European Journal of Medicinal Plants

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2231-0894 / 2231-0894
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 1,034
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P. F. Ferreira,
European Journal of Medicinal Plants pp 46-63; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1130429

Abstract:
Background: Plants are important sources of therapeutic proteases with expressive activity, stability, specificity, and efficiency. These proteases are employed at low concentrations and produce lesser side effects. They have complex tridimensional structures whose maintenance is a challenge, requiring specific conditions to guarantee the biological and pharmacological activities of these compounds. Aims: To conduct a literature review about plant therapeutic proteases, their principal biochemical aspects, potentials and clinical applications, and main pharmaceutical formulations. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of a bibliographic survey of the major plant therapeutic proteases. An investigation was performed in the PUBMED, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Academic Google databases using the keywords plant enzymes, therapeutic protease, immobilization, formulation. Results: Some plant therapeutic proteases, such as papain and bromelain, are employed to treat many diseases and conditions, but the complexity of their structures is an important limitation of their uses. Thus, the structure and activities of their formulations need to be stabilized and protected against degradation, with improved pharmacokinetics, a prolonged time of action, reduced toxic effects, and proper direction towards their therapeutic target. Nanotechnology has made it possible to manufacture drug carriers such as polymeric nano- and microparticles, hydrogels, dendrimers and liposomes which are able to increase their efficacy and clinical applicability, as well as patient compliance. Sustainability initiatives that use Green Chemistry together with nanobiotechnology have managed to reduce the risks of toxicity to organisms and the environment. Green synthesis uses lower concentrations of metal ions, water-soluble, biocompatible and non-toxic compounds, as well as seeking energy efficiency and using renewable sources of raw materials. Conclusions: Investigations about new formulations of plant therapeutic proteases using biodegradable and biocompatible polymers is of great biomedical interest because they generate less toxic new biopharmaceuticals, in addition to protecting and stabilizing the enzymatic structure.
Ferdinando Lucas Góis, Ademir Evangelista Do Vale, Gislane Oliveira Ribeiro, Erika Maria De Oliveira Ribeiro
European Journal of Medicinal Plants pp 28-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1130428

Abstract:
Traditional medicine products are easily found in different regions of the world. Given this scenario, the World Health Organization (WHO) is very interested in the rational insertion of these resources, especially in primary pharmaceutical care in emerging countries. One of the main concerns of the WHO is with the population's access to traditional medicine products without quality guaranteed by regulatory and health control agencies in the country of origin. In ancient Chinese Pharmacology and Medicine, products based on associated drugs, used by boiling in water (decoction), successfully contribute to maintaining the health of Chinese people. In Brazil, the sanitary legislation of herbal mixtures for medicinal teas allows the sanitary notification of these products as traditional herbal medicines. On the other hand, the lack of clinical services to monitor consumption and the scarcity of evidence to ensure safety and efficacy, add to the inadequacy of the products to sanitary standards, the lack of inspection, and the definition of quality parameters for the evaluation of mixtures. Due to the chemical complexity of herbal mixtures, the correct identification of drugs through conventional techniques is usually possible for individual species, making it necessary to develop more comprehensive approaches. These testes allow to investigate the presence and/or absence of multiple pre-established markers, through the concept of fingerprint similarity and evaluation by chemometric tools. Liquid chromatography integrated with mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis proved to be the most used method. Among the objectives of this critical and prospective review are: to describe the probable origin of medicinal teas, the theoretical foundation of the compositions in pharmacology and traditional Chinese medicine, the modern techniques developed in the quality control of herbal mixtures, and the perspectives for rational and safe insertion of traditional herbal medicines in Brazilian pharmaceutical care.
Helber Veras Nunes, Daniella Inácio Barros, Alessandro De Souza Santos, Indira Rayane Pires Cardeal, Mariana Senna Quirino, Ricardo Alencar Libório, Lucas Eduardo Morais Brito, Paulo Victor Gomes Sales, Heloísa Donizete Da Silva,
European Journal of Medicinal Plants pp 23-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1130427

