Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology

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EISSN : 2457-1024
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 2,069
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, Anju K. Dhiman, Deepika Kathuria
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 47-56; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i2031748

Abstract:
This research was carried out to assess processing methods on the nutritional composition of ripe pumpkin (C. moschata). Thermal processing (steam blanching and drying) was used to prepare pulp and powder. Pumpkin slices of treatment T6 were steam blanched for 4 minutes, soaked in potassium metabisulfite (KMS) for 15 minutes and awarded the highest overall acceptability score (8.79) by panellists were used for the preparation of pulp and powder. A significant difference was observed in moisture content between fresh, pulp and powder i.e. 88.14 %, 88.93 % and 6.12 % respectively. The heat-sensitive nutrients (ascorbic acid and β-carotene) were significantly decreased after processing to a pulp (13.88 mg/ 100 g) and powder (10.77 mg/ 100 g) in comparison to fresh fruit (15.81 mg/ 100 g). The ash, crude fibre, fat, protein, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total carbohydrate, energy, reducing sugars and total sugars significantly increased in powder as compared to fresh and pulp due to moisture content difference. The colour was recorded to be (L* 36.83, a* 4.44, b* 40.13), (L* 0.19, a* 8.12, b* 9.60) and (L* 7.41, a* 1.23, b* 12.83) for fresh, pulp and powder, respectively. The chroma (C*) analyzed was 40.37, 12.57 and 12.89, respectively while hue angle (h o) was 83.69, 49.77 and 84.52, respectively while the browning index (BI) was 0.75, -0.43 and 0.35 for fruit, pulp and powder respectively. Several value-added products such as pumpkin concentrate, jam, juice, syrup, chutney, confectioneries, bakery products, ready to cook instant food premixes as well as reconstituted products and weaning foods with improved vitamin A content and minerals can be prepared from ripe pumpkin pulp and powder.
, R. Gladis, Biju Joseph
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 34-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i2031747

Abstract:
The nutrient release from conventional chemical fertilizers to the soil are lost continuously through leaching, runoff, volatilisation, denitrification etc and also most of the time they do not satisfy the plant requirements without the continuous application. These issues have caused economic loss as well as environmental pollution due to hazardous emissions and water eutrophication. Controlled release of nutrients through the application of slow/controlled release fertilizers and nanofertilizers are possible solutions, which provides their nutrients according to the requirement of crops. Release of nutrients from controlled release fertilizers are delayed by means of coating the soluble fertilizer core with porous semipermeable membrane. A variety of coating materials are developed for the preparation of controlled release fertilizers. The longevity of controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) depends upon the thickness of coating, temperature and moisture content. Nano technology is an emerging field, which also produce nanofertilizers based on CRFs are used for the increment of active fertilizer material in the field, as they present large surface area for the release of required nutrients to the plant in a controlled manner. Controlled release of nutrients has profound influence on soil properties and yield parameters of crops. The use of controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) starts to evolve as a promising direction offering an excellent means to improve management of nutrient application and by this reducing significantly environmental threats while maintaining high crop yields of good quality. Controlled release fertilizers allow the release of nutrients to be better matched with the life cycle of the plant.
, Kpomagbé Serge Dossou, Abalo P’Kla, Vincent Prodjinonto, Constant Euloge Adjagboni, Emmanuel Olodo
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 21-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i2031746

Abstract:
Aims: To determine the technical parameters sought in road engineering of the lateritic aggregate of Atchia village in the Arrondissement of Cana, Commune of Zogbodomey. Study Design: To valorize the lateritic aggregate of Cana-Atchia in the construction of roads in Benin. Place and Duration of Study: Colas Benin Entreprise Laboratory and Laboratory of Energetic and Applied Mechanic, Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, between January 2021 and March 2022. Methodology: Thus, with the help of classical road material characterization tests, the values of technical road engineering parameters are determined on prepared specimens. Results: The different results obtained are the percentage of passings at the 80 µm sieve (13%), the liquidity limit (32.67%), the plasticity index (13.67%), the dry density obtained at the Proctor optimum (2.28t/m3), the CBR index (106%) and the swelling index (0.04%). In the Proctor test, the water content at the OPM is evaluated at 8.20%. Similarly, studies have shown that the lateritic gravel of Cana-Atchia has a natural water content of 3.5% and an organic matter content of 0.75%. Conclusion: From this study, it appears that the lateritic aggregate of Cana-Atchia has very good technical parameters sought in road engineering, with regard to the technical specifications of the CEBTP guides of 1984 and 2019.
, Pr. Chahid Slimani
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i2031744

