Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi

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ISSN / EISSN : 2302-1616 / 2580-2909
Total articles ≅ 154
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Retno Susilowati, Nailirrohmah Hidayatin, Amalia Rizka Diana, Tri Kustono Adi
Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 8; doi:10.24252/bio.v8i1.11973

Abstract:
Diabetes initiates augmented damage in levels of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in males. As a result, the sperm DNA is affected, as well, leading to lower levels of fecundity and influencing reproductive health. This study aims to improve male reproductive function and oxidative stress status in diabetic rats. Combination High Fat Diet (HFD) and Streptozotocin (STZ) injection 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally are the initiations of DM-2 for 14 weeks. Treat therapy using 80% ethanol extract of black cumin seeds takes five weeks. Based on parametric test on ANOVA test results followed by Duncan Multiple Range Tests on the concentration, abnormalities of spermatozoa and Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) effects and the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney test on non-parametric data of the spermatozoa motility and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, showed that obtaining black cumin dose 48 is an effective dose in improving sperm quality and stress oxidation level. It has the same effect with metformin, even has MDA level less than normal rats. This study finds out Ns-48 is an effective dose of ethanol extract of black cumin seeds to improving spermatozoa quality and stress oxidation level, so that it becomes valuable information for research related to the improvement of reproductive function in diabetes mellitus disease.
Erlia Narulita, Gerda Permata Aji, Bevo Wahono, Siti Murdiyah, Ria Yulian
Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 8; doi:10.24252/bio.v8i1.11280

Abstract:
Foodborne disease caused by Escherichia coli contamination is increasing every year. It also followed by elevating of drug-resistance of E. coli. Bacteriophage can be an alternative for therapy infection. This study aimed to determine synergism effect of bacteriophage ϕPT1b which has a high rate virulence to E. coli and phage-antibiotics (tetracycline and amoxicillin) synergy. The indigenous bacteria isolates were KR, MJ, KP, PT, PR. Five bacteriophages used namely ϕKR1b, ϕKR2, ϕPT1a, ϕPT1b, and ϕMJ1b. Virulence test was used to determine the ability of each phage in reducing E. coli. Treatment to examine synergism of phage ϕPT1b and antibiotics were P1: amoxicillin, P2: ϕPT1b, P3: ϕPT1b + Amx = 1:1, P4 : ϕPT1b + Amx = 2:1, P5: ϕPT1b + Amx = 1:2, P6 : tetracycline, P2: ϕPT1b, P7: ϕPT1b + Tet = 1:1, P8 : ϕPT1b + Tet = 2:1, and P9: ϕPT1b + Tet = 1:2. The virulence test showed that isolate ϕPT1a with 106 CFU/ml had the highest ability in reducing E. coli. While, the result of synergism test indicated that the synergism of bacteriophage and antibiotics differ significantly (P ≤ 0.05). The best ratios of synergism were 1:1 (ϕPT1b+tetracycline) and 2:1 (ϕPT1b+amoxicilline). In summarize, phage-antibiotic synergy (ϕPT1b with tetracycline/amoxicilline) can reduce the level of antibiotic resistance in isolated E. coli.
Ani Sulistiyani, Syamsul Falah, Triadiati Triadiati
Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 8; doi:10.24252/bio.v8i1.11686

