ISSN / EISSN : 1802-7679 / 2570-8783
Published by: Masaryk University Press (10.5817)
Total articles ≅ 380
Latest articles in this journal
Studia sportiva, Volume 15, pp 72-79; https://doi.org/10.5817/sts2021-1-7
Sport and physical activities of children are essential in forming their health, personality, society and other factors which affect their future life either directly or indirectly. Their life attitudes are shaped by experience, and one of domains that can be affected in them for ever based on positive or negative experience is physical activity and relation thereto. Significance and awareness of this societal problem currently lead to activities which are to support sports and physical movement of children and youth. Efforts focused on the prevention of early dropout of children from sports are in the interest of kinanthropological research studies, national children’s sports support programmes where the issue often becomes part of political and programme statements of governments, civic and non-profit organizations and sports associations. In spite of all these efforts, however, we still face a massive dropout of children from sports, which is not replaced with an adequate alternative physical activity. Consequences of the negative, and sometimes even toxic experience with physical activity at early age lasts until adulthood, which brings a range of personal, health and social problems. Possibilities for reducing the phenomenon consist in systematic work dealing with the support and improvement of coaching procedures which will be focused more on the needs of children and diverted from the traditional perception of coaching education focused primarily on the needs of coaches, on the building of positive relationship with parents as partners in the process of physical education of children, and on extending the range of physical activities for children also in the environment of non-competitive sports.
Studia sportiva, Volume 15, pp 26-33; https://doi.org/10.5817/sts2021-1-3
PURPOSE Squats are among the basic exercises that have become an integral part of exercise programs. It is commonly used by athletes in many sports. Its potential is shown in the development of strength, power, and overall sports performance. The aim of the study was to verify inconsistent views on deep squats, technical design, and related health risks. METHODS For the purposes of the review, the terms "squat, knee, biomechanics, deep, patellofemoral, back squat, performance, arthritis, health, injury, risk" were used. RESULTS It turns out that the technique of performing a deep squat has its strict principles, which must be respected and which have a significant impact on the benefits and risks. From loading, the lower position represents an increase in compressive and shear forces on the patellofemoral joint, however, this is a natural state that is not risky. Health hazards cannot be based on analytical-mathematical models, which are insufficient in this aspect. Extreme long-term exposure carries the risk of permanent consequences in the form of osteoarthritis. For prophylaxis or convalescence, it is possible to use effective aids like sleeves, kinesio taping, bandage or "knee savers". CONCLUSIONS With optimal technique and sensible exercise selection, there is no greater risk in healthy individuals without degenerative anatomical changes. In order to assess the effects of the squat forces on the ankle, knee, hip, spine, it is necessary to consider the technique and also individual anatomical differences.
Studia sportiva, Volume 15, pp 6-16; https://doi.org/10.5817/sts2021-1-1
The paper deals with changes in body composition (muscle mass, adipose tissue and bone mass), and changes in manifestations of maximal strength of extensors and flexors of lower and upper limbs in relation to different periods of rest (30 s, 60 s, 120 s). The research was carried out on 23 participants aged 18-30 years in natural bodybuilders of top performance, in a 5-week training intervention of bodybuilding training.At a statistical significance level of 5%, there was no significant difference in muscle tissue hypertrophy, although Group 2 (60 p.) Achieved a two-fold increase in percentage FFM compared to the other two groups, achieving a change of 1.18 %.At a statistical significance level of 5%, we noticed significant differences in the maximum force increase in knee joint flexors, and only in group 3 (120 s) by up to 11%. Significant differences in muscle strength increase were also observed in groups 2 and 3 in the elbow joint extensors and in the elbow joint flexors only in group 1.
