Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2460-8920 / 2460-8912
Current Publisher: Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry (10.22373)
Total articles ≅ 68
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Mastura Mastura, Tonel Barus, Lamek Marpaung, Partomuan Simanjuntak
Published: 30 December 2020
Elkawnie, Volume 6, pp 213-221; doi:10.22373/ekw.v6i2.5532

Abstract:
An isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Halban Leaves (Vitex pinnata Linn), a traditional medicinal plant in Aceh, has been done. Halban leaves were extracted through methanol maceration followed by isolation. The methanol extract went into n-hexane and ethyl acetate partition consecutively resulting in 3 different fractions of ethyl acetate and n-hexane extract. The ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated the most promising antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. Therefore, purification of ethyl acetate fraction was done by column chromatography [SiO2; (i) n-hexane-ethyl acetate 10:1, 1:1 ; (ii) n-hexane-ethyl acetate = 2 : 1); (iii) n-hexane-acetone = 1:1]. The pure isolate as identified by using UV, IR, NMR, and MS spectra afforded 2 phenolic compounds, namely (1) 4-hydroxymethyl benzoate and (2) p-hydroxymethyl benzoic acid (PHBA). The antioxidant activity of compound 1 and cytotoxicity activity of 2 expressed in IC50 and LD50 was 41.08 ppm and 59.41 ppm, respectively.Abstrak: Isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa fenolik dari Daun Halban (Vite xpinnata Linn) tanaman obat tradisional asal Aceh telah dilakukan. Isolasi ini dilakukan dengan cara mengekstraksi daun halban dengan cara maserasi menggunakan pelarut metanol, Ekstrak metanol kemudian dipartiisi dengan n-heksan dan etilasetat secara berturut-turut sehingga diperoleh tiga ekstrak yaitu ekstrak etil asetat, n-heksan dan air. Ekstrak etil asetat memiliki bioaktivitas sebagai antioksidan dan juga toksisitas. Pemurnian dilanjutkan dengan cara kromatografi kolom [SiO2; (i) n-heksan-etilasetat 10:1, 1:1 ; (ii) n-heksan-etilasetat = 2 : 1); (iii) n-heksan-aseton = 1:1] dan diperoleh isolat murni. Isolat murni tersebut diidentifikasi berdasarkan interpretasi data spektra UV, IR, NMR dan MS. Hasil interpretasi data menunjukkan daun halban (V. pinnata Linn) mengandung dua senyawa fenolik yaitu (1) 4-hidroksi metil benzoat dan (2) asam para hidroksi benzoat (PHBA). Senyawa 1 memiliki aktivitas antioksidan dengan nilai IC50 = 41,08bpj dan senyawa 2 memiliki aktivitas toksisitas dengan nilai LC50 = 59,41.
Taufikurrahman Nasution, Muhammad Efendi
Published: 30 December 2020
Elkawnie, Volume 6, pp 237-258; doi:10.22373/ekw.v6i2.7991

Abstract:
Mount Leuser National Park is one of the largest conservation areas and plays important ecological and economic functions. To support forest management, it is important to gain current vegetation data. The sampling method of a 0.1 hectare plot was carried out on two sampling sites in the submontane zone of Ketambe Resort, Mount Leuser National Park, Aceh. The diversity of trees was not significantly different, while species composition was different. Site one was dominated by Syzygium spp. and Shorea platyclados, while site two was dominated by Altingia excelsa and Bridelia glauca. Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, and Dipterocarpace families dominated in both sites. Tree structures formed three strata and showed a good capacity for forest regeneration. The aboveground biomass of site one was higher than site two due to the presence of more large trees. Pioneer species, cultivated plants, a low average wood density, and low aboveground biomass indicated secondary forest characteristics in both sites. Abstrak: Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser merupakan salah satu kawasan konservasi yang terluas dan memiliki fungsi ekologi dan ekonomi yang penting. Data vegetasi terkini penting didapatkan untuk mendukung pengelolaan hutan. Metode sampling dengan plot 0.1 hektar dilakukan di dua lokasi pada zona submontana Resort Ketambe, Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser, Aceh. Keanekaragaman jenis pohon tidak berbeda secara nyata sementara komposisi jenis berbeda. Lokasi satu didominasi oleh Syzygium spp. dan Shorea platyclados, sementara lokasi dua didominasi oleh Altingia excelsa dan Bridelia glauca. Suku Lauraceae, Myrtaceae dan Dipterocarpace mendominasi pada kedua lokasi. Struktur pohon membentuk tiga strata dan menunjukkan kemampuan regenerasi hutan yang baik. Biomassa pohon di atas permukaan pada lokasi satu lebih tinggi dibandingkan lokasi dua karena lebih banyaknya pohon berukuran besar. Jenis pionir, tanaman budidaya, rata-rata berat jenis kayu dan biomassa di atas permukaan yang rendah mengindikasikan karakteristik hutan sekunder pada kedua lokasi.
