Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1735-806X / 1735-806X
Published by: Negah Scientific Publisher (10.32598)
Total articles ≅ 237
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, Alireza Farhadi
Published: 1 July 2021
Salmand, Volume 16, pp 234-247; https://doi.org/10.32598/sija.16.2.2805.1

Abstract:
Objectives: The current study aims to examine the effect of combined exercises and ginkgo biloba supplementation for 8 weeks on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) level in depressed older men. Methods & Materials: Forty depressed older men were randomly divided into four groups of exercise (n=10), supplementation (n=10), exercise + supplementation (n=10), and control (n=10). In the pre-test phase, blood samples were taken from the subjects. Then the participants in the exercise group performed combined exercises for eight weeks, 3 sessions per week. Those in the supplementation group, the subjects were given 80 mg of ginkgo biloba extract daily for eight weeks. In the exercise + supplementation group, the subjects received both interventions simultaneously. Blood samples were taken again 24 hours after the end of intervention. Collected data were analyzed using paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni Post Hoc Test. Results: Eight weeks of combined exercise alone, ginkgo biloba supplementation alone, and combined exercise and ginkgo biloba supplementation simultaneously significantly increased BDNF level in depressed older men (P<0.05). The increase in the BDNF level of subjects in the exercise + supplementation group was higher (84.78) compared to the exercise (74.37) and supplementation (72.20) groups. Conclusion: Simultaneous use of combined exercises and ginkgo biloba supplementation can be used by geriatricians to improve brain function of depressed older men.
Tahereh Eteraf Oskouei, Elaheh Vatankhah,
Published: 1 July 2021
Salmand, Volume 16, pp 274-287; https://doi.org/10.32598/sija.16.2.3045.1

Abstract:
Objectives: Prescribing medication for the elderly is an important health issue. This study aimed to investigate the status of Potentially Inappropriate Medications (PIMs) prescription for the elderly by general physicians in Tabriz, Iran. Methods & Materials: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 on the prescriptions of general physicians for the elderly in Tabriz, Iran. After initial screening of 16842 prescriptions belonged to two insurance systems (social security insurance and health insurance), 1500 prescriptions were selected. The Beers criteria 2019 was used to assess PIM prescription status and their alternatives were suggested if needed. Data were expressed as Mean±Standard Deviation (SD) and No. (%), and analyzed in SPSS v. 21 software. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the differences in the study factors between the prescriptions related to two insurance systems. The relationship between patients’ age and PIM prescription was examined using Spearman correlation test. Results: The Mean±SD number of drugs in each prescription was 3.93±1.5 and the Mean±SD number of prescribed PIMs was 0.74±0.8. Polypharmacy was observed in 32.6% of the prescriptions, and 53.9% had at least one PIM. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines and benzodiazepines were the most PIM groups (45.6, 10.9 and 10.6%, respectively). The most common prescribed PIMs were Adult cold, Diclofenac, Glibenclamide, Ketorolac and Diphenhydramine. Number of PIMs in each prescription did were not statistically different between the prescriptions related to two insurance systems (P=0.343). Moreover, patients’ age and gender had no significant relationship with PIM prescription (P=0.312 and P=0.660, respectively). Conclusion: About 54% of the prescriptions issued by general physicians for the elderly in Tabriz contain PIMs, and polypharmacy is present in about one third of the prescriptions. In order to improve this condition, it is necessary to hold appropriate training and continuous retraining courses in geriatric medicine for general physicians. Supervisions by the Iranian Ministry of Health and Iranian Medical Council can also play an important role in improving the current situation.
Saeid Saeidimehr, , Nasibeh Zanjari, Reza Fadaye Vatan
Published: 1 July 2021
Salmand, Volume 16, pp 202-217; https://doi.org/10.32598/sija.16.2.1600.1

