Journal of Mechanical Design

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ISSN / EISSN : 1050-0472 / 1528-9001
Published by: ASME International (10.1115)
Total articles ≅ 5,021
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, , Harrison Kim
Published: 13 September 2021
Journal of Mechanical Design pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052389

Abstract:
Remanufacturing is a representative product recovery strategy that can improve economic profitability and sustainability by restoring discarded or traded-in used products to a like-new condition. Unlike the production process of new products, remanufacturing requires unique production processes, such as collecting used products and dis(re)assembly. Therefore, several factors need to be considered for the design of remanufactured products. First, when designing a remanufactured product, it is crucial to ensure that the specifications of components meet the customer's requirements because the remanufacturing uses relatively outdated components or modules. In addition, it is necessary to consider the disassembly level and order to facilitate the disassembly process to obtain the desired parts. This study proposes an integrated model to (i) find configuration design suitable for remanufactured products that can maximize customer utility based on End-of-life products, and (ii) establish a harvest plan that determines the optimal disassembly operations and levels. This proposed model can be used as a decisionmaking tool that helps product designers find the appropriate design of remanufactured products while increasing the efficiency of the remanufacturing process.
Shuo Wang, , Xiwang He, Yiming Qiu, Xueguan Song
Published: 13 September 2021
Journal of Mechanical Design pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052390

Abstract:
Digital twin has the potential for increasing production, achieving real-time monitor, and realizing predictive maintenance by establishing a real-time high-fidelity mapping between the physical entity and its digital model. However, the high accuracy and instantaneousness requirements of digital twins have hindered their applications in practical engineering. This paper presents a universal framework to fulfill the requirements and to build an accurate and trustworthy digital twin by integrating numerical simulations, sensor data, multi-fidelity surrogate (MFS) models, and visualization techniques. In practical engineering, the number of sensors available to measure quantities of interest is often limited, complementary simulations are necessary to compute these quantities. The simulation results are generally more comprehensive but not as accurate as the sensor data. Therefore, the proposed framework combines the benefits of both simulation results and sensor data by using an MFS model based on moving least squares, named MFS-MLS. The MFS-MLS was developed as an essential part to calibrate the continuous field of the simulation by limited sensor data to obtain accurate results for the digital twin. Then single-fidelity surrogate models are built on the whole domain using the calibrated results of the MFS-MLS as training samples and sensor data as inputs to predict and visualize the quantities of interest in real-time. In addition, the framework was validated by a truss test case, and the results demonstrate that the proposed framework has the potential to be an effective tool to build accurate and trustworthy digital twins.
Published: 13 September 2021
Journal of Mechanical Design pp 1-53; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052391

Abstract:
Decomposition is a dominant design strategy because it enables complex problems to be broken up into loosely-coupled modules that are easier to manage and can be designed in parallel. However, contrary to widely held expectations, we show that complexity can increase substantially when natural system modules are fully decoupled from one another to support parallel design. Drawing on detailed empirical evidence from a NASA space robotics field experiment we explain how new information is introduced into the design space through three complexity addition mechanisms of the decomposition process: interface creation, functional allocation, and second order effects. These findings have important implications for how modules are selected early in the design process and how future decomposition approaches should be developed. Although it is well known that complex systems are rarely fully decomposable and that the decoupling process necessitates additional design work, the literature is predominantly focused on reordering, clustering, and/or grouping based approaches to define module boundaries within a fixed system representation. Consequently, these approaches are unable to account for the (often significant) new information that is added to the design space through the decomposition process. We contend that the observed mechanisms of complexity growth need to be better accounted for during the module selection process in order to avoid unexpected downstream costs. With this work we lay a foundation for valuing these complexity-induced impacts to performance, schedule and cost, earlier in the decomposition process.
Published: 9 September 2021
Journal of Mechanical Design, Volume 144, pp 1-55; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4051681

Abstract:
Design-by-analogy (DbA) is a design methodology wherein new solutions, opportunities, or designs are generated in a target domain based on inspiration drawn from a source domain; it can benefit designers in mitigating design fixation and improving design ideation outcomes. Recently, the increasingly available design databases and rapidly advancing data science and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have presented new opportunities for developing data-driven methods and tools for DbA support. In this study, we survey existing data-driven DbA studies and categorize individual studies according to the data, methods, and applications into four categories, namely, analogy encoding, retrieval, mapping, and evaluation. Based on both nuanced organic review and structured analysis, this paper elucidates the state-of-the-art of data-driven DbA research to date and benchmarks it with the frontier of data science and AI research to identify promising research opportunities and directions for the field. Finally, we propose a future conceptual data-driven DbA system that integrates all propositions.
Binyang Song, Nicolás F. Soria Zurita, Hannah Nolte, , , Christopher McComb
Published: 9 September 2021
Journal of Mechanical Design, Volume 144, pp 1-38; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4051871