Syukri Indrawansyah, Abdullah Abdullah, Cut Zukhrina Oktaviani
Published: 30 December 2020
Elkawnie, Volume 6, pp 201-212; doi:10.22373/ekw.v6i2.6313

Abstract:
Mahara Hotel is a tourism-supporting facility and infrastructure first established in Central Aceh District in 1999. This 3-story hotel used a reinforced concrete frame structure, and as time goes by, the service capacity of the building would decrease. This condition was suspected to affect quality and user convenience. Anticipate the older age of the building, and better maintenance management is applied so that the proper building’s function can be maintained. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of 20 year-established hotel buildings. The method was a descriptive analysis. Data were analyzed based on the guidelines of Technical Procedures for Guidelines for Certificate of Eligibility for Functions (SLF) of Buildings Regulation of Minister of Public Works No. 25/PRT/M/2007. Based on the results, the reliability value of the Mahara Hotel building was unreliable (66.75 %), less than the SLF guidelines (at least 75 %). Some components that caused a low level of reliability to include utility and fire protection components (20.34 %) and accessibility components (3.11 %). The effective and efficient component in increasing the reliability of the building was the utility and fire protection components by not requiring major demolition.Abstrak: Hotel Mahara merupakan sarana dan prasarana penunjang pariwisata yang pertama kali berdiri di Kabupaten Aceh Tengah pada tahun 1999. Hotel berlantai 3 ini menggunakan struktur rangka beton bertulang dan seiring dengan berjalannya waktu, daya layan gedung akan semakin menurun. Kondisi ini ditenggarai akan mempengaruhi kualitas dan kenyamanan pengguna. Untuk mengantisipasi hal tersebut, maka semakin tua umur bangunan, seharusnya didukung dengan penerapan manajemen pemeliharaan yang baik agar kelayakan fungsi dari bangunan dapat dipertahankan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk menilai keandalan bangunan hotel setelah berumur 20 tahun. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif. Data dianalisis berdasarkan panduan Teknis Tata Cara Pedoman Sertifikat Laik Fungsi (SLF) Bangunan Gedung Peraturan Menteri Pekerjaan Umum No. 25/PRT/M/2007. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, nilai keandalan bangunan gedung Hotel Mahara termasuk tidak andal yaitu sebesar 66.75 %, kurang dari yang dipersyaratkan oleh pedoman SLF tersebut yaitu minimal 75 %. Beberapa komponen yang menyebabkan rendahnya tingkat keandalan anatara lain komponen utilitas dan proteksi kebakaran sebesar 20.34 % serta komponen aksesibilitas sebesar 3.11 %. Komponen yang efektif serta efisien dalam menaikkan tingkat keandalan bangunan gedung tersebut adalah komponen utilitas dan proteksi kebakaran dengan tidak mengharuskan pembongkaran yang besar.