Abstract:
The little cashew from the Cerrado (Anacardium humile) is a kind of family anacardiáceaceas, a shrubby plant of great incidence in the Brazilian Cerrado. It is a small pseudofruit, of acidic and juicy flavor, which is known to have colors ranging from yellow to red. It can be consumed naturally or in juices, drinks, sweets. However, its true fruit is the chestnut. Seed germination is influenced by factors such as the substrate, which can be improved in order to improve germination, resulting in the acquisition of more vigorous seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Tocantins, city of Gurupi/TO, from 26 October 2017 to 15 February 2018. Seeds were collected directly from the pseudofruits. The highest root length value was obtained for seedlings of the following substrates: bs + ws + pb (7.1 cm and 12.5 cm) and ws (6.7 cm and 10.7 cm), intermediate values: or + rs + vl (6.3 cm and 10.0 cm) and hw + vl + sawdust + cp + ws (5.5 cm and 9.5 cm), and lower values on substrates: bs (5.7 cm and 8.0 cm) and bs + rs + sawdust (6,6 cm e 9,0 cm). It was also observed that the highest value referring to the first emergency count and seedling emergence once again stood out the substrates bs + ws + pb (61.0 % and 87.5 %) and ws (56.2% and 86.2 %). Intermediate results were obtained from hw substrates + vl + sawdust + cp + ws(44.0 % and 81.0 %) and or + rs + vl (48.4 % and 81.2 %) and lower for bs substrates (37.5% and 72.0 %) and bs + rs + sawdust (45.3% and 77.0 %). The substrates: bs + ws + pb and washed sand provided the highest values of viability and vigor in cashew seeds.
, Adama Hilou, Noufou Ouédraogo, Jotham Yhi-Pênê N’Do, Dramane Paré, Tata Kadiatou Traoré, Geoffroy G. Ouédraogo, André Tibiri
European Journal of Medicinal Plants pp 12-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1130426

Abstract:
Background: Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a hepatotoxin whose metabolic activation by liver cytochromes P450 is responsible for the necrosis, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of liver cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Calotropis procera roots bark against DEN induced hepatocellular damage in rats. Material and Methods: Hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Calotropis procera root bark were evaluated by induction of liver injury with DEN in Wistar male rats distributed in six groups of six. Serum hepatic markers, alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin were evaluated and the enzymes antioxidant activities, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, as well as the level of malonedialdehyde (MDA) were determined in the liver homogenate. Histological analysis was carried out on sections of rat livers. Phytoconstituents have also been studied. Results: Pretreatment of rats with the extract showed a significant decrease in ALAT, ASAT and ALP while there was an increase in total protein and albumin compared to rats treated only with DEN. It also showed a significant increase in SOD and catalase and a decrease in MDA levels suggesting the hepatoprotective effect of the extract. Observation of liver sections confirmed the results of the biochemical parameters which would attest that the extract is hepatoprotective. Phytoconstituents such as sterols, triterpenes and phenolic compounds have been demonstrated. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Calotropis procera roots bark has shown hepatoprotective effects that could be due to its content in sterols and triterpenic and phenolic compounds.
Kanyoni J. Mwangi, Kweri J. Kariuki, Mwangi A. Warimu, Bett S. Kipyegon, Sigei C. Chepngeno, Rono W. Kiplagat, Mabonga Cyprian, Ndung’U C. Wangui, Karanja J. Wanjiru, Kweri C. Kamau
European Journal of Medicinal Plants pp 49-61; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1030424

Abstract:
Aim: To evaluate the histostereological effects of P. africanus on testosterone induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in Wistar rats. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out for six weeks in Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. Methodology: A sample size of sixty Wistar were used as the experimental model and they were divided into two study groups of 30 rats in the restorative group and 30 rats in the inhibitory group. Each group was further categorized into 5 control and 25 experimental rats. The experimental rats were further subdivided into 5 sub-groups based on varying doses of the crude methanolic bark extract of P. africanus (0 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 125 mg, and 200 mg). BPH in experimental animal was induced by subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate (7.5 mg/kg) for 10 days. Results: The findings of the study showed that the restorative group had a statistical significant (P<0.05) ((dose dependent reduction of the prostate volume, the stromal and epithelium volume was observed. While in the inhibitory group a statistical significant (P<0.05) dose-related inhibition, in the increase of the prostate volume, the stromal and epithelium volume was observed. In conclusion, the maximal restorative effect was observed to be up to 85.6% and at a dose of 200 mg, while the optimal inhibitory effects were observed to be between 66.7- 68.4% in the dose range of 100-200 mg/kg/body weight. Conclusion: Crude methanolic bark extract of P. africanus has both restorative.
Diarra Diatta, Mamadou Fodé Camara, Madièye Sène, Philomène Akoua Yao-Kouassi, Firmin Sylva Barboza, Abdoulaye Gassama, Catherine Lavaud,
European Journal of Medicinal Plants pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1130425