Abstract:
Objectives: Frailty syndrome is one of the most important geriatric syndromes that imposes high psychological and financial costs on the elderly, their families and health system. This study aims to determine the factors associated with frailty in older adults living in Khuzestan province of Iran Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2019 on 540 older adults in Khuzestan province who were selected by a multistage random sampling method. Data collection tools include a demographic form, Deficit accumulation Frailty Index, Wax’s Social Support Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Collected data were analyzed using Spearman correlation test, chi-square test and sequential logistic regression analysis. Results: The Mean±SD age of participants was 72.61±8.72 years and 65.6% were women. Around 10.4% were frail and 25.6% were pre-frail. Frailty was higher among older women with higher age, lower education, without social support, with depression, living alone, single, with a history of taking high number of medications, and with a history of hospitalization (P<0.001). Frailty was lower in older men with lower age, a history of taking less than 5 medications, no depression, and high social support (P<0.005). Conclusion: The consequences of frailty syndrome can be reduced by early identification of frail older adults and using appropriate interventions based on risk factors such as polypharmacy and low social support.
Elaheh Taghvaei, Seyedeh Ameneh Motalebi, Maryam Mafi, Mohammad Ali Soleimani
Published: 1 July 2021
Salmand, Volume 16, pp 188-201; https://doi.org/10.32598/sija.16.2.1294.2

Abstract:
Objectives: Social isolation can lead to depression, reduced life expectancy, and increased death anxiety among older adults. The present study aims to determine the predictors of social isolation in community-dwelling older adults residing in Qazvin, Iran. Methods & Materials: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 301 older adults in 2019 who were selected using a cluster sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic/clinical checklist, Lubben Social Network Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index, and Pargament’s Religious Coping Questionnaire, which were completed through face to face interview. The collected data were analyzed using multivariable regression analysis. Results: The Mean±SD age of participants was 68.63±7.31 years. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the significant predictors of social isolation were social support (β=0.333, P<0.001), disability (β=-0.137, P=0.018), and living with spouse (β=0.154, P=0.010). The social isolation was reduced by increasing social support, decreasing disability, and living with spouse. Conclusion: Given the role of social support and disability in predicting social isolation in the elderly, it seems that one of the effective factors in reducing social isolation especially in the disable older adults is establishing or strengthening supportive social networks.
Azam Sharifi, , Masoud Fallahi-Khoshknab, Farahnaz Mohammadi-Shahbolaghi, Abbas Ebadi
Published: 1 July 2021
Salmand, Volume 16, pp 260-273; https://doi.org/10.32598/sija.16.2.2855.1

Abstract:
Objectives: One of the fundamental responsibilities of nurses in care is to prevent harm to the patients and others. Many nurses use physical restraints to achieve this goal. Considering that the use of physical restraints in older patients is associated with physical and psychological complications and ethical issues, it is important to identify the nurses’ perceptions of using physical restraint in hospitalized older adults. This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Perception of Physical Restraint Use Questionnaire (PRUQ) to be used in caring for hospitalized older adults in Iran. Methods & Materials: This is a methodological study with a descriptive cross-sectional design that was conducted in hospitals in Kermanshah (Western Iran) in 2019. After obtaining permission from the developers of PRUQ, translation to Persian was performed according to standard protocol of World Health Organization. Then, the Persian version was completed by 330 nurses who were selected by a convenience sampling method based on the inclusion criteria. Then, its face validity and content validity (qualitatively and quantitatively), construct validity using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), test-retest reliability, internal consistency and structural reliability were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS v. 23 and AMOS v. 5 applications. Results: Results showed a Content Validity Index (CVR) of 0.78 and a scale CVI of 0.88. Based on the results of EFA and CFA, three factors were extracted including “prevention of fall”, “prevention of interruption or interference in treatment” and “providing safe environment”. The good fit of the three-factor model of the Persian PRUQ was approved based on the model fit indices (Chi square/degree of freedom=2.27, Goodness-of-Fit Index=0.83, Comparative Fit Index =0.91, Normed Fit Index=0.92, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.08). The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.82), structural reliability (>0.70) and intraclass correlation coefficient (0.86). Conclusion: The Persian version of PRUQ has good validity and reliability to be used in nurses working in hospitals in Iran. It can be used in future studies in this population.
Raziyeh Amini, , Kian Norouzi Tabrizi, Amene Setareh Forouzan
Published: 1 July 2021
Salmand, Volume 16, pp 172-187; https://doi.org/10.32598/sija.16.2.3052.1