Abstract:
Introduction: Real estate valuation is an issue of particular concern. It depends on many factors such as economic social and physical factors. The energy is one of the important factor, which affects the real estate value. In property appraisal, the energy can be considered as a price-setting factor in market price of real estate. Then, it is so difficult for real estate appraiser to determine why property price differ and how much this difference can be attributed to particular distinguishing features such as energy. Many studies have exanimated the effects of various factors on real estate value such as transportation, location, conditions, houses features, pollution. However, the energy is not much analyzed as factor of real estate value despite it great role in real estate value determination. This paper seeks to fill that void by examining the effects of energy on property values: power tower, power lines, energy transformation plants. Methods: The study is engaged in a legal doctrinal analysis of law and scientific research findings. It analyses decisions from courts and tribunals related to the impacts of energy on property prices in order to establish their views of energy factor in determining real estate values and who bears the responsibility of property appreciation or depreciation. Results: the paper highlights many aspects related to energy as value factor of real estate, it can be used to assess the market price and determine the influence of energy factor may have on the property final market value. Discussions: This research informs property appraisers of the energy importance in real estate appreciation and increasing value. However, in few cases, the energy could decrease the property value specially properties near or below high voltage line power or transformations plants if the risk is shared and approved.
, J. P. Gupta
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 9-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i2031745

Abstract:
A manual type operated weeder was designed and developed at the workshop of the Department of Farm Machinery and Power at BCKV, Nadia district, West Bengal, India. This Study was conducted to know the design features of manually operated weeders for paddy weeding. The weeder was made of locally available materials to reduce the cost of weeding. The weeder was tested at the experimental field of the Department of Farm Machinery and Power to evaluate its functional and economical parameters. The travel speed of this type weeder is 1.3 km/h. The weeding efficiency of weeder was found 65.6% to 74.2%. The average field capacity of the weeder was observed as 0.013 ha/h. The field efficiency of this type weeder was found as 81.2%. The plant damage of this weeder was found as 2.96%. Operating cost of this type weeder is Rs. 3557.3/ha. Therefore, designed of this type weeder is the best in terms of cost of operation and it is more economical compared to other weeding operation.
, Arun Kumar, S. S. Acharya, S. C. Paul
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 57-77; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i1931743

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted in rabi season 2018-19 and 2019-20 at Research farm of Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour with the aim to find out the effect of nutrient and weed management on grain yield, WCE and economics of mustard. This experiment consisted of three nutrient levels (N1-soil test-based, N2-100 % RDF, N3-125 % RDF) in main plot while eight weed management practices (W1-Weedy, W2-HW, W3-pendimethalin, W4-pendimethalin fb quizalofop, W5-pendimethalin fb clodinafop, W6-oxyflourfen, W7-oxyflourfen fb quizalofop, W8-oxyflourfen fb clodinafop) in sub plots, laid out in split plot design replicated thrice. Results indicated that pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE + 125% RDF (N3W4) exhibited highest WCE (85.66 and 88.83 %) in 2018-19 and 2019-20, respectively being at par with N3W5 (81.84 %) in 2018-19 only. Though HW at 25 and 50 DAS + 125% RDF (N3W2) recorded highest WCE (100 %) than weedy. Grain yield was maximum (18.63 and 17.78 q ha-1) under N3W4 being at par with N3W7 in 2018-19; while in 2019-20, it was at par with rest of the treatments except N3W1 and N3W6. In 2018-19, N3W4 noted highest net return (Rs. 59068 ha-1) being at par with N3W2 and N3W7. While in 2019-20, same treatment exhibited highest net return (Rs. 58279 ha-1) being at par with rest of the treatments except N3W6 and N3W1. In 2018-19, N3W4 recorded highest B: C ratio (2.78) being at par with rest of the treatments except N3W2 and N3W1. In 2019-20, N3W7 exhibited highest B: C ratio (2.80) being at par with rest of the treatments except N3W6 and N3W1.
S. O. Okpighe, M. U. Shadrack, H. U. Nwosu
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 39-56; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i1931742

Abstract:
An in dept review of the Development of Operating Model for the Design of Stirrer Arms of Slurries is reported. The works of several authors were reviewed. These works covered research on the importance of slurries, application of different slurries in the area of Agriculture and agricultural farming, construction and allied industries, foods and pharmaceutical industries, chemical and paints industries. Also considered were the research works on the design, fabrication and test investigation of performance of different stirrer arms. From the review, three key outcomes from three set of researchers were identified thus: Researcher team 1: the TTP propeller was the most efficient in liquid phase mixing; Researcher team 2: the TEET geometry contributed the best quality of the mixing and significantly reduced the cost of the mixing process; Researcher team 3: the two Z blade stirrer arm was considered as the best in terms of mixing effectiveness. These three outcomes appear as standalone and do not give the user(s) information on comparative advantages for deployment of stirrer arms. Consequent on the above, further theoretical and empirical research will need to be done to evaluate the Order of Merit of these stirrer arms to be called to bar.
Munnesh Singh, , Ankur Tripathi, Naval Kishore, Raj Kumar Chaurasiya
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 32-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i1931741

