Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1410-3974 / 2580-8907
Current Publisher: Balai Arkeologi Yogyakarta (10.24832)
Total articles ≅ 55
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Latest articles in this journal

Ary Sulistyo
Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA, Volume 23, pp 1-17; doi:10.24832/bas.v23i1.387

Abstract:
Identitas Kota Jakarta tidak lepas dari momen sejarah yaitu sejak kemerdekaan tahun 1945. Perkembangan Kota Jakarta sebelum kemerdekaan masih kuat dipengaruhi oleh unsur kolonial Belanda, dan setelah kemerdekaan Indonesia (Kotapraja Djakarta). Namun demikian perkembangan Kota Jakarta pada masa orde Baru hingga kini kembali mendapatkan pengaruh barat melalui difusi kebudayaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan metode deskriptif-kualitatif. Kota Jakarta sebagai kesatuan ruang dari berbagai peristiwa sejarah yang terwujud melalui tinggalan materi kini telah ditetapkan dalam SK Gubernur DKI Jakarta No 473/1993 tentang Penetapan Bangunan-Bangunan Bersejarah di DKI Jakarta sebagai Benda Cagar Budaya yang berjumlah total 132 Cagar Budaya. Cagar Budaya berupa bangunan dan struktur terbanyak terdapat di Kotamadya Jakarta Pusat sebanyak 63 bangunan dan 4 struktur. Kota Jakarta, khususnya Kotamadya Jakarta Pusat pada pasca-kemerdekaan dirancang sebagai kota simbolisme material dimana Monas, Mesjid Istiqlal, dan bangunan perkantoran sama seperti representasi kota pra-kolonial dimana keraton, alun-alun, dan pusat aktivitas perekonomian berdekatan. Seiring dengan perkembangan jaman, kota Jakarta berkembang sebagai kota simbol modernitas, identitas dan representasi budaya Indonesia juga kota internasional. Namun dengan bermunculannya gedung-gedung pencakar langit menetralisir lapisan-lapisan simbolisme material tersebut termasuk kawasan Kotatua Jakarta.
Churmatin Nasoichah, Manguji Nababan, Mehammat Boru Karo Sekali, Tomson Sibarani
Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA, Volume 23, pp 18-27; doi:10.24832/bas.v23i1.382

Abstract:
Pustaha Laklak Poda Ni Tabas Na Rambu Di Porhas merupakan karya sastra masyarakat Mandailing yang isinya tentang mantra. Terdapat dua unsur dalam mengkaji karya sastra yaitu unsur intrinsik dan unsur ekstrinsik. Permasalahan penelitian ini adalah bagaimana bentuk unsur intrinsik dan ekstrinsik Pustaha Laklak Poda Ni Tabas Na Rambu Di Porhas? Tujuannya untuk mendeskripsikan unsur intrinsik dan ekstrinsik naskah kuno tersebut. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif kualitatif. Dari hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa pustaha laklak ini bertema nasihat dari mantra Rambu Di Porhas untuk melawan musuh. Naskah kuno ini memperlihatkan bahwa penulis merupakan orang yang pintar, sangat penting dan berpengaruh dalam kegiatan ritual. Dari sisi tipografi, naskah ini ditulis menggunakan aksara Batak (tulak-tulak). Tidak ditemukan pemenggalan kata dan jeda. Enjambemen pada naskah ini tetap terlihat meskipun tidak sesuai dengan baris ataupun tanda baca. Akuilirik dan sekaligus penulis naskah ditemukan dengan adanya penggunaan kata ganti orang pertama tunggal dan kata ganti milik orang pertama tunggal. Rima tidak ditemukan pada naskah ini. Citraan penulis digambarkan sebagai orang yang memiliki pengetahuan luas dan hebat. Ragam bahasa yang digunakan adalah hata sibaso atau hato hadatuan. Pustaha ini ditulis di Mandailing pada waktu pengaruh agama Islam dan kolonial di Mandailing namun masyarakatnya masih menganut kepercayaan roh leluhur. Kebiasaan perang antar huta atau etnis lain juga tergambar jelas dari isi pustaha yang sebagian besar berisi mantra dan ramalan.
Galih Sekar Jati Nagari
Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA, Volume 23, pp 28-45; doi:10.24832/bas.v23i1.420