Studia sportiva, Volume 15, pp 51-62; https://doi.org/10.5817/sts2021-1-5
This article focuses on the phenomenon of gamification in the context of the philosophy of sport. Gamification is usually understood as a process of adding games or game-like elements to some activity in order to encourage participation. Gamification takes the techniques that game designers use to engage players and applies them to motivate people in different spheres of our lives.With the rapid development of cyber games and the penetrating everyday lives of many young people, gamification becomes an important issue for different fields of study. In economic discourse, it is often used as a business strategy. For pedagogy, it can present an educational method or teaching instrument, and psychologists examine gamification as a motivational method.In the context of sports, gamification provides a possibility for various empirical sociological studies. However, the sociological investigations could be supported by studies of philosophical backgrounds of gamification applied in the field of sports. Some authors speak about the concept of meaningful gamification. They are mostly explained more from psychological positions (exploring the theories of motivation etc.) than from the philosophical ones.Virtuality and the virtual worlds connected with cyberspace (from which gamification comes) are often understood as the opposite of reality (or escape from reality). Thus, it could be taken as something inauthentic. Badges and points present "pure" instruments that could strengthen the instrumental approach to the world. However, is it as simple?In the philosophical discourse, we could examine gamification from a range of different positions. This article assesses two possible ways in terms of how to describe and discuss gamification in the philosophical discourse. One is the topic of game and play based on the work of Johan Huizinga. The other is the concept of authenticity and instrumentality based on Martin Heidegger, Jan Patočka, and Hans-Georg Gadamer.It appears probable that gamification in sport is rapidly spreading, and it will be examined within different empirical studies more and more. This article argues that this phenomenon is also as an interesting topic for the philosophy of sport.
Studia sportiva, Volume 15, pp 17-25; https://doi.org/10.5817/sts2021-1-2
AIM: Speed skills are among the decisive factors in sports performance in ice hockey. Therefore, it is necessary to examine them in all age categories. Our goal was to determine the effect of plyometric exercises on the level of running and skating speed at 40 m with changes of direction in young hockey players aged 14-15 years.METHODS: The research group consisted of 33 ice hockey players (Male; age: 14.7 ± 0.7; height: 166.5cm ± 7.3; weight: 53.4kg ± 6.9) divided into two sets. HC 05 Banská Bystrica players formed an experimental group (n = 18), MHC Martin players formed a control group (n = 15). During 8 weeks, the players completed training units of general preparation and training units on ice, in the experimental set was added an experimental factor of plyometric exercises carried out according to the training protocol. Speed diagnostics consisted of the following two tests: running at 40 m with changes of direction and skating forward at 40 m with changes of direction.RESULTS: Between the results of the tests in running speed and skating speed, significant differences were found both in the pretest and in the posttest between the experimental (EXP) and the control (KO) set in favor of the EXP set. Thus, the EXP set did not show the effect of plyometric exercises on improving the level of running speed and only a small effect on improving the level of skating speed.CONCLUSION: The results of the quasi-experiment showed that the influence of plyometric exercises on the improvement of the level of running and skating speed of the players of the experimental group was not proven. In further research, it will be necessary to modify the training protocol and verify its application to comparable files.
Studia sportiva, Volume 15, pp 63-70; https://doi.org/10.5817/sts2021-1-6
Foreign ownership in European football has been rapidly increasing especially in the last two decades. Although the main interest for the foreign investors are the teams of Big 5 leagues, there are some occasional surprises. One of the surprises is the oldest football team in Czech football, SK Slavia Prague. This study investigates the impact of Slavia’s takeover on Czech First Division. First a stochastic frontier analysis is conducted and efficiency scores are estimated. The results indicate that Slavia’s athletic efficiency has improved significantly after the takeover. The transfer activity in the league increased greatly thanks to Slavia’s additional funds allocated to transfers and also it should be noted that Slavia’s domestic transfers have created an opportunity for the other teams to improve their finances. Finally, the overall competitive balance in the league improved after the takeover despite Slavia’s dominance in the league after the takeover.