Abstract:
As artificial intelligence (AI) assistance tools become more ubiquitous in engineering design, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the influence of AI assistance on the design process and design effectiveness. Previous work has shown the advantages of incorporating AI design agents to assist human designers. However, the influence of AI assistance on the behavior of designers during the design process is still unknown. This study examines the differences in participants’ design process and effectiveness with and without AI assistance during a complex drone design task using the HyForm design research platform. Data collected from this study are analyzed to assess the design process and effectiveness using quantitative methods, such as hidden Markov models and network analysis. The results indicate that AI assistance is most beneficial when addressing moderately complex objectives but exhibits a reduced advantage in addressing highly complex objectives. During the design process, the individual designers working with AI assistance employ a relatively explorative search strategy, while the individual designers working without AI assistance devote more effort to parameter design.
Published: 9 September 2021
Journal of Mechanical Design pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052366

Abstract:
Design concept evaluation is a key process in the new product development process with a significant impact on the product's success and total cost over its life cycle. This paper is motivated by two limitations of the state-of-the-art in concept evaluation: (1) The amount and diversity of user feedback and insights utilized by existing concept evaluation methods such as quality function deployment are limited. (2) Subjective concept evaluation methods require significant manual effort which in turn may limit the number of concepts considered for evaluation. A Deep Multimodal Design Evaluation (DMDE) model is proposed in this paper to bridge these gaps by providing designers with an accurate and scalable prediction of new concepts' overall and attribute-level desirability based on large-scale user reviews on existing designs. The attribute-level sentiment intensities of users are first extracted and aggregated from online reviews. A multimodal deep regression model is then developed to predict the overall and attribute-level sentiment values based on the features extracted from orthographic product images via a fine-tuned ResNet-50 model and from product descriptions via a fine-tuned BERT model, and aggregated using a novel self-attention-based fusion model. The DMDE model adds a data-driven, user-centered loop within the concept development process to better inform the concept evaluation process. Numerical experiments on a large dataset from an online footwear store indicate a promising performance by the DMDE model with 0.001 MSE loss and over 99.1% accuracy.
Published: 6 September 2021
Journal of Mechanical Design, Volume 143, pp 1-27; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4051720

Abstract:
Ever since its introduction over five decades ago, geometric solid modeling has been crucial for engineering design purposes and is used in engineering software packages such as computer-aided design (cad), computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided engineering, etc. Solid models produced by cad software have been used to transfer geometric information from designers to manufacturers. Since the emergence of additive manufacturing (AM), a CAD file can also be directly uploaded to a three-dimensional (3D) printer and used for production. AM techniques allow manufacturing of complex geometric objects such as bio-inspired structures and lattice structures. These structures are shapes inspired by nature and periodical geometric shapes consisting of struts interconnecting in nodes. Both structures have unique properties such as significantly reduced weight. However, geometric modeling of such structures has significant challenges due to the inability of current techniques to handle their geometric complexity. This calls for a novel modeling method that would allow engineers to design complex geometric objects. This survey paper reviews geometric modeling methods of complex structures to support bio-inspired design created for AM which includes discussing reasoning behind bio-inspired design, limitations of current modeling approaches applied to bio-inspired structures, challenges encountered with geometric modeling, and opportunities that these challenges reveal. Based on the review, a need for a novel geometric modeling method for bio-inspired geometries produced by AM is identified. A framework for such a bio-inspired geometric modeling method is proposed as a part of this work.
Mohammad Alsager Alzayed, Christopher McComb, Jessica Menold, Jacquelyn Huff,
Published: 6 September 2021
Journal of Mechanical Design, Volume 143, pp 1-57; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4048624

Abstract:
Having empathy in the design process can help engineers relate to the end-user by identifying what and why certain experiences are meaningful. While there have been efforts to identify the factors that impact empathic tendencies in engineering, there has been limited evidence on how a students’ trait empathy or empathic self-efficacy develops over a design project or what factors impact this development. The current study was developed to explore the development of students’ trait empathy and empathic self-efficacy development and identify the underlying impact of the design project’s context and course instructor through a study with 103 engineering students. Students’ trait empathy and empathic self-efficacy were measured across each of the four design stages (problem formulation, concept generation, concept selection, and final conceptual design) during an 8-week project. The results highlight that students’ trait empathy and empathic self-efficacy did not increase across design stages and the context of the design problem did not impact students’ empathy development. Meanwhile, students displayed lower empathic self-efficacy in one of the course sections, and interviews with the course instructors revealed that the lack of accessibility to the end-user might have constricted students from developing empathy. These insights call for future research that could empirically assess the impact of trait empathy and empathic self-efficacy in driving design outcomes in the later design stages, which could increase engineering educators’ awareness of the role of empathy in the engineering classroom.
Published: 2 September 2021
Journal of Mechanical Design pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052298

Abstract:
Surrogate models are often employed to speed up engineering design optimization; however, they typically require that all training data conform to the same parametrization (e.g. design variables), limiting design freedom and prohibiting the reuse of historical data. In response, this paper proposes Graph-based Surrogate Models (GSMs) for space frame structures. The GSM can accurately predict displacement fields from static loads given the structure's geometry as input, enabling training across multiple parametrizations. GSMs build upon recent advancements in geometric deep learning which have led to the ability to learn on undirected graphs: a natural representation for space frames. To further promote flexible surrogate models, the paper explores transfer learning within the context of engineering design, and demonstrates positive knowledge transfer across data sets of different topologies, complexities, loads and applications, resulting in more flexible and data-efficient surrogate models for space frame structures.
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