Natural Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21504091 / 21504105
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,101
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Kuo-Chen Chou
Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 429-440; doi:10.4236/ns.2020.127035

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Yutao Shao, Kuo-Chen Chou
Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 388-399; doi:10.4236/ns.2020.126033

Abstract:
The recent worldwide spreading of pneumonia-causing virus, such as Coronavirus, COVID-19, and H1N1, has been endangering the life of human beings all around the world. In order to really understand the biological process within a cell level and provide useful clues to develop antiviral drugs, information of virus protein subcellular localization is vitally important. In view of this, a CNN based virus protein subcellular localization predictor called “pLoc_Deep-mVirus” was developed. The predictor is particularly useful in dealing with the multi-sites systems in which some proteins may simultaneously occur in two or more different organelles that are the current focus of pharmaceutical industry. The global absolute true rate achieved by the new predictor is over 97% and its local accuracy is over 98%. Both are transcending other existing state-of-the-art predictors significantly. It has not escaped our notice that the deep-learning treatment can be used to deal with many other biological systems as well. To maximize the convenience for most experimental scientists, a user-friendly web-server for the new predictor has been established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/pLoc_Deep-mVirus/.
Yutao Shao, Kuo-Chen Chou
Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 400-428; doi:10.4236/ns.2020.126034

Kern E. Kenyon
Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 1-3; doi:10.4236/ns.2020.121001

Abstract:
When a solid cone with smooth side and base rotates about its long axis in a still fluid, theory says that the cone will advance along the direction of the axis, base first and apex last. Bernoulli’s law for closed streamline loops is combined with the cross-stream force balance between the centrifugal force and a pressure gradient in order to obtain the result, which is believed to be new. Confirmation of the prediction awaits observational evidence.
Ibukun Olukorede Popoola, Oluwabukola Rashidat Popoola, Matthew Oluwatobi Ojeniyi, Oluwaseyi Olamide Olajide, Eustace Ayemere Iyayi, Olukorede Popoola Ibukun, Rashidat Popoola Oluwabukola, Oluwatobi Ojeniyi Matthew, Olamide Olajide Oluwaseyi, Ayemere Iyayi Eustace
Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 4-11; doi:10.4236/ns.2020.121002

Abstract:
The loss of electrolyte balance in diets of broiler chickens has resulted in a serious distur-bance of blood acid-base balance, coupled with elevated body temperature. The body losses carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3), resulting in respiratory alkalosis or acidosis. Under tropical conditions of high environmental temperatures, the balance of electrolytes in feeds must be set much higher as to maintain equal metabolic and digestive efficiency. However, information on the ideal dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) that could effectively correct acid-base imbalance in broiler chickens under severe heat stress condition is scanty. Therefore, the effects of varying electrolyte balance in diets on haematology, blood glucose and serum inorganic elements were assessed in broiler chickens at starter (0 - 21 d) and finisher (22 - 35 d) phases, under temperature-humidity index of 24.97 - 35.19. One day-old Arbor Acre chicks (n = 300) were procured and randomly allotted to diets supplemented with potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate, to balance monovalent ions (sodium, potassium and chloride) at 210 (T1), 240 (T2), 270 (T3), 300 (T4), 330 (T5) and 360 (T6) mEq/kg DEB, in a completely randomised design. On days 21 and 35, blood (5 mL) samples were collected from birds in each replicate whose weights were closest to the mean class weight for haematology and serum biochemical indices using standard procedures. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at α = 0.05. Different levels of DEB did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) haematology and blood glucose at starter phase. However, at finisher phase, heterophil: lymphocyte of birds on 270 and 240 mEq/kg DEB were lower (P < 0.05) compared to other dietary treatments. Blood acid-base balance was relatively enhanced in birds on aggregate DEB level of 360 mEq/kg with reduced chloride ion and relatively lower incidence of hemodilution with respect to high haemoglobin levels as this level is advantageous in balancing blood acid to base ratio in broiler chickens reared under severe environmental temperatures higher than 43?C ± 5?C as against some previous opinions that did not take into consideration, the inherent dietary electrolyte balance in feedstuff, other functional mono or divalent ions, and the severity of environmental factors.
Einas Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed, Nagwa Idriss Ali Ahmed, Musa Ibrahim Babiker Hussein, Rasha Abd Elhai Mohammad Taha, Mohammed Idriss Ahmed, Mubarak Dirar Abd-Alla
Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 28-34; doi:10.4236/ns.2020.121004