Abstract:
Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides, Poaceae) is the leading commodity in Garut Regency, Indonesia, the second-largest producer in the world of vetiver oils. The content of vetiver oils is strongly influenced by the environment, for example, drought stress. Drought stress causes plants to adapt by producing secondary metabolites such as essential oils. This experiment aimed to analyze growth, phytocomponents and obtaining the best quality of vetiver grass accessions under drought stress. The results showed that root and shoot dry biomass were significantly affected by the interaction between drought stress duration and vetiver grass accession. The root dry biomass of Kamojang accession decreased by 25.4%, while Cilawu increased by 5% for 4 days of drought stress. The root length and shoot length were not significantly affected by the treatment. The highest root/shoot length ratio was Verina, and the lowest one was Cisarua. The highest increase in proline occurred in Cilawu accession (85.7%), while the lowest was Verina (6.67%). Essential root oils contain 53 types of phytocomponents, dominated by sesquiterpenes, being khusimol, the highest type. The Cilawu is the best accession based on growth and content rendement.
Rahadian Yudo Hartantyo, Helen Eko Putro, Epa Yohana Toga Torop, Laksmindra Fitria, Mulyati Mulyati
Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 8; doi:10.24252/bio.v8i1.11168

Abstract:
Several physiological alterations that arise in response to hypoxemia conditions when diving are intended to protect oxygen-sensitive organs from the hypoxic condition. Hippocampus, known for its central function in memory formation, is sensitive to hypoxic conditions. This research aimed to study the effect of voluntary diving exercise (VDE) on the hippocampus-dependent learning performance of rats. Rats were divided into control and diving groups, with swim and voluntary diving exercises every day for 60 days, respectively. Observation of memory consolidation was carried out using Morris Water Maze (MWM) and Novel Object Recognition (NOR) tests. In the MWM test, the escape latencies in the diving group were shorter than those in the control group. Consistent results were obtained in the MWM probe trial which the time spent in the target quadrant was significantly longer in the diving group. Moreover, the diving group spent more time exploring the novel object in the NOR test. Based on the results, we can conclude that 60 days VDE significantly improves hippocampus-dependent learning capacity in trained rats.
Asep A. Prihanto, Hidayatun Muyasyaroh, Abdul Aziz Jaziri, Nada Itorul Umam
Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 8; doi:10.24252/bio.v8i1.10826

Abstract:
Protease is an important enzyme widely produced by microorganisms applied in food, health, and industry. Mangrove ecosystem, a rich microorganism habitat, accounted as a new resource for isolating the proteolytic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to identify protease-producing bacteria from mangrove ecosystems in the Tuban area, Indonesia. Three isolates that produced the gelatinase was successfully isolated from mangrove sediments. Bacterial isolates were then tested for extracellular gelatinase. The results showed that isolate T1 had high gelatinase activity. Two isolates (isolates T2 and T3) produced moderately gelatinase enzymes. Molecular identification revealed that isolate T1 is Enterobacter hormaechei.
Nova Mujiono, Ristiyanti M Marwoto, Heryanto Heryanto
Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 8; doi:10.24252/bio.v8i1.13212

Abstract:
Faunistic study on the malacofauna of Simeulue Island was carried out in 2017 after 104 years from the last collection in 1913. 3 locations with 13 stations were observed. 20 families and 50 species of aquatic and terrestrial molluscs were identified. The occurrences of 4 local endemic species were still found and 19 new distributional records were added to the previous list. However, 5 previously listed species were not found in the present study. Through the present study, the accumulative number of malacofauna from Simeulue Island will be around 54 species. 19 species were reported for the first time, including 3 introduced species and 1 new records for Indonesia. 4 local endemic species were still found there after 104 years gone by.
Taufik Muhammad Fakih, Mentari Luthfika Dewi, Eky Syahroni
Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 8; doi:10.24252/bio.v8i1.13871

