Archaeological Discovery

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2331-1959 / 2331-1967
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 119
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Akio Kato
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 10, pp 35-59; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2022.101002

Abstract:
We propose that the Tri-Lobed Disc excavated from the Tomb of Prince Sabu (about 3000 BC, First Dynasty) was used in brewing beer as a mash rake to mix and even out the mixture of grains and hot water in a fairly big mash tun. Two observations which support this idea are presented in Section 1, and why the Disc works efficiently in mashing is explained in Section 2. We also propose in Section 3 our idea about how the Tri-Lobed Disc was made, and actually made its metal model to experiment and observe the flow around the Disc. About a would-be big “royal” mash tun of Prince Sabu is discussed in Section 4, and as a by-product of searching for any remains of ancient Egyptian mash tuns, we uncover in Section 5 that the large basins at the Sun Temple of Nyuserre (about 2400 BC, Fifth Dynasty) were such remains for ritual beer brewing. This reinterpretation succeeds in explaining almost all of their functions.
Guyang Yang, Huanhuan Wang
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 10, pp 60-67; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2022.101003

Abstract:
Modern fake antique jade is a means of rapid aging to make its appearance similar to excavated ancient jade, which seriously disrupts the orderly development of the collection market. This occurs because the current identification method is still based on traditional ophthalmic identification, which relies too much on the subjective consciousness of the appraiser. At present, scientific and technological testing and identification has become an important part of cultural relics identification, and promoting the development of jade non-destructive scientific and technological identification can continuously improve the jade identification system. In view of this, we discussed the application methods and feasibility of nondestructive scientific and technological identification in the four aspects of traditional ophthalmic identification: material identification, qualitative change characteristic identification, exogenous substance identification, and process trace identification. We found that non-destructive technology identification has broad prospects for development in the field of jade identification.
Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 10, pp 115-135; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2022.103005

Abstract:
This article follows two previous publications dedicated respectively to the Venetic and Illyrian personal anthroponyms. This article investigates the Messapian personal anthroponyms from the Monumenta Linguae Messapicae. The meaning of their roots was identified by comparing each one of them with corresponding lexemes in the present surviving Slavic languages. The result is that the Messapian personal anthroponyms having Slavic roots is 52.91%, which permits us to estimate that in the period from the VI to the I cen. BC roughly 53% of the Messapian population had Slavic ascendancies. This highlights that Slavs were already present in Europe well before the VII cen. A.D. date, according to the generally accepted theory, of the Slav late arrival. The logical consequence of this is that this theory is wrong and should be rejected.
Pigozzo Gina
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 10, pp 1-34; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2022.101001

Abstract:
This article is an interpretation, based on similarities with Slavic languages, of the Venetic inscription on the Tavola da Este (V-IV centuries B.C.), the longest Venetic inscription found so far. The result is a narrative text, of civic-religious nature. It confirms that: 1) the PaleoVeneti was a PaleoSlavic tribe, because their language was Slavic, enriched by the Greek; 2) the existence of narrative capabilities among the PaleoVeneti, always denied by historians. The only precedent translation of this inscription is from Ambrozič & Tomezzoli (2003).
Ali T. Al-Mishwat
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 09, pp 165-184; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2021.93009

Abstract:
This paper is a report on a discovery of an ancient human settlement next to the Faydhat Nayif pond in the AsSubbiyah area, north of Kuwait Bay, Kuwait. It also presents a description of the site and its artefacts. The settlement, named by the author Faydhat Nayif Archaeological Site, is composed of two parts, the main cluster of gallery remains and a small satellite, the Sonna Village. The main site contains foundations of around fifty galleries. The state of preservation of the foundations varies from excellent to weak. The dominant architectural plan for the galleries is a rectangle. Infrastructural components associated with the foundations are iron smelters and iron tools. Artefacts include fabricated iron tools, fishhooks and fishnets, pottery fragments, glass shards, and animal bones. The craft of the inhabitants revolves around iron smelting and tool fabrication, and hence, the “blacksmith” status. The research method followed in the research is simple classical surveying techniques utilizing a Brunton compass and a measuring tape. Imaging of the galleries used digital cameras. The settlement displays three styles of construction. The first style is that of a faint triangle, seen mostly in the southern and western sides of the site. The second style shows as a rectangle, with most galleries containing two rooms and external bathrooms. The third style of construction is similar to the second style, except for the presence of wood vestiges and the gypsum lining of the gallery walls. These differences between the three styles suggest three episodes of occupancy. One of the occupancies was by the AsSubbah tribe. The site served repeatedly as a center of population and pilgrim rest area, as well as cultural exchanges in the last 1500 years.
Mahmoud Ali
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 09, pp 135-150; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2021.92007