Abstract:
A pressure dependent Schrodinger equation is used to find the conditions that lead to superconductivity. When no pressure is exerted, the superconductor resistance vanishes beyond a critical temperature related to the repulsive force potential of the electron gass, where one assuming the electron total energy to be thermal, where applying mechanical pressure destroys Sc when it exceeds a certain critical value. However when the electron total energy is an assumed to be that of the free electron model and that the pressure is thermal and mechanical, the situation is different. The quantum expression for resistance shows that the increase of mechanical pressure increases the critical temperature. Such phenomenon is observed in high temperature cupper group.
Tai-Jin Kim, Kim Tai-Jin
Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 12-27; doi:10.4236/ns.2020.121003

Abstract:
The earthquake number was correlated (R2 = 0.8781) with the volcano number in the East Pacific and Central American countries. The year of volcanic eruptions in the Galapagos Hot Spot (GHS) was proportional to the year of El Niño events (R2 = 0.9939) as well as to the year of earthquake events (R2 = 0.9943) in Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru from 1977 to 2016. Therefore, there can be El Niño and earthquake events in Ecuador, Colombia and Peru if there are strong volcanic eruptions either from aboveground volcanoes or undersea seamounts in the GHS during the maximal sunspot number’s period. Global volcanic eruptions were occurred during the maximal temperature departure, the latter being reversely proportional (R2 = 0.4512) to the sunspot number from 1980 to 2019. Forest fires occurred in middle latitude countries (South Korea, California, western Russia, Australia) around 35 degree from Pacific Equator during La Niña events at the time of the minimal sunspot number. Since there were intense forest fires in South Korea, Australia and California in 2019, more are expected in 2030 due to the 11 year cyclical variation in the sunspot number. The sequence of forest fires can be schematically summarized as below. 1) La Niña event in Equator causes the low vapor pressure of water due to the low sea surface temperature (SST); 2) There is the pumping of freshwater from the warm Pacific Ocean to cold Equator with simultaneous transfer of heat (warm Pacific Ocean to cold Equator) and mass (water enriched Pacific Ocean to water lean Equator); 3) Strong winds from dry zone pass Mountains to cause the forest fires in the residential land with bushes and trees. 4) According to the Bernoulli’s principle, the pressure gradient between the high Mountains and the low Ocean, induces the decrease of static velocity gradient for vigorously upwards flares in the Mountains and the residential land during the forest fires, which may be why it is difficult to extinguish the forest fires until burnt up bushes and trees in the Mountains and residential land with serious damages. Most effective solution to forest fires is to change the events from La Niña to El Niño for reductions of temperature and pressure gradients by Gay-Lussac’s law. Such a transition may be induced by artificial submarine volcanic eruptions among volcanoes of Fernandina, Sierra Negra and Wolf in the GHS for Korea and California. As for Australia, artificial volcanic eruptions can be caused in huge underwater volcano chain in Tasmania. The strong damages of forest fires in South Korea, Australia and California were observed in the period of the minimal sunspot number, as were in October of 2019 to February of 2020. Simultaneous transfers of momentun (velocity), heat (temperature) and mass (freshwater) were occurred from the dry zone or the hot Deserts via the Mountains and the residential land with bushes and trees to the cold Sea or Ocean. It is expected the lowest SST...
Gerhard Kramm, Ralph Dlugi, Martina Berger, Nicole Mölders
Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 80-124; doi:10.4236/ns.2020.123012