Abstract:
The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the global pandemic Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-2019), has infected nearly 206 countries. There is still little information about molecular compounds that can inhibit the development of infections caused by this disease. It is crucial to achieving the discovery of competent natural inhibitor candidates, such as antiviral peptides, because they have a variety of biological activities and have evolved to target biochemical machinery from different pathogens or host cell structures. In silico studies will be carried out, including protein-peptide docking and protein-protein docking, to identify, evaluate, and explore the affinity and molecular interactions of the Magainin-1 and Magainin-2 peptide molecules derived from frog skin (Xenopus laevis) to the main protease macromolecule (Mpro) SARS-CoV-2, and its effect on the ACE-2 receptor (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 Receptor). Protein-peptide docking simulations show that both peptide molecules have a good affinity for the active site area of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro macromolecule. These results were then confirmed using protein-protein docking simulations to observe the ability of the peptide molecule in preventing attachment to the ACE-2 receptor surface area. In silico studies show that Magainin-2 has the best affinity, with a bond free energy value of −3054.53 kJ/mol. Then the protein-protein docking simulation provided Magainin-2 was able to prevent the attachment of ACE-2 receptors, with an ACE score of 1697.99 kJ/mol. Thus, through in silico research, it is hoped that the Magainin peptide molecule can be further investigated in the development of new antiviral peptides for the treatment of infectious diseases of COVID-19.
Ambeng - Ambeng, Yanti Yanti, Salim Salim, Harish Muhammad
Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 8; doi:10.24252/bio.v8i1.13137

Abstract:
The high concentration of detergent in the aquatic ecosystem potentially affects the physiological condition of the fish by disrupting the respiration process and changing the concentration of blood components and chemistry. The purpose of this study was to determine the condition of the hematological parameters of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to wastewater from the laundry industry. Each treatment was stocked with five fish per aquarium (50 x 30 x 30 cm). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) technique with six treatments and three replications: P0 (0%) as a control, P1 (1%), P2 (2%), P3 (3%), P4 (4%) and P5 (5%) with each treatment exposed to a specific concentration of wastewater and residues. The results showed that the hemoglobin levels of treatments were decreasing, with the lowest mean of hemoglobin level found in the P2 (7.05 gr%), and the lowest concentration on the 30th day was 7.71 gr%. There were no significant effects of wastewater to the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes among treatments (P>0.05). While there were increasing levels of hematocrit, the largest mean level was found in the P4 treatment with a value of 24.11%, and the largest mean on the 20th day of observation showed a value of 23.51%. Wastewater from the laundry industry can affect the hematological condition of tilapia by decreasing the hemoglobin concentration and increasing the hematocrit levels above the normal condition.
Djong Hon Tjong, Anugrah Viona Agesi, Dewi Imelda Roesma
Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 8; doi:10.24252/bio.v8i1.13019

Abstract:
The true frog species, Odorrana hosii, found in West Sumatera Indonesia, has high morphological differentiation and also estimated has high genetic variation. A total of 35 O. hosii at a seven location have analyzed using DNA microsatellite markers. Genetic variation of five microsatellite loci provided the highest value of expected heterozygosity (He) for the population in Padang (He = 0.618), while the lowest was the population in Merapi (He = 0.427). There are genetic differences in moderate levels among populations of O. hosii in West Sumatra (FST = 0.108) with inbreeding intrapopulation value (FIS = -0.559), and high value of gene flow among the populations (Nm = 2.061). This study becomes the first molecular data for establishing effective population management conservation.
Oktira Roka Aji, Larasati Haliimah Roosyidah
Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi, Volume 8; doi:10.24252/bio.v8i1.12009

Abstract:
Anthracnose is a plant disease that can infect a variety of plants worldwide. Fungal pathogen groups are the cause of anthracnose, one of which is Colletotrichum acutatum. Morinda citrifolia is famous for having antimicrobial activity. This study aims to determine the antifungal activity of M. citrifolia leaves extract against the growth of the fungus C. acutatum. The extract solvent used was 96% ethanol. The experiment consisted of five treatments (0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and propineb 0.1% as positive control). The method used in this study was the poisoned food technique. In this technique, C. acutatum was grown on PDA media mixed with M. citrifolia leaves extract. Antifungal activity was observed based on reduced mycelium growth compared to control. Observations were made every day by measuring the diameter of the fungus mycelium for eleven days. The analysis showed that 60% M. citrifolia leaves extract effectively inhibited the growth of the mycelium C. acutatum on the eleventh day of observation.
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