Abstract:
Klaten pada akhir abad XIX hingga awal abad XX memiliki peran penting dalam perkembangan perekonomian di Hindia Belanda karena hasil perkebunannya yang baik. Kondisi tersebut juga mendukung perkembangan kawasan “pusat kota” Klaten yang sebelumnya hanya digunakan sebagai pusat pemerintahan, kemudian berkembang menjadi lebih kompleks dengan dibangunnya fasilitas-fasilitas modern. Tulisan ini memaparkan interpretasi perkembangan kawasan “pusat kota” Klaten dari awal Klaten menjadi kabupaten di bawah Kasunanan Surakarta hingga sebagai afdeeling perkebunan di Karesidenan Surakarta. Metode penelitian yang digunakan bersifat historis, dengan menelusuri komponen-komponen kota menggunakan sumber-sumber lama seperti peta dan catatan, juga dibandingkan dengan keletakan komponen kota di lapangan. Melalui penelusuran tersebut, dapat diinterpretasikan bahwa kawasan “pusat kota” Klaten mencirikan tata kota Indis, yang memiliki perpaduan antara komponen kota tradisional dan komponen kota modern Eropa.
Khairun Nisa
Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA, Volume 23, pp 46-57; doi:10.24832/bas.v23i1.369

Abstract:
Makam-makam yang dapat dijumpai di Kompleks Pemakaman Sutan Nasinok Harahap berupa gundukan tanah yang dipagari oleh batu-batu pipih berdenah persegi. Beberapa di antara batu-batu tersebut tampaknya telah diolah manusia, ada yang bahkan memiliki inskripsi beraksara dan berbahasa Batak dan/atau dihiasi relief beragam bentuk, meski ada juga yang tidak mengalami proses pengerjaan sama sekali. Permasalahan yang diangkat dalam tulisan ini adalah mengenai relief yang menampilkan figur-figur binatang yang dipahatkan pada batu-batu pipih di Kompleks Pemakaman Sutan Nasinok Harahap. Mengapa penggambaran hewan dipilih? Makna apa yang terkandung di dalamnya? Dan apa tujuan dipahatkannya figur hewan tersebut? Penelitian ini akan melewati tahap observasi, deskripsi, dan eksplanasi. Kajian yang akan dipergunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah etnoarkeologi dengan melakukan perbandingan terhadap budaya yang dikenal masyarakat sekitar serta masyarakat Angkola-Mandailing dan sub etnik Batak lainnya.
Muhamad Alnoza, Rafael Arya Bagas Ananta, Mentari Putri Ramadhanti
Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA, Volume 23, pp 58-72; doi:10.24832/bas.v23i1.368

Abstract:
Srivijaya is a federation state in Nusantara on the 7th century AD. Dapunta Hyang as the first of Datu Sriwijaya, was first mentioned in the Kedukan Bukit Inscription (606 AD). In its development, Srivijaya's authority which began in Palembang began to develop into the surrounding areas. Evidence of this expansion of Srivijaya is recorded in the Srivijaya inscriptions found in these areas. The inscriptions found generally contain curses about people who rebel against unity. This paper is intended to reconstruct the ecological considerations made by Srivijaya in expanding its territory. This paper connects the location of the discovery of the inscription, the composition of the contents of the curse of the inscription and number of inscriptions to find out the priority scale of the Sriwijaya territory. The analyzed data is then compare it with the ecological conditions of each region. In interpreting the expansion of the region based on ecological and geographic conditions, political ecology theory is used. Finally, it can be seen that Palembang is the axis of unity, because of the many inscriptions found and the curse composition in the inscriptions. Palembang has a wealth of natural resources and the most favorable geographical conditions for the Sriwijaya Union. The inscription discovery area outside Palembang is a hinterland area, whose natural wealth is used as a commodity for Kadatuan Sriwijaya.
Stanov Purnawibowo
Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA, Volume 22, pp 55-64; doi:10.24832/bas.v22i1.398