Abstract:
The zonal averages of temperature (the so-called normal temperatures) for numerous parallels of latitude published between 1852 and 1913 by Dove, Forbes, Ferrel, Spitaler, Batchelder, Arrhenius, von Bezold, Hopfner, von Hann, and Börnstein were used to quantify the global (spherical) and spheroidal mean near-surface temperature of the terrestrial atmosphere. Only the datasets of Dove and Forbes published in the 1850s provided global averages below 〈T〉=14°C, mainly due to the poor coverage of the Southern Hemisphere by observations during that time. The global averages derived from the distributions of normal temperatures published between 1877 and 1913 ranged from 〈T〉=14.0°C (Batchelder) to 〈T〉=15.1°C (Ferrel). The differences between the global and the spheroidal mean near-surface air temperature are marginal. To examine the uncertainty due to interannual variability and different years considered in the historic zonal mean temperature distributions, the historical normal temperatures were perturbed within ±2σ to obtain ensembles of 50 realizations for each dataset. Numerical integrations of the perturbed distributions indicate uncertainties in the global averages in the range of ±0.3°C to ±0.6°C and depended on the number of available normal temperatures. Compared to our results, the global mean temperature of 〈T〉=15.0°C published by von Hann in 1897 and von Bezold in 1901 and 1906 is notably too high, while 〈T〉=14.4°C published by von Hann in 1908 seems to be more adequate within the range of uncertainty. The HadCRUT4 record provided 〈T〉≌ 13.7°C for 1851-1880 and 〈T〉=13.6°C for 1881-1910. The Berkeley record provided 〈T〉=13.6°C and 〈T〉≌ 13.5°C for these periods, respectively. The NASA GISS record yielded 〈T〉=13.6°C for 1881-1910 as well. These results are notably lower than those based on the historic zonal means. For 1991-2018, the HadCRUT4, Berkeley, and NASA GISS records provided 〈T〉=14.4°C, 〈T〉=14.5°C, and 〈T〉=14.5°C, respectively. The comparison of the 1991-2018 globally averaged near-surface temperature with those derived from distributions of zonal temperature averages for numerous parallels of latitude suggests no change for the past 100 years.
Weizhong Lin, Xuan Xiao, Wangren Qiu, Kuo-Chen Chou
Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 181-198; doi:10.4236/ns.2020.123016

Abstract:
Detecting remote homology proteins is a challenging problem for both basic research and drug development. Although there are a couple of methods to deal with this problem, the benchmark datasets based on which the existing methods were trained and tested contain many high homologous samples as reflected by the fact that the cutoff threshold was set at 95%. In this study, we reconstructed the benchmark dataset by setting the threshold at 40%, meaning none of the proteins included in the benchmark dataset has more than 40% pairwise sequence identity with any other in the same subset. Using the new benchmark dataset, we proposed a new predictor called “dRHP-GreyFun” based on the grey modeling and functional domain approach. Rigorous cross-validations have indicated that the new predictor is superior to its counterparts in both enhancing success rates and reducing computational cost. The predictor can be downloaded from https://github.com/jcilwz/dRHP-GreyFun.
Einas Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed, Mohammed Idriss Ahmed Mohammed, Mubarak Dirar Abd-Alla, Mohamed Yahia Shergaui, Saffa Elsiddig Abd Magid
Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 174-180; doi:10.4236/ns.2020.123015

Abstract:
The Wave function of Schrodinger Equation is expressed in terms of time dependent energy eigen function and spatial dependent wave function in the energy space, which gives spatial energy probability. This equation is utilized to find quantum momentum dependent on temperature. This in turn is used to find quantum complex resistance. This expression shows that the superconducting resistance vanishes for temperatures less than a certain critical value. This result conforms to superconductor conventional theory and empirical relations. The application of external magnetic field destroys superconductivity when its strength exceeds a certain critical value. The expression of the relationship between the critical magnetic field and the critical temperature is typical to the conventional one. This is the first time to obtain the conventional relationship for the superconductor’s resistance and critical magnetic field in one model in the energy space.
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