Muhammad Sayuthi, Teguh Santoso, Iswadi Iswadi
Published: 30 December 2020
Elkawnie, Volume 6, pp 259-272; doi:10.22373/ekw.v6i2.7199

Abstract:
Nutmeg is a plantation crop and has high economic value. Currently, the cultivation of nutmeg is experiencing many obstacles. One of them is termite pests. So far, the control is carried out using chemical insecticides and hurts the environment. Therefore it is necessary to control other environmentally friendly ways, and one of them is by using the fungi M. brunneum as an ecologically friendly bioinsecticide. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of M. brunneum as a bioinsecticide against the termite C. curvignathus as an essential pest in nutmeg plantations. This research using a completely randomized design (CRD). The results showed that the mean percentage viability of M. brunneum conidia at each observation time was classified as useful. The germination of conidia increased to 89.78 % after 72 hours of observation. Conidia density 103/ mL distilled water. The highest mortality rate of C. curvignathus was found at a density of 1010 conidia/ mL of distilled water. The mean time of death for C. curvignathus after application of conidia density treatment of 1010/ mL of distilled water was 2.15 days and the death of C. curvignathus was 3.35 days using conidia density treatment 103/ mL of distilled water. 1 day after application reaches 33.20 % and increases to observation at 5 days after application reaches 100 %. The highest food inhibition occurred in treatment 1010/ mL distilled water (65.81 %) which was significantly different from treatment 105/ mL distilled water (43.23 %), and 103/ mL distilled water (41.61 %) and control (0.00).Abstrak: Pala merupakan tanaman perkebunan dan bernilai ekonomi tinggi. Pada saat ini budidayanya mengalami banyak hambatan. Satu diantaranya adalah serangan hama rayap. Selama ini pengendalian hama rayap dilakukan dengan menggunakan insektisida kimia dan berpengaruh negatif terhadap lingkungan. Oleh karenanya perlu pengendalian cara lain yang ramah lingkungan dan satu diantaranya dengan menggunakan cendawan M. brunneum sebagai bioinsektisida yang ramah lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis efektivitas M. brunneum sebagai bioinsektisida terhadap hama rayap C. curvignathus. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Hama Tanaman dan Laboratorium Dasar Proteksi Tanaman Program Studi Proteksi Tanaman Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Syiah Kuala, sejak bulan Februari hingga September 2018, dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase viabilitas rata-rata dari konidia M. brunneum pada setiap waktu pengamatan tergolong efektif. Perkecambahan konidia semakin meningkat hingga mencapai 89,78 % setelah diamati pada jam yang ke 72. Rata-rata waktu kematian rayap C. curvignathus setelah aplikasi perlakuan kerapatan konidia 1010/ mL akuades adalah 2,15 hari dan terjadi kematian rayap C. curvignathus 3.35 hari dengan menggunakan perlakuan kerapatan konidia 103/ mL akuades. Rata-rata mortalitas tertinggi rayap C. curvignathus ditemukan pada perlakuan kerapatan konidia 1010/mL aquades. 1 HSA mencapai 33,20% dan meningkat hingga pengamatan pada 5 HSA mencapai 100%. Daya hambat makan tertinggi terjadi pada perlakuan 1010/ mL aquades (65,81%) yang berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan 105/mL aquades (43,23%) dan 103/ mL aquades (41,61%) serta kontrol (0,00%).