Abstract:
Raphionacme vignei E. A. Bruce (Apocynaceae) is a plant of the traditional African pharmacopoeia, whose parts are used in the treatment of various pathologies. Water-soaked R. vignei tubers are edible. The objective of this study was to isolate triterpenoids from the acetonic extract of R. vignei tubers, evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of each molecule. The isolated compounds, characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry, is composed of six triterpenoids: beta-amyrin dodecanoate 1(DDQ1), lupeol dodecanoate 2(DDQ2), beta-amyrin acetate 3(DDQ3), lupeol acetate 4(DDQ4), luepol 5(DDQ5) and β-sitosterol 6(DDQ6). These molecules (DDQ2, DDQ3, DDQ4, DDQ5, DDQ6) are anti-inflammatory in carrageenan induced rat paw edema, with better anti-inflammatory power for DDQ2 and DDQ4, which would be related to the presence of acetate function and cycle E. DDQ2 and DDQ4 are also analgesic in acetic acid induced contortions and the removal test of rat tail on the heating plate. The analgesic action of DDQ2 and DDQ4, superior to that salicylic acetyl acid, identical to that morphine, suggests a central action of these two molecules. The potent analgesic effect of DDQ2 and DDQ4, could be attributed to the presence of cyclopentane and isoprene substitution in position 19 of the lupane family. DDQ2 and DDQ4 represent a potential for the synthesis of structural analogues with analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory properties.
Temitayo Veronica Folorunso, Anthony Kayode Onifade, Kolawole Oladunmoye, Bamidele Juliet Akinyele
European Journal of Medicinal Plants pp 32-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1030423

Abstract:
Bixa orellana, Jatropha curcas and Cassia alata are three of the prominent plants used for traditional medicine in Nigeria. Dermatophytosis also known as tinea or ringworm is the most frequent superficial fungal infections in Nigeria. Objective: In this Present Study, We Aimed at Comparing The Phytochemical Components and the Antifungal Efficacy of these Medicinal against Selected Dermatophytes. Study Design: Cross Sectional Study among a Particular Population. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State. Between March 2019 and September 2019. Methods: The phytochemical contents of the plants were determined and the in-vitro antifungal activities of Bixa orellana, Jatropha curcas and Cassia alata were screened against seven species of Trichophyton (T. ajelloi, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, M.gypseum T. soudenensis, T. tonsurans and T. verrucosum) using agar dilution method. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoid, saponin, phenol, steroids, glycoside, phytosteroids, alkaloids, terpenoid, tannin, and cardiac glycoside in various quantities. The findings from our study showed that the ethanol extracts of these medicinal plants have more antifungal activities than other solvents. However, the hexane and ethanol extracts of Jatropha curcas was observed to be significantly higher than other extracts. The zone of inhibition recorded ranges from 22 mm-32 mm and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 mg/ml was recorded. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Jatropha curcas showed broad effectiveness against the tested pathogens when compared to other plants and we conclude that the plants antifungal property is concentration dependent. However, we recommend further studies on these plants extracts using a large number of different isolates and solvents.
, Nyerhovwo Abijah Akpovwovwo, Theophilus A. Jarikre, Benjamin O. Emikpe
European Journal of Medicinal Plants pp 23-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1030422