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to focus on the deterioration appearances of Pine wood “Pinus sp.” that has been widely used as an external architectural element in Egypt. The wooden lintels in this research were exposed to the influence of weathering factors which are varying in their amounts. This variation in the amounts was reflected in the appearance of the surface, at the anatomical structure of the pine wood, and at the changes in the main components of wood. To clarify all these changes, a comparison was made between wooden lintels exposed to two kinds of environments. Some very small samples from these environments had been chosen and examined by using the digital microscope and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) which clarify the surface and anatomical changes of deteriorated wood. The Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used also to show the extent of changes in the main wood components. The results showed a clear difference in the surface, anatomical and chemical changes in the wood at these two different environments. In the first environment with high moisture levels, the wood was damaged more than in the other environment with high-temperature levels.
Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 09, pp 198-222; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2021.93011

Abstract:
Because of its extension in the Atlantic Ocean, the Pointe du Raz, at the extremity of Brittany, was always an ideal place for signalisation and surveillance. For this reason, lighthouses and semaphores were activated. In the thirties of the last century, the Pointe experienced a period of prosperity that led to the construction of several hotels. It was because of the rapid German occupation of France in 1940 that the situation at the Pointe changed radically. A 2 km2 surface from the Pointe to Lescoff was requisitioned for the construction of the Stps QU 300, QU 500 and QU 13 hosting sophisticated radar stations. Various German units took turns ensuring the defence and the operations at the Pointe. On 8th August 1944, the garrison evacuated after having set on fire and destroyed military and civilian installations. The visits on 3rd January 2005 and 14th August 2020 permitted to identify many Stp components and to determine their preservation state at about 75 years after the conclusion of WWII.
Akio Kato
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 09, pp 16-51; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2021.91002

Abstract:
An entirely new feasible theory is presented about how they constructed, moved, shaped, and erected obelisks in ancient Egypt around 1500 BC. In particular, we propose two simple ways to erect obelisks, inspired by the historical fact that all of obelisks were originally erected “in pairs,” except the single “Lateran” obelisk. Our aim is to “excavate” ancient Egyptian methods to raise heavy high obelisks, using only the most primitive means including forerunners of pulley, but excluding further mechanical devices, like capstan or winch, which were employed in most cases of re-erection and re-location of obelisk outside of Egypt.
Juan Yataco Capcha, Hugo G. Nami, Wilmer Huiza
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 09, pp 91-112; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2021.92005

Abstract:
Richard “Scotty” MacNeish, between 1969 and 1972, led an international team of archaeologists on the Ayacucho Archaeological-Botanical—Project in the south-central highlands of Peru. Among several important archaeological sites identified there, MacNeish and his team excavated the Puente rock shelter. As a part of an ongoing research program aimed to reassess the lithic remains from this endeavor, we re-studied a sample by making diverse kinds of morpho-technological analysis. The remains studied come from the lower strata at Puente, where a radiocarbon assay from layer XIIA yielded a calibrated date of 10,190 to 9555 years BP that the present study identifies, various activities were carried out at the site, mainly related to manufacturing and repairing unifacial and bifacial tools. The artifacts studied are comparable with the lithic remains found in other sites located in the Ayacucho Basin, and with other early evidence from other parts of the south-central Andes.
Gérard Lucotte
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 09, pp 85-90; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2021.92004

Abstract:
We report here the result concerning the radiodating of the carbon of the keratin of hairs from a lock of the presumed Holy Maria-Magdalena kept in the Saint-Maximin basilica. The aim of this research is to establish the best dating possible. The age obtained is 1260 ± 30 years; for this hair lock this date corresponds in fact to that of the exhumation of Maria-Magdalena’s body by Charles II in 1279. We conclude that King Charles II had completely carried out this exhumation story, to reinforce the influence of some part of his territory at that time.
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