various compounds known to have different pathways of genotoxicity/carcinogenicity and the resulting DNA damage was evaluated using the high-throughput CometChip assay. The comet data were quantified using benchmark dose (BMD) modeling and the BMD values for treatments of PMHs were compared with those generated from primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) in our previous study (Seo et al. Arch Toxicol 2020, 2207-2224). The results showed that despite varying CYP450 enzyme activities, PMHs had the same sensitivity and specificity as PHHs in detecting four indirect-acting (i.e., requiring metabolic activation) and seven direct-acting genotoxicants/carcinogens, as well as five non-carcinogens that are negative or equivocal for genotoxicity in vivo. The BMD50 estimates and their confidence intervals revealed species differences for DNA damage potency, especially for direct-acting compounds. The present study provides a practical method for maximizing the use of animal tissues by isolating primary hepatocytes from NHPs. Our data support the use of PMHs as a reliable surrogate of PHHs for evaluating the genotoxic hazards of chemical substances for humans.
Acrylamide (ACR) is a recognized toxin that is known to induce neurotoxicity in humans and experimental animals. This study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of subacute exposure of the motor endplate (MEP) of the gastrocnemius in rats to ACR. All rats were randomly divided into control, 9, 18, and 36 mg/kg ACR groups, and ACR was administered by gastric gavage for 21 days. The behavioral tests were performed weekly. On the 22nd day, the wet weight of the gastrocnemius was measured. The changes in muscle fiber structure, nerve endings, and MEP in the gastrocnemius were examined by hematoxylin–eosin (HE) and gold chloride staining. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) content in the gastrocnemius was detected by AChE staining. The expression of AChE and calcitonin gene-related peptide was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Rats exposed to ACR showed a significant increase in gait scores and hind limb splay distance compared with the control group, and the wet weight of the gastrocnemius was reduced, HE staining showed that the muscle fiber structure of the gastrocnemius became thin and the arrangement was dense with nuclear aggregation, gold chloride staining showed that nerve branches decreased and became thin, nerve fibers became short and light, the number of MEPs was decreased, the staining became light, and the structure was not clear. AChE staining showed that the number of MEPs was significantly reduced after exposure to ACR, the shape became small, and the AChE content decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis results of the expression levels of AchE and CGRP showed a decreasing trend as compared to the control group with increasing ACR exposure dose. The reduction in protein levels may be the mechanism by which ACR has a toxic effect on the MEP in the gastrocnemius of rats.
Toxicology, Volume 462; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2021.152931
A new focus in toxicology research is the impact of parental exposure to environmental toxic substances on the characteristics of offspring. In the present study, newly produced eggs of Drosophila melanogaster were treated with different concentrations of cadmium (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 mg/kg) to study the effects of development. The results showed that cadmium changed the larval body length and weight, prolonged the pupation and eclosion time, and changed the relative expression levels of development-related genes (baz, β-Tub60D, tj). Furthermore, the parental Drosophila (F0) were treated with cadmium (4.5 mg/kg) from egg stage, and when grows to adults, they mated in standard medium to produce the de-stressed offspring (F1-F4) to assess the transgenerational effects of developmental delay. The results showed that the delayed effects of the pupation and eclosion time could be maintained for two generations, and the inhibiting effects of juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysone (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E) could be maintained for two or three generations. More importantly, cadmium increased the expression of DNA methylation-related genes (dDnmt2, dMBD2/3) in the ovaries (F0-F2) and testicles (F0 and F1). In addition, cadmium accumulated in parental Drosophila (F0) was not transmitted to offspring through reproductive pathway. These results demonstrate that the developmental toxicity caused by cadmium could be transmitted to the de-stressed offspring, and the observed transgenerational inheritance effects may be associated with epigenetic regulation, underscoring the need to consider fitness of future generations in evaluating the toxicity and environmental risks of cadmium.