Siti Cahaya Meliza, Kiking Ritarwa, Nur Asnah Sitohang
Published: 30 December 2020
Elkawnie, Volume 6, pp 189-200; doi:10.22373/ekw.v6i2.6925

Abstract:
Decubitus ulcers are one of the problems experienced by bed rest patients, such as stroke patients, caused by immobilization. Prevention of decubitus ulcers can be done with mobilization and topical application of olive oil. Olive oil contains saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phenols which are healthy for the skin. This research aims to identify the effects of mobilization and application of olive oil on the prevention of decubitus ulcers in stroke patients. A control group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used in the research. Convenience (non-probability) sampling was also carried out, resulting in 64 research samples. Mobilization intervention of right-left oblique positions and application of olive oil on the area prone to decubitus ulcers were then executed for seven days. Data analysis using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed the effects of mobilization and application of olive oil on the preventions of decubitus ulcers in stroke patients with a value of P=
Risky Hadi Wibowo, Sipriyadi Sipriyadi, Nisa Rachmania Mubarik, Iman Rusmana, Maggy Thenawidjaya Suhartono
Published: 30 December 2020
Elkawnie, Volume 6, pp 273-286; doi:10.22373/ekw.v6i2.7400

Abstract:
Chitinolytic actinobacteria are currently more widely used because of their ability as the biological control agents to the pathogenic fungi, especially in horticultural and plantation crops. This research was conducted to obtain isolates of chitinolytic soil actinobacteria from the rhizosphere of the rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis) area in IPB University. Antifungal activities from these actinobacteria hopely able to inhibit the growth of plant pathogenic fungi in Vitro on chitin agar media. Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii are used in the inhibition test of chitinolytic actinobacteria. The results successfully obtained 16 isolates of actinobacteria were grew on Humic Acid Vitamin (HV) agar. It showed that six of 16 actinobacteria isolates were able to produce inhibition zones to the growth of hyphae of pathogenic fungi on potato dextrose agar (PDA). KK-15 and KK-07 isolates were able to produce the largest inhibition percentages in F. oxysporum and S. rolfsii. Based on the chitinolytic index (CI) values, KK-15 and KK-07 isolates produced CI values of 1.25 and 1.5, respectively. The morphological characteristics and Gram staining of both KK-15 and KK-07 isolates are closely relative with Streptomyces sp. Abstrak: Bakteri kitinolitik saat ini banyak diteliti karena kemampuannya sebagai agens pengendali hayati jamur patogen khususnya pada tanaman hortikultura dan perkebunan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan isolat-isolat bakteri kitinolitik asal tanah dari bagian perakaran tanaman karet (Hevea brasiliensis) di daerah perkebunan karet Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB). Aktivitas antifungi dari bakteri ini diharapkan mampu menghambat pertumbuhan jamur patogen tanaman secara in Vitro pada media agar-agar kitin. Fusarium oxysporum dan Sclerotium rolfsii digunakan dalam uji hambat aktinobakteri kitinolitik. Hasil penelitian memperoleh 16 isolat aktinobakteri berhasil diisolasi dengan menggunakan media agar-agar Humic Acid Vitamin (HV), dan dari 16 isolat tersebut, enam isolat mampu menghasilkan zona hambat terhadap pertumbuhan hifa dari kedua jamur patogen pada media Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) secara in Vitro. Isolat KK-15 dan KK-07 mampu menghasilkan diameter hambatan terbesar pada jamur F. oxysporum dan S. rolfsii. Berdasarkan nilai index kitinolitik (IK), isolat KK-15 dan KK-07 menghasilkan nilai IK sebesar 1,25 dan 1,5 secara berurutan. Karakteristik morfologi dan pewarnaan Gram dari kedua isolat yaitu KK-15 dan KK-07 memiliki kedekatan dengan kelompok Streptomyces spp.
Maria Umran, Hafiz Mohd. Sarim
Published: 30 December 2020
Elkawnie, Volume 6, pp 165-177; doi:10.22373/ekw.v6i2.7281

Abstract:
Past observations during a disaster identify that when children are separated from parents, they suffer due to the inability to comprehend disaster mitigation concepts. This study proposes a process from the existing framework K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Term Frequency - Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) for extracting a large body of knowledge in the form of documents into simple words. Those simple words can be arranged into contextual lyrics utilizing an Artificial Intelligence lyrics generator and then orchestrated into a song using a music generator. The piece, which is the output of the proposed process, is utilized to transfer the knowledge about earthquake disaster mitigation to children. A quantitative analysis of questionnaires on students aged 9-10 in Banda Aceh shows the song's highly significant effect in transferring the knowledge about earthquake disaster mitigation to children.