Abstract:
Objectives: Social participation in older adults is one of the key pillars of active aging. Social participation is influenced by multiple underlying factors. The present study aims to explore the facilitators and barriers to social participation in community-dwelling older adults in Iran. Methods & Materials: This is a qualitative study using the grounded theory approach. The study population consisted of community-dwelling older adults. Fifteen samples were selected using a purposive sampling method. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. Information were collected until data saturation. Each interview lasted for 45-60 minutes. Analysis was done using the method of Corbin and Strauss (2015). Results: Three main categories and 11 sub-categories were found based on data analysis which were: Participatory elderly (with 5 sub-categories), participatory family (with 2 sub-categories), and community capacity for social participation (with 4 sub-categories). Conclusion: Facilitating social participation of community-dwelling older adults in Iran is associated by individual, family and community. Proper planning should be done in these areas. Providing facilitators for the development of social participation in the elderly can facilitate movement towards active aging.
Maryam Ghorbani, Raha Salehabadi, Neda Mahdavifar,
Published: 1 July 2021
Salmand, Volume 16, pp 248-259; https://doi.org/10.32598/sija.16.2.2767.1

Abstract:
Objectives: Nurses’ attitudes affect their preference for caring for the elderly as well as the quality of care. This study aims to investigate the factors related to nurses’ attitudes toward the elderly care and assess the predictive roles of altruism, moral intelligence, life satisfaction and general health. Methods & Materials: This descriptive-analytical study with a cross-sectional design was conducted on 265 nurses working in hospitals in Sabzevar, Iran in 2019. Data were collected using a demographic form, Kogan’s Attitudes Toward Old People Scale,Lennick and Kiel’s Moral Competency Inventory, Carlo’s revised form of Prosocial Tendencies Measure, Diener’s Satisfaction With Life Scale , and General Health Questionnaire-28 item. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, and frequency) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation test, linear regression analysis, and independent t-test) in SPSS v. 16 software. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The Mean±SD age of participants was 33.10±7.17 years. Nurses had a positive attitude toward the elderly care. Their Mean±SD attitude score was 155.39±17.74. There was no significant relationship between nurses’ attitudes and variables of age, gender, marital status, education, work experience, ward, and general health (P>0.05). The multiple regression model showed that the factors of moral intelligence (P=0.01), altruism (P=0.008) and life satisfaction (P=0.03) had a significant relationship with nurses’ attitudes toward the elderly care. Conclusion: Nurses’ attitudes toward the elderly care can be predicted by their moral intelligence, altruism and life satisfaction. Evaluation of these characteristics in nurses who provide services to the elderly can positively affect to their attitudes and prevent phenomena such as age discrimination
Sima Alemi, , Saied Malihialzackerini, Mohammad Khabiri
Published: 1 July 2021
Salmand, Volume 16, pp 218-233; https://doi.org/10.32598/sija.16.2.3058.1

Abstract:
Objectives: Aging is one of the phenomena in the field of global health. It is very important to pay attention to older adults psychologically and physically. This study aims to evaluate the effect of mindfulness therapy combined with aromatherapy massage on the psychological functions of older women with chronic pain. Methods & Materials: This is a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test, follow-up design using a control group. The study population consists of all older women with chronic pain referred to hospitals, clinics, and rehabilitation centers in the west of Tehran, Iran in 2017. By using a convenience sampling method, 30 women were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly divided into two matched groups. The intervention group underwent mindfulness group therapy plus aromatherapy massage at ten 120-min sessions while the control group received no intervention. Their pain perception, sleep quality, and quality of life as psychological functions were evaluated at baseline, at the end of intervention and 45 days later. Collected data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance method in SPSS v. 19 software. Results: The mindfulness therapy/aromatherapy massage significantly reduced the pain perception and its components and improved quality of life and sleep quality in the intervention group compared to the control group (P<0.05), and these effects remained stable in the follow-up phase. Conclusion: mindfulness therapy combined with aromatherapy massage improves the quality of life and sleep and reduces chronic pain in older women. It can be used as an effective intervention for improving general health and quality of life in older patients with chronic pain.
Maliheh Khalvati, , Mahboube Khalvati, Ayub Nafei, Monire Khalvati, Ronak Ghafuri
Published: 1 July 2021
Salmand, Volume 16, pp 151-171; https://doi.org/10.32598/sija.16.2.862.2