Abstract:
The stakeholder analysis on the underwater archeological relics of Berakit village is an integrated part of the Research Program of Balai Arkeologi Medan, North Sumatra, entitled The Archeological Survey on the North Coast of Bintan Island, Bintan Regency, Riau Islands Province, that is conducted in 2018 in Berakit Village, Teluk Sebong District, Bintan Regency. The raised issue is the potential management of underwater relics in Berakit Village based on its stakeholder analysis. This study aims to obtain the policy of underwater archeological relics management based on the potential conflict that occurs among the stakeholders. The applied methods are in-depth interviews and Focused Group Discussion (FGD) with the stakeholders related to the underwater archeological relics in the research location. The stakeholders are classified into three groups, i.e. government, society, and academics. Issues on the underwater archeological relic management that give general descriptions about the potential conflicts of that archeological relic management are raised in the in-depth interviews and FGD. The potential is then analyzed using one of the conflict-analysis tools, i.e. onion analysis. The result of the stakeholder analysis shows a common need that becomes the knot of the conflict, i.e. the land utilization.
Ery Soedewo
Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA, Volume 22, pp 19-30; doi:10.24832/bas.v22i1.394

Abstract:
The Batak reign was one of the countries mentioned by Portuguese written sources from the 16th century AD, once existing on the island of Sumatra. In the middle of the 16th century the sovereignty of the Batak Kingdom was threatened by the aggression of the Sultanate of Aceh to its neighboring countries on the island of Sumatra. Through a historical study of the main data in the form of two Portuguese records, Tome Pires and Ferna-O Mendes D. Pinto, it was revealed the potential strengths and strategies adopted by the Batak Kingdom in the face of the Aceh Sultanate's attack. The absence of fortifications as an element of state power, made the Batak Kingdom change its defense strategy from defensive to aggressive. The initiative of the attack carried out by the Batak forces was inseparable from the support of their allied countries. Although the alliance has been formed by the Kingdom of Batak with a number of countries, the glory belongs to the Sultanate of Aceh.
- Rinaldi, Azmi Dwi Seffiani
Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA, Volume 22, pp 45-54; doi:10.24832/bas.v22i1.397

Abstract:
The cemetery of the King Kotalama complex is the Indragiri royal burial complex of the islamic-style period of Narasinga II. This study focused on the type of ornament that developed in the burial complex of the king of Kotalama. Decoration can provide information about the development of art culture during the reign of Narasinga II. The method used to answer these problems is through morphological analysis and stylistic analysis, in order to find out the types of decorations. The developing decoration shows that the community acculturates the old culture and the new culture. The ornamental variety consists of flora, geometric and calligraphy.
Syahrul Rahmat
Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA, Volume 22, pp 122-135; doi:10.24832/bas.v22i2.411

Abstract:
As one of the traditional buildings in Minangkabau, the mosque built before the 20th century is unique in term of the building shape. Customary leaders have a major role in the mosque construction, especially in Tanah Datar District, West Sumatra. The customary embodiment as community's culture also influences the meaning of every part of the mosque building. This indicates that at a certain time, customs and Islam had a quite intense interaction to leave a mark on the building architecture. The research conducted using a historical research method. This research aimed to discover the interaction of custom and religion in term of mosque building built in the early of 18th and 20th century. The interaction between custom and Islam are analyzed in form of physical, meaning, and idea.
Mochammad Fauzi Hendrawan
Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA, Volume 22, pp 81-95; doi:10.24832/bas.v22i2.408

Abstract:
Indonesian archipelago holds considerably amount of archaeological data includes shipwreck that vary from various periods and types. In Bawean Island, a shipwreck with steamer component indicated from the 19th century named Pulau Nusa was found. In 2016, Pulau Nusa shipwreck was found by Balai Arkeologi Yogyakarta in a fragmentary shape with scattered components. Numbers of scattered components has concreted with coral and the bottom part has gone through sedimentation thus buried in sea floor. This research focused on the underlying process behind the current condition of Pulau Nusa shipwreck. Conducted as an explorative research with inductive reasoning, this research used two main method of analysis, i.e environmental and contextual analysis. These two method of analysis are used to answer the data formation process which divided into two steps, behavioral process (pre-depositional) and transformation process (depositional and post-depositional) along with cultural and noncultural factors that have impact on those process. From the synthesis of two analyses came the conclusion at first the formation of archaeological data influenced by Noncultural transform, but further because it is located in the shallow sea and the existence of human activity due to the economic value of the environment and shipwreck itself, the cultural transformation factor also contributes to the role.
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