Andrean Vesalius Hasiholan Simanjuntak, Yusran Asnawi, Muksin Umar, Syamsul Rizal, Muhammad Syukri
Published: 30 December 2020
Elkawnie, Volume 6, pp 342-358; doi:10.22373/ekw.v6i2.7886

Abstract:
Banda Aceh can be categorized as an earthquake-prone city because of the existence of two active segments namely Seulimeum and Aceh. Both segments are considered to provide great potential damage in the future. In this article, we conduct a microtremor survey in the Peukan Bada, sub-part of Banda Aceh city, to learn the vulnerability level and support disaster mitigation plan. A total of 20 sites were measured with a seismometer to record the seismic waveform. The waveform was recorded in 45 minutes with a sampling rate of 100 sps and has analyzed using the horizontal-vertical spectrum ratio (HVSR). The results obtained are the dominant parameters, such as the period with a range of 0 – 0.5s, frequency with a range of 0 – 6 Hz, seismicity vulnerability index with a range of 0.1 – 0.5. The result was relevant to the geological conditions of Peukan Bada that dominated by alluvial rocks and mud sediments. The level of vulnerability (Kg > 1.0) obtained is quite high and proportional to the soil type that can amplify the seismic waveform. The results obtained are expected to be a supporting study of disaster mitigation and understand the geological conditions of Banda Aceh in terms of seismic vulnerability.Abstrak: Banda Aceh dapat dikategorikan sebagai kota rawan gempa karena adanya dua segmen aktif yaitu Seulimeum dan Aceh. Kedua segmen tersebut bisa memberikan potensi kerusakan yang besar di masa mendatang. Pada tulisan ini, kami melakukan survei mikrotremor di Kecamatan Peukan Bada, salah satu sub-wilayah kota Banda Aceh, untuk mempelajari tingkat kerentanan dan mendukung rencana mitigasi bencana. Sebanyak 20 lokasi diukur dengan seismometer untuk merekam bentuk gelombang seismik. Gelombang direkam selama 45 menit dengan jumlah sampel 100 sps dan dianalisis menggunakan horizontal-vertical spectrum ratio (HVSR). Hasil yang diperoleh adalah parameter yang dominan yaitu periode dengan rentang 0 – 0,5s, frekuensi dengan range 0 - 6 Hz, indeks kerentanan kegempaan dengan rentang 0,1 – 0,5. Hasil tersebut relevan dengan kondisi geologi Peukan Bada yang didominasi oleh batuan aluvial dan endapan lumpur. Tingkat kerentanan (Kg > 1,0) yang diperoleh cukup tinggi dan sebanding dengan jenis tanah yang dapat memperbesar gelombang seismik. Hasil yang diperoleh diharapkan dapat menjadi pendukung kajian mitigasi bencana dan memahami kondisi geologi Banda Aceh dari segi kerentanan seismik.