Abstract:
Objectives: Aging is one of the most critical stages of human development that has its own characteristics and conditions. One of the most common issues in old age is the mental health whose achievement requires special attention from both health system policymakers and service providers to the elderly. Death anxiety is one of the most common mental health issues in old age, because this period is full of feelings of shortcomings and disabilities. Since death anxiety is a multidimensional factor, it is expected to affect many aspects of the elderly. The present study aims to review and analyze published studies in the field of death anxiety in the elderly in Iran. Methods & Materials: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis conducted on the studies related to the death anxiety of the elderly in Iran published in Persian from 2011 to 2019. A search was conducted in national databases, including SID, IranDoc, MagIran, IDML, and CIVILICA using the keywords: Death anxiety, elderly, and older adult. Initial search yielded 61 articles. After screening, 33 studies that met the entry and exit criteria were selected for the final review. We used Stata v. 14 and SPSS v. 22 applications to perform meta-analysis. Results: In the studies, 40.35% of the participants were older women and the rest were older men with a mean age of 67.80±6.44 years. The mean score of death anxiety was higher in men than in women, and the elderly living in nursing homes had the highest score (11.8). Studies were categorized into three sections: comparison (3 studies), intervention (11 studies), and factors affecting the death anxiety (18 studies). The results of meta-analysis showed no significant relationship between spiritual therapy and reduction of death anxiety in the elderly (P>0.05). In studies with spiritual and behavioral therapies, the heterogeneity was significant and, thus, a significant positive relationship was observed between the reduction of death anxiety and these treatments methods. Conclusion: The death anxiety level of the elderly in Iran is low. Religious beliefs, hopes for the intercession of imams and religious leaders, and hopes for freedom from the hardships of worldly life seem to have contributed to low death anxiety in Iran. Different death anxiety scores have been reported for older men and women in Iran may be due to the effect of culture, religion, and traditions, the difference in the roles of men and women, and even the expression of fear and anxiety. Most of men have less tendency to express their emotions, including fear, while women are more likely to express their feelings. Behavioral and spiritual interventions lead to a decrease in the elderly’s death anxiety through affecting their finding meaning in life.
, Elham Navab, Farshad Sharifi, Bahareh Namadi, Mahziyar Rahimidoost
Published: 1 April 2021
Salmand, Volume 16, pp 2-29; https://doi.org/10.32598/sija.16.1.3106.1

Abstract:
Objectives: The present study aimed to review the effects of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the elderly. In this study, we reviewed topics, such as the causes of COVID-19severity in the elderly; the psychological problems of the elderly; the relationship between comorbidities and COVID-19 severity, and the comparison of COVID-19 with other pandemics. Methods & Materials: This systematic review study was conducted in 2020 by searching in international Internet search databases. Boolean Operator (AND, OR) was used for a combined search without a time limit. The search strategy was limited to Persian and English articles using the following keywords: “older adults, COVID-19, psychological problems, social isolation, elderly abuse, ageism”. Finally, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, the remaining 58 studies were included in the study. Results: The results of the studies were extracted and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the elderly were examined in 8 parts, as follows: Why COVID-19 is more common in the elderly and has more complications; what are the mortality and complications of COVID-19 in the elderly; COVID-19 and underlying diseases; psychological problems caused by COVID-19 in the elderly; COVID-19 and abuse in the elderly; COVID-19and ageism in the elderly; the comparison of COVID-19 with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and influenza epidemics in the elderly, and care for the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic poses serious challenges for the elderly globally. To address these challenges, everyone must work, from government officials to individuals and families. Governments should enact laws that minimize the potential age-related abuse and discrimination and provide equal opportunities for all society members, regardless of age or gender. Families should also be aware of the increasing social isolation of the elderly and keep in touch with them.
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