Studia sportiva, Volume 15, pp 36-50; https://doi.org/10.5817/sts2021-1-4
The article presents an overview of important findings concerning the overtraining syndrome (OTS) in elite athletes. Although the scientific community agrees that OTS is a multifactorially determined and individually variable phenomenon, which can have a serious impact on the individual, there are still some inconsistencies. Therefore, in our study we focused on the terminology of the phenomenon, its prevalence, etiology and symptomatology. We paid specific attention to psychological instruments of detecting OTS indicators. Given that in the period of adolescence the training process in the majority of sport disciplines intensifies significantly, the context of developmental changes during this period in relation to OTS is discussed. The final part of the study summarizes the basic principles of prevention of this pathological phenomenon.
Studia sportiva, Volume 14, pp 8-17; https://doi.org/10.5817/sts2020-2-1
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to find out whether a more specific stimulus, such as training which stimulates the production of power above 90% of Pmax (Pmax = maximal average concentric power output), is effective in enhancing the countermovement jump (CMJ) performance using the method of complex pairs or separate execution of the exercises in the complex pair (separate complex pair).METHODSThirty male students of the Faculty of Sports Studies were divided into 2 experimental (EX1, EX2) and 1 control group (CNTR). The experimental groups trained for 8 weeks using the complex training (CT) method twice a week with the same amount of repetitions for each exercise. The complex pair consisted of half-squat jumps with the intensity over 90% of Pmax and plyometric depth-jumps. EX1 trained using the complex pair method with the intracomplex rest interval of up to 15 seconds. EX2 trained all sets of the half-squat jumps first and then all sets of the plyometric exercise. We used non-parametric statistics and linear regression analysis to evaluate the effect on increasing the CMJ performance after the intervention program.RESULTSThere were no significant differences between the pre-test and post-test in any of the experimental groups (p > 0.05), although there were significant differences between the weeks in EX1 and EX2 (p < 0.05). The CMJ performance increased insignificantly (p > 0.05) each week by 0.14 cm in EX1 and by 0.07 cm in EX2. CONCLUSIONThese results did not clearly show the application of the CT methods to be useful in enhancing the CMJ. In practice we recommend using the complex pairs to save training time and increase training intensity. However, an additional longer-term intervention experiment with a bigger sample size and groups randomized by the CMJ parameter (not by Pmax) is needed.
Studia sportiva, Volume 14, pp 52-56; https://doi.org/10.5817/sts2020-2-5
An efficient teaching of alpine skiing at the beginning of the teaching process should be the main goal of every ski instructor. In our research we were investigating the influence of different ski length on alpine skiing teaching process efficiency as well as on the level of state anxiety during the alpine skiing at ski novices. The research was conducted on 34 participants (19 men, 15 women). Experimental group had skis of 130cm length and 7m radius from brand Lusti. Skis are specialized for very short and aggressive turning including funcarving. Mean height of participants from the experimental group was 178,07cm (±10,89). Control group had skis of standard length according to a person´s height. Meat height of participants from the control group was 177,33cm (±6,87). Mean length of skis were 158,6cm and 14,05m radius. For our research following data were collected: pre-test, continuous test and post – test of state and trait anxiety. In this presented paper the main intention was to determine the effect of different ski length on state anxiety level at novice skiers. The data were acquired from the questionnaire STAI, which shows the level of anxiety (Künzell, S. & Müler, J., 2008; Koca, 2015). Based on the results we can say that teaching alpine skiing with usage of short skis might be less stressful for novice skiers than with usage of standard length skis.
Studia sportiva, Volume 14, pp 26-38; https://doi.org/10.5817/sts2020-2-3
The time pupils spend at school provides a very small benefit to pupils’ movement activity. At a time when many school-age children lack physical activity, it is necessary to think about how to integrate more movement into the period that the child spends at school. The paper is based on the assumption that outdoor education can contribute to the development of movement activity of pupils, and the paper aims to determine to what extent. For model pupils, the calorie count and metabolic discharge, including sedentary analysis, were recorded through an ActiGraph accelerometer during 4-hour lessons of different types of education days. The result is that outdoor education can serve as an appropriate complement to learning that contributes to the development of pupils’ knowledge and skills while working in a real environment but also acts as a mean of increasing the possibilities for movement for pupils during their schooling.