Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology

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EISSN : 2457-1024
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 1,860
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Joylyn Anita Conway, Brij Bhushan Tewari
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2731522

Abstract:
Standard analytical procedures that are based on colourimetry facilitated the determination of PO43- and NO3- in the ground and surface waters from the three (3) counties of Guyana. Phosphates and nitrates beyond their permissible levels in natural waters can pose significant threats to the aquatic environment, its inhabitants, and the health of humans and terrestrial animals. For this reason, this study aims to investigate the use of metal (nickel, cadmium, cobalt) ferrocyanides (octahedral complexes that facilitate adsorption of anions primarily on its two divalent transitional metals) as adsorbents to facilitate the removal of the aforementioned anions. Results revealed that nickel ferrocyanide is the most effective adsorbent for treating ground and surface waters that contain high levels of PO43-, while it was also the most effective adsorbent for treating surface waters that contained NO3-. Fixed volumes of water samples were treated with 50 mg, 100 mg, and 150 mg of the adsorbent. The correlation coefficient computations revealed that they were instances of both positive and negative correlations, which implied that increasing adsorbent dosage resulted in increased adsorption and other instances decreased adsorption, respectively. This occurrence went against literature, possible reasons for this are explained in detail within the discussion portion of the manuscript. Adsorption isotherms and Langmuir plots were used to facilitate adsorption studies, in various instances, the generic appearance of these isotherms was not observed, possible reasons for this occurrence are also explained in more detail within the article. Based on observations within the article, the use of cobalt ferrocyanide for treating groundwater and removing PO43- is not recommended, while cadmium ferrocyanide is not recommended to be used to facilitate the removal of NO3-, due to the possible formation of Co3(PO4)2 and Cd(NO3)2, respectively, which consequently affected the results. Technologies like those studied in this research project should be explored and studied more in-depth (particularly with regards to the stability of the adsorbents) with regards to the treating of ground and surface water supplies, to facilitate the removal of PO43- and NO3-, since the results observed, though on a small scale, can be seen to move us closer towards a green and sustainable environment, inclusive of safeguarding the health of the Worlds’ people and expanding the scope of cost-effective and simple methods that aid in the removal of anions from natural waters.
Babita Jangir, , Vinod Saharan, S. S. Lakhawat, Damyanti Prajapat, Mahendra Meena, Pinki Yadav, Jitendra Kumar Tak
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 30-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2631523

Abstract:
Shelf life of custard apple is limited due to climacteric nature. In the present study, two application methods along with different concentration of hexanal formulations were used, first hexanal vapour at different concentrations (0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05% v/v) and second hexanal dip (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2% v/v) along with control were evaluated on custard apple dipping fruits for 2 min and 4 min and store at ambient temperature (27±2ºC). Hexanal filter paper dip in 0.05% concentration effectively maintained the firmness, total sugar, reducing sugar, preserved L*, a*, b* value, extend shelf life and maximum BC ratio during storage from day 1 to days 14 as compare to control. Therefore, we concluded that hexanl vapour(0.05%) was effective to use post harvest technology for custard apple.
, Zhao-Hua Zhong
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 19-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2631521

Abstract:
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the most important causative agent of infection in chronically ill patients admitted in hospitals globally. Coupled with its, mixed symptomatology, rapid drug resistance tendency and its causation of severe disease, a fast, reliable and affordable diagnostic technique is required to enable healthcare providers expeditiously mitigate its progression and eventual treatment. The Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) technique has the potential to serve as a simple, rapid, specific, sensitive and cost-effective point-of-care diagnostic tool. Broad Objective: To investigate Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification as a molecular technique for microbial diagnostic and prognostic predictor. Study Design: This study was aimed at evaluating LAMP assay against Simple Polymerase chain reaction and Multiplex PCR on the diagnosis of P. aeruginosa in mixed clinical samples. Materials and Methods: This study developed P. aeruginosa Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (PaLAMP) assay to target the ExoY gene with appropriate primer testing and validation procedures. Culture of patient bacterial samples was done on MHA and MHB medium, grown overnight in an Incubator and a incubating shaker at 37oc respectively. Housekeeping gene were identified through online bioinformatics and blasted against known sequences. A set of 6 primers, comprising 2 outer primers (F3 and B3), 2 inner primers (FIP and BIP), and 2 loop primers (FLP and BLP), were designed. Microbial DNA extraction was done followed by PCR amplification as a classical identification using LAMP outer primers 9(F3 and B3). LAMP amplicons were detected by real time turbidimetry (LA-500) at 64°C for 40 minutes as well as under UV light with 1.0 μl of 1/10-diluted original SYBR Green I. Results: LAMP validation against traditional PCR shows a high limit of detection at 10-6ng/µl compared to 10-5ng/µl for PCR. The findings are consistent with outcomes for real time turbidimetric outcomes. Real time LAMP turbidimetric results was cross validated by direct observation through SYBR fluorescence under UV light for positive P. aeruginosa detection through positive amplification. Conclusion: Thus far, Loop mediated isothermal amplification show significantly high limit of detection comparable to standard PCR, its use in field based diagnosis offers an opportunity for a cheap, reliable and faster method to determine disease trends and therapy approaches. This method can be applied in primary care to enhance accuracy in diagnosis and thereby prompt initiation of mitigation treatment regimens.
, Samira Huseinović, Jasminka Husanović, Senad Memić
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2631520