Vivi Mardina, Faridah Yusof, Zahangir Alam
Published: 30 December 2020
Elkawnie, Volume 6, pp 178-188; doi:10.22373/ekw.v6i2.7530

Abstract:
In this study, the kinetic of a thermo-stable extracellular protease produced by Bacillus licheniformis (ATCC 12759) cultured in skim latex serum fortified media was investigated. The enzyme was stable up to 65 oC after incubation for 60 min at pH 8. The Lineweaver-Burk exhibited vmax (maximum rate) of 37.037 U/mg min-1 and KM (Michaelis-Menten constant) of 8.519 mg/mL. The activation energy (Ea) of casein hydrolysis and temperature quotient (Q10) were found to be 4.098 kJ/mol and 1.038 - 1.034, respectively, at a temperature ranging from 35 oC to 65 oC. The results of the residual activity test allowed estimating activation energy for irreversible inactivation of the protease (denaturation) which was approximately Ea(d) = 62.097 kJ/mol. The thermodynamic parameters for the enzyme irreversible denaturation were as follow enthalpy (59.286 ≤ΔH*d≥ 59.535 kJ/mol), Gibbs free energy (97.375 ≤ ΔG*d≥ 93.774kJ/mol), and entropy (-122.797 ≤ ΔS*d≥ -101.992 kJ/mol). These thermodynamic parameters inferred that the thermo-stable proteases could be potentially important for industrial application, for example, in the detergent industries.Abstrak: Pada penelitian ini, kinetika protease ekstraseluler termo-stabil yang diproduksi oleh Bacillus licheniformis (ATCC 12759), yang dikultur dalam media yang diperkaya serum lateks skim diselidiki. Enzim stabil hingga 65 oC setelah diinkubasi selama 60 menit pada pH 8. Lineweaver-Burk menunjukkan vmax (laju maksimum) adalah 37.037 U/mg min-1 dan KM (konstanta Michaelis-Menten) 8.519 mg/mL. Energi aktivasi (Ea) dari hidrolisis kasein dan suhu quotient (Q10) ditemukan masing-masing sebesar 4.098 kJ/mol dan 1.038 - 1.034, pada suhu yang berkisar dari 35 oC hingga 65 oC. Hasil uji aktivitas residu memungkinkan estimasi energi aktivasi untuk inaktivasi ireversibel dari protease (denaturasi) yang kira-kira Ea (d) = 62.097 kJ/mol. Parameter termodinamika untuk denaturasi enzim ireversibel adalah sebagai berikut entalpi (59.286 ≤ΔH * d≥ 59.535 kJ / mol), energi bebas Gibbs (97.375 ≤ ΔG * d≥ 93.774kJ / mol) dan entropi (-122.797 ≤ ΔS * d≥ -101.992 kJ / mol). Parameter termodinamika pada penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa protease termo-stabil dapat berpotensi penting untuk aplikasi industry seperti dalam industri deterjen.
Eka Sukmawaty, Sitti Rahmah Sari, Mashuri Masri
Published: 30 December 2020
Elkawnie, Volume 6, pp 315-328; doi:10.22373/ekw.v6i2.5383

Abstract:
Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria that produce active compounds with a wide distribution range in nature especially in soil. The purpose of this study was to isolate actinomycetes from the rhizosphere soil of the Malino pine forest, South Sulawesi. This research is a descriptive qualitative study of 15 actinomycetes isolated from the rhizosphere soil of the Pine Forest. These 15 isolates have been successfully identified to the genus level. Actinomycetes were isolated by direct dilution method and further morphological identification was carried out. Actinomycetes were isolated on yeast malt agar (YMA) medium. The growing isolates showed colony colors brown, gray, and white. Produces yellow, brown, and beige color pigments. Based on the characterization carried out, all isolates were identified into the genus Streptomyces.Abstrak: Aktinomisetes merupakan kelompok bakteri gram positif yang menghasilkan senyawa aktif dengan rentang distribusi yang luas di alam, terutama di tanah. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengisolasi aktinomisetes dari tanah rizosfer hutan pinus Malino Sulawesi Selatan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif deskiptif terhadap 15 isolat aktinomisetes yang diisolasi dari tanah rizosfer Hutan Pinus Malino Sulawesi Selatan. 15 isolat ini telah berhasil didentifikasi sampai tingkat genus. Aktinomisetes diisolasi dengan metode pengenceran secara langsung dan dilakukan identifikasi morfologi lebih lanjut. Aktinomisetes diisolasi pada media yeast malt agar (YMA). Isolat yang tumbuh memperlihatkan warna koloni coklat, abu-abu dan putih. Menghasilkan pigmen warna kuning, coklat dan krem. Berdasarkan karakterisasi yang dilakukan keseluruhan isolat teridentifikasi ke dalam genus Streptomyces.
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