Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Journal Information
EISSN : 2410-6275
Current Publisher: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (10.22200)
Total articles ≅ 37
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Latest articles in this journal

Samman Chughtai
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 2; doi:10.22200/pjpr.20162142-145

Self-medication is a common incidence in the world today. This study aims to evaluate self-medication among university students of Multan, Pakistan. This randomized cross sectional study was carried out in Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan during December 2015- January 216. A sample size of 200 students was randomly selected. Response rate was 90% (n=182).The prevalence of self-medication among the students was determined to be 83%. There was difference in perception of pharmacy students and students of other professions. Most common condition in which students did self-medication was headache (49.66%; n=75). Students also showed tendency of self-medication in case of herbal and essential oil products (46.35%). Awareness concerning insecurity and benefits of self-medication must be spread among students to avoid the complications of self-medication.
Sanaul Mustafa, V. Kusum Devi
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 2; doi:10.22200/pjpr.20162103-120

A novel moxifloxacin (MOX)-loaded poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (MPs) suitable for oral administration was prepared by double emulsification solvent evaporation (w/o/w) method. To investigate the pharmacokinetic of MOX-MPs, a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantification of MOX in plasma and lung tissue of rats treated with MOX-MPs. Gatifloxacin (0.2µg/ml) was used as an internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase C18 column using isocratic elution with (0.01% Triethanolamine in distilled water): Acetonitrile in the ratio 70:30 v/v pH 2 adjusted with ortho-phosphoric acid, at flow rate of 1 ml/min with a total run time of 6 min. The column effluent was monitored by UV detector at 290 nm. The assay was found to be linear and validated over the concentration range 0.025 to 3.2 µg/ml for MOX in plasma and 0.1 to 2.5 µg/g of lung tissue with correlation coefficient of r2 0.9998 and r2 0.9997 respectively. The system was found to construct sharp peaks for MOX and IS with retention times of 4.08 (±0.012) and 5.84 (±0.026) min for plasma, and 4.17 (±0.016) and 5.84 (±0.022) for lung tissue, respectively. The method exhibited accuracy, precision (inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) and intra-day RSD values < 15.0 %. The method was applied for determining MOX concentration in plasma and lung after oral administration of 10mg/kg of free MOX and MOX MPs to rats. Results established selectivity and suitability of the method for pharmacokinetic studies of MOX from MOX-MPs
Umair Ikram Dar, Farooq Saleem, Saad Touqeer
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 2; doi:10.22200/pjpr.20162136-141

The present study was aimed to investigate the phytochemistry as well as the antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and irritant activities of fruit of Embelia robusta. Agar-well diffusion method was used for antimicrobial study whereas for antioxidant activity three tests namely, DPPH assay, β-Carotene assay and ascorbic acid content were performed. The results from antibacterial assay showed presence of antibacterial activity in all the three plant extracts (methanol, chloroform and n-hexane). Significant antioxidant activity was also found to be present and plant extracts showed no irritant effect. Alkaloids, glycosides, phenolics, tannins and flavonoids were also detected in the plant. The study shows that the plant possesses significant medicinal value.
Mukarram Anees, Muhammad Irfan Masood, Mahwish Ilyas, Muhammad Ammad
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 2; doi:10.22200/pjpr.20162160-167

Nanotechnology is showing a significant impact on the drug-delivery system over a past few years. This technology is playing a distinct role in remodeling the future of novel drug delivery system (NDDS). Nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the NDDS which exhibit vast applications in the field of clinical medicine and research. The encapsulation of therapeutic drugs in the form of nanoparticles shows advantageous effects, such as increasing drug efficacy, safety, bio-degradability, bioavailability and therapeutic index, over conventional dosage forms of these therapeutic drugs. The current review article mainly focuses on different types of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems including nanotubes, solid lipid nanoparticles, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, liposomes, quantum dots, dendrimers, ceramic nanoparticles and nanoerythrosomes as well as their applications in different field.
S Ashutosh Kumar, Manidipa Debnath, D. Vimala
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 2; doi:10.22200/pjpr.2016289-97