Abstract:
Allelopathy can have an important applicaiton in areas of agriculture, especially in integrated protection from weeds, by using of allelopathic crops in different ways. In this research allelopathic effects of invasive species acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and white goosefood (Chenopodium album L.) are explored on germination of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Water extracts of dry leaves of white goosefoot and acacia are prepared according tothe method : Norsworthy (2003). Experiment has been made in controlled laboratory conditions. Results of this research show that acacia and white goosefood have negative allelopathy potential and they act inhibitory on germination of tomatoes. Research of allelopathy and allelopathic relationships of weed species and agricultural cultures represents a big challenge for those people who are working in food production, and at the same time can be an instrument of ecologically sustainable agriculture.
Shubana Bhat, M. A. Beig, G. H. Dar, Seemi Lohani Purshottam Singh, Farahanaz Rasool, Parveez Ahmad Sheikh, Waseem Ali Dar Ahmed Dar, Hilal Ahmad Bhat, Sushil Kumar
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2631518

Abstract:
Blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) is prone to a number of diseases amongst which needle blight caused by Diplodia mutilaposes a serious threat to its regeneration in Kashmir valley. The disease initiated in the month of March as minute chlorotic spots on current year needles.
Shiv Shankar Mahesh, P. P. Choudhary, Santi Ranjan Mitro, Amit Raj
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 3-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2631519

Abstract:
Investigation on the degradation of pyrazosulfuron ethyl by Aspergillus terreus in the rice ecosystem was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, UBKV, Pundibari Coochbehar, West Bengal, India. The soil was collected from the paddy field to isolate fungal inoculums. Results revealed that Aspergillus terreus can survive in minimal broth containing pyrazosulfuron ethyl at 1000 ppm and degrades through two major pathways, first involves the cleaves of sulfonylurea bridge resulting in the formation of two major metabolites viz., 2-amino-4, 6 –dimethoxyprimidine, 5-aminosulfonyl-1-methyl-pyrazole-4-carboxylic ethyl ester and, second was the cleavage of sulfonyl amide linkage which forms the metabolite viz; 1 methyl pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester,1 methyl pyrazole -4-carboxylic acid, 5-carbamoyl -1-methyl pyrazole -4-carboxylic acid ethyl-ester. The enzyme involved in these transformations can be utilized to decontaminate soil and water from Pyrazosulfuron ethyl residue. Even, the gene responsible for the production of these useful enzymes can be exploited for future research.
Anil Kumar, Monobrullah, , Ritesh Kumar
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 58-66; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531516

Abstract:
The present investigation was conducted at farm of ICAR-Research Centre for Eastern Region (ICAR-RCER), Patna, Bihar during 2020-21.Geographically, ICAR-RCER, Patna is located at 25o35`30`` N latitude, 85o05`03`` E longitude, at an altitude 52m above mean sea level. The climate of the region is warm and temperate which is characterized by extremes of the temperature both during summer and winter. During summer, temperature may rise as high as 390C and in winter it may fall as low as 2-30C.The total annual average rain fall is 1130mm. This region provides a safe long growing season for most of the crops. Diamond back moth was found to be the most serious insect pest of cabbage. The infestation appeared during first week of January (SMW1) at vegetative stage and remained present up to the harvesting of the crop i.e. 11th SMW. Among the natural enemies, two species of coccinellids (Coccinella septempunctata, C. transversalis), one larval parasitoid (Cotesia plutellae) and one Syrphid fly (Toxomerus geminatus) and one unidentified spider was observed during crop period.
Nishi Mishra, M. K. Tripathi, Niraj Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari, Neha Gupta, Akash Sharma
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 48-57; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531515

Abstract:
Aim: Soybean is well-thought-out to be a major crop owing to its significant involvement as vegetable oil and protein in human diet. However, inopportunely, its production has been melodramatically declined attributable to the commonness of drought related stress. Study Design: During the present study a total of 53 soybean genotypes were selected. For molecular diversity analysis as well as validation total 12 SSR markers were used. Molecular screening of soybean genotypes was done to determine the efficiency of available markers in genetic diversity analysis as well as their validation on the basis of their association with drought tolerance gene. Place and Duration of the Study: The present study was conducted at Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Gwalior, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, M.P., India during the year 2018 - 2019. Methodology: Template DNA of all 53 selected soybean genotypes extracted for molecular screening. The current investigation has been accomplished to validate the available SSR markers with their efficiency in genetic diversity analysis in a set of soybean genotypes. Results: Among applied drought tolerance gene-linked 12 SSR molecular markers, the highest genetic diversity (0.6629) was noticed in Satt520 while lowest (0.0370) was in Satt557 with an average of 0. 3746.While, the highest PIC value was 0.5887 prearranged by Satt520 and lowest 0.0363 by Satt557 with the mean worth of 0.3063. Conclusion: Dendrogram constructed on the basis of banding profile of employed markers was able to discriminate some putative drought tolerant genotypes i.e., JS97-52, JS95-60 from rest of the genotypes. The results of the present examination may donate towards enhancement of soybean genotypes to bread drought tolerant varieties.
, D. Baskaran, R. Palani Dorai, K. S. Gnanalaksshmi
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 42-47; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531513

Abstract:
The present study was carried out to determine the nutritional composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant properties of ice cream prepared by incorporating selected spices viz., fenugreek, black cumin, coriander, and cinnamon in the form of powders at different equal levels of substitution (1%, 1.5%, and 2%). The spices incorporated in the ice cream were found to have dietary fibre content in the range of 0.81 to 2.02g/100g. The total flavonoid content was found to be in the range of 72.55 to 78.79mg/g of quercetin. The present study results revealed that the ice cream prepared by incorporating different spices showed good antioxidant properties.
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 36-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531512

Abstract:
With the increasing prevalence of obesity and associated morbidity, research continues to investigate the associated factors as well as approaches for effective bodyweight management. While there is consensus that obesity is characterised by an energy imbalance, the interactions between the various components of energy components and the implications of the homeostatic determinants remain controversial. This review critiques the existing theories on energy balance in relation to the law of thermodynamics and proposes the inclusion of important determinants in the energy balance equation.
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