Abstract:
Objective: The liver is the major organ of detoxification of ingested materials such as food, beverages and drugs, thus it is prone to toxicity with attendant pathologies. We studied the ability of Vitex agnus castus plant extract to ameliorate the biochemical and structural alterations in Wistar rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats were allotted into eight equal groups. Group1 was normal control (NC); Group 2 Liver injury without extract (LI). The remaining six groups were paired composite group of varying dosage of the plant extract (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg). Only one member of each pair had induced liver injury. Consequently, the groups were Low extract without liver injury (LE), Low extract with liver injury (LEL); Medium extract without liver injury(ME) Medium extract with liver injury (MEL) and High extract without liver injury (HE),High extract with liver injury (HEL).The biochemical parameters evaluated were the liver function test {Total protein plus globulin and albumen fractions; liver enzymes- alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase}. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the activities of antioxidants namely; Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx).Histology of the harvested liver specimens was used to assess the structural alterations. Results: The mean liver weight was highest in the HEL group and significantly different from that of its control (HE) and NC.The mean serum total protein of all the groups were significantly higher than that of the NC.The mean aspartate amino transferase levels of the LEL, ME and MEL groups were significantly lower than that of the control while that of the HEL was significantly higher than those of the LEL and MEL. The results of alanine amino transferase were similar to those of aspartate amino transferase. The alkaline phosphatase levels in all the experimental groups were significantly depressed when compared with the control. Amongst the experimental groups, the serum alkaline phosphatase level was significantly raised than those of the LEL, and MEL groups. The glutathione (GSH) activities of LE, HE and HEL were significantly lower. While the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity of the control was significantly lower to those of groups LEL, ME, MEL and HEL.Histopathology of the liver showed preservation of the liver architecture with normal hepatocytes in all the groups. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Vitex agnus castus was able to reduce the severity of carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in wistar rats.
Mihir Gadani, Ratna Upadhyay,
European Journal of Medicinal Plants pp 12-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1030421

Abstract:
Zenherb labs Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, developed a proprietary Arctostaphylous uva-ursi standardized extract (AUSE), (branded as UvaZen-VArb™). The current study is an attempt to get insights of the interaction of bioactives against target proteins involved in skin health pathways like melanogenesis. A molecular docking approach was adopted to understand the protein-ligand interactions and predict the most probable mechanism(s) of beneficial skin health effects imparted by this cosmeceutical ingredient. Four phytoconstituents were docked against 15 shortlisted target proteins using Autodock Vina tool. Drug likeliness was assessed on the basis of ADMET properties and Lipinski’s Rule of 5. Arbutin, gallic acid, quercetin and rutin in AUSE demonstrated good docking scores and bioactivities for melanin regulation, cell growth, proliferation and differentiation-hair, skin and nail.
Shishanthi Anuradha Perera, Vimukthi Asahara Samaranada, , Imesha Hansani Nayanathara Hemasinghe, Kaveesha Dulangi Ranasinghe, Piyal Marasinghe
European Journal of Medicinal Plants pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1030419

Abstract:
Background: Pavetta indica Linn is a medicinal plant that belongs to the family of Rubiaceae. The parts of this plant are used in indigenous clinical practices, especially for treating visceral obstruction, haemorrhoidal pains, rheumatism and eye diseases, and in the preferential treatment of liver disease, pain from piles, urinary infections, and fever. Despite its usage in indigenous clinical practices, there is limited available information on comparative pharmacognostic, physicochemical, phytochemical, ethnopharmacological data and antioxidant capacity of this herb. Aim: To review and summarize the medicinal properties of Pavetta indica Linn after critically evaluating the published studies reporting and to identify potential research areas from the existing data. Methodology: In the first phase, a comprehensive literature search was carried out in several databases under the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Project for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. Results: The plant reported various classes of bioactive compounds with the main components: carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, phytosterols, saponins, tannins, proteins and amino acids, phenolic and flavonoids. Extracts of this plant possess multiple pharmacological activities such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuroprotective and wound healing factors, anti-dementia, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antihelminthic and diuretic properties. Conclusion: This review gives vital information on the traditional uses and, on the other hand, modern discoveries such as phytochemistry and pharmacology of Pavetta indica Linn. The therapeutic value of the plant was discovered based on the information gathered during the review process. As a result, greater research on this plant should be encouraged to identify new useful drugs and therapeutic effects and test using clinical studies.
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