The present study aimed to develop and validate the simultaneous estimation of phenylephrine HCl, chlorpheniramine maleate and dextromethorphan HBr in tablet dosage forms. A gradient reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm has been developed for the simulataneous determination of phenylephrine HCl, chlorpheniramine maleate and dextromethorphan HBr in pharmaceutical dosage forms (Syrup). Good chromatographic separation was achieved by using a stainless steel analytical column, the Hypersil BDS C8 column (4.6 X 250 mm; 5 μm). The system was operated at 25 ± 2°C using a mobile phase consisted of HPLC grade water (composed of TEA and 1-octane sulfonic acid sodium salt) (pH adjusted to 3.2 using orthophosphoric acid) and acetonitrile, mixed at gradient mode, manitained flow rate at 1.0 mL/minute. The slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient were found to be y = 34306x - 11042 (r2= 0.999) for phenylephrine HCl, y = 35874x - 13101 (r2= 0.999) for chlorpheniramine maleate and dextromethorphan HBr y = 25516x - 26579 (r2 = 0.999), respectively. The proposed method was validated for its specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The method was found to be suitable for the quality control of phenylephrine HCl, chlorpheniramine maleate and dextromethorphan HBr simultaneously in a bulk drug samples as well as in a formulations.
Amna Jafar, Muhammad Imran Qadir
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 2; doi:10.22200/pjpr.20162153-159

World Health Organization (WHO) reported that developed and developing, both countries are suffering from childhood obesity. Childhood obesity has increased nationally and internationally. This can be reduced by focusing on prevalence, cancer association with obesity, risk factors and preventive measures of worldwide childhood obesity. Vitamin D and calcium both are inversely associated with obesity in children. So, supplementation of both micro-nutrients is warranted in childhood obesity. Some natural products in the form of diet are also helpful in reduction of obesity namely; prebiotics, probiotics and fatty acids.
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Mamoona Yasmeen
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 2; doi:10.22200/pjpr.20162146-147

For the betterment of mankind, scientists are trying to overcome all factors that hinder our economy and health. For this purpose they form genetically modified animals or organisms that have required characteristics, improved productivity, better health of animals and production of human required products. In genetic engineering, transgenesis is a process by which we improve genome of an organism. In whole world, people have different views about genetically modified animals. To know these views in our society, a research was conducted. For this purpose, 100 people of Multan, Pakistan were selected. Results showed that our society agrees with this fact that GM farm animals serve our economy but at the same time they don’t want to ignore their harmful effects.
Sahir Sajjad, Abdul Ghaffar, Muhammad Imran Qadir
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 2; doi:10.22200/pjpr.20162127-135

Purpose of this study was to evaluate the demographic and hematologic pattern of acute myeloid leukemia patients from lower Punjab area. The treatment of the acute myeloid leukemia patients is related with the unsatisfactory rates of complete responses that usually as short lived. At the relapse of leukemia patients the evaluation of investigational treatment strategies, therapeutic decision making by clinically useful prognostic index. All the hematological techniques were applied to increase the life expectancy of the leukemia patients. The study concluded that acute myeloid leukemia was prevalent in local population especially in males as compared to females. All the patients had varied CBCs profiles. The hematological tests are used to characterize the disease for its management and treatment to increase the life expectancy of the patients.
Ambreen Aleem, Muqeet Wahid
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 2; doi:10.22200/pjpr.20162121-126

Stoppage of bleeding from damaged blood vessels is hemostasis, an essential factor to be checked before any surgical process. Hence blood test is a routine test for hospital prior to surgeries. The aim of this study is to assess the blood groups distribution and to check gender based relationship among blood groups, bleeding and clotting time. The study was conducted in the department of pharmacy, BZU. The available detail reports of 122 students of 1st year of Pharm.D were analyzed in aspects of age, sex, blood groups, bleeding time and clotting time. The blood group were determined with the standard antisera, Duke Method and Capillary tube method were used to find out bleeding time and clotting time respectively. Finally all the parameters were compared and analyzed statistically. In the present study it is found that B blood group is more prevalent in both the sexes than O, A and AB. Clotting time is found to be significantly higher in O and B blood groups in females and males respectively, whereas Bleeding time was found to be prolonged in maximum number of group AB in females and blood group O in males but the difference was statistically insignificant. In females, bleeding and clotting time are slightly on higher side than in males, may be because of hormonal differences. Various cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases are associated with the blood groups, so people can take preventive measures according to their blood groups.
Yousef A Taher, Awatef M. Samud, Jamal S. Mezogi, Amel M. Hamza
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 2; doi:10.22200/pjpr.2016298-102

Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) is a well-known plant in most ancient traditional medicine and highly used for the cure of numerous medical disorders, insomnia included. Using a sleep disturbed model, pentobarbital sodium and ether induce loss of righting reflex were applied for the evaluation of hypnotic and narcosis effects respectively. In the present study, the methanol extract of Matricaria chamomilla flower, at the i.p dose 300 mg/kg, showed considerable restful effect and significantly potentiate the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital sodium, both the latency to sleep and duration time, with a decrease value of 31.9% (P
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