Abstract:
The present study was conducted at Crop Research Centre (CRC), School of Agriculture, ITM University, Gwalior (MP) to investigate the effect of integrated nutrient management (INM) on growth, yield and quality of mustard (Brassica juncea L.). The experiment was laid out in the randomized block design with three replications and each replication was comprised of eleven treatment combinations comprising FYM (Farm Yard Manure) and Azotobacter with recommended dose of N, P, K and S (80: 60: 30: 30). These treatments were investigated for different morphophysiological, yield and quality attributes of miaze crop. Significant improvement in different morpho-physiological attributes viz., plant height, number of branches per plant and dry matter at 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS), was recorded with T5 treatment. The seed yield was recorded highest (11.33 q/ha) with T5 treatment (100% RDF + FYM @ 15 t/ha + Azotobacter @ 5kg/ha). Maximum harvest index (25.54 %) was also calculated highest for T5 treatment followed by T3 treatment (18.77%) (100% RDF + FYM @ 15 t/ha). Comparatively, the improvement in protein (34.67%) and oil content (39.30%) in mustard cake was maximum for T5 treatment to other treatments. The results of the study revealed that T5 treatment had the maximum significant effect on yield and quality of the mustard crop.
Bheemanna Takapur, Balamuralidhara V., Chandan B .V., Ashwin Bhosle
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 17-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i1931740

Abstract:
A vaccine is a biological preparation that induces active acquired immunity against a specific infectious disease. Vaccination is widely regarded as one of humanity's most significant achievements of the twentieth century. In terms of absolute significance, it is regarded as being on stake with some of the most significant medical science discoveries. vaccines for infectious diseases typically take years to develop because they are produced either by chemical inactivation of the virus or pathogen attenuation, processes that can take a long time to validate and also require the live pathogen. Vaccines have been credited with reducing or eliminating a variety of infectious diseases, including smallpox, measles, and diphtheria. Vaccines proved to be timely interventions, particularly in countries such as the Philippines, where a large number of infectious diseases were prevalent. The Philippines FDA oversees the vaccine approval process in the Philippines. Vaccines are subjected to rigorous testing and oversight throughout the development life cycle, from preclinical studies to post-licensure. To ensure vaccine quality, manufacturers must follow good manufacturing practises and control procedures. This work attempted to outline the vaccine development journey and regulatory process beginning with the formulation and process development and concluding with commercialization (distribution).
R. Jethindra Gowd, Siba Prasad Mishra, Abhishek Mishra
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i1931739

Abstract:
Background: The clashing of vehicles with others inattentively is considered a road accident. Its mapping and mitigation can be addressed through awareness, road engineering interventions; traffic planning, and signaling in the Bhubaneswar city, Odisha as increasing at a fast pace annually. Introduction: About 11064 Road Traffic Classes (RTCs) causing 5333 mortalities occurred during 2019 which has risen by 12% in the year 2021. There also occurred RTC deaths, traumas, and smashing of vehicles, in Bhubaneswar; the capital city of Odisha, which has raised from zero to nine black spots in the last 3 to 4 decades. Its positioning and topography, and located at critical junctions of the Kolkata-Chennai national highway (NH-16) and NH roads connecting to the pilgrim city of golden sands at Puri (NH 236). Methodology: Collection of traffic data, traffic study at a few places, geographical information studies, remote sensing of geo-referenced satellite data, use of ERDAS software, and analytical studies to initiate up-gradation proposals for existing risky and vulnerable roads. The agglomerated city needs planning for new routes to address the accidents and reduce traffic congestion during peak hours. Results: The rising demography, added with daily floating people and heavy traffic plying through NH-16 and NH-316 have caused traffic congestion, delays, and accidents are identified as black spots. The dominant black spots found are at road junctions, Ravi Talkies, Rasulgarh, Vanivihar, CRP, fire station, Baramunda, and Patia. Environmental malfunctions, rider's faults, the mental health of driver and user, and mechanical failures are major causes of RTCs. GIS/RS maps need to be plotted over small-scale maps (1:1000m). Probable black spots are identified and their redressing by proposals of up-gradation, and new road creation have been proposed.
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