Investment Management and Financial Innovations

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 18104967 / 18129358
Current Publisher: LLC CPC Business Perspectives (10.21511)
Total articles ≅ 531
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Najib H.S. Farhan, Mosab I. Tabash, Mohammad Yameen
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 146-156; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(2).2020.12

Abstract:
Credit policy plays a vital role in the operational efficiency of credit departments as it reduces the ambiguity of credit departments’ functions by giving clear guidelines and instructions. It also reduces the loan default and speeds up accounts receivable turnover. This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of credit policy on the profitability of pharmaceutical firms listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), using a balanced panel data of 82 pharmaceutical firms from 2008 to 2017. The number of days’ collection period and the number of days’ payable deferral period are chosen for measuring firms’ credit policy, while return on assets (ROA) is used for measuring firms’ profitability. It is found that the number of days’ collection period and the number of days’ payable deferral period have a negative and significant effect on the profitability of the pharmaceutical firms, while the control variables leverage, firm size, and age negatively impact the profitability of pharmaceutical firms. Financial managers in pharmaceutical companies should reduce the number of days’ collection period and increase the number of days’ deferral period to reduce the risk of bad debts. Furthermore, they should conduct a credit analysis to evaluate potential clients as it prevents bad debts.
Mayank Joshipura, Nehal Joshipura
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 128-145; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(2).2020.11

Abstract:
The authors offer evidence for low-risk effect from the Indian stock market using the top-500 liquid stocks listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India for the period from January 2004 to December 2018. Finance theory predicts a positive risk-return relationship. However, empirical studies show that low-risk stocks outperform high-risk stocks on a risk-adjusted basis, and it is called low-risk anomaly or low-risk effect. Persistence of such an anomaly is one of the biggest mysteries in modern finance. The authors find strong evidence in favor of a low-risk effect with a flat (negative) risk-return relationship based on the simple average (compounded) returns. It is documented that low-risk effect is independent of size, value, and momentum effects, and it is robust after controlling for variables like liquidity and ticket-size of stocks. It is further documented that low-risk effect is a combination of stock and sector level effects, and it cannot be captured fully by concentrated sector exposure. By integrating the momentum effect with the low-volatility effect, the performance of a low-risk investment strategy can be improved both in absolute and risk-adjusted terms. The paper contributed to the body of knowledge by offering evidence for: a) robustness of low-risk effect for liquidity and ticket-size of stocks and sector exposure, b) how one can benefit from combining momentum and low-volatility effects to create a long-only investment strategy that offers higher risk-adjusted and absolute returns than plain vanilla, long-only, low-risk investment strategy.
Neeraj Sehrawat, Amit Kumar, Narander Kumar Nigam, Kirtivardhan Singh, Khushi Goyal
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 113-127; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(2).2020.10

Abstract:
Integration or segmentation of markets determines whether substantial advantages in risk reduction can be attained through portfolio diversification in foreign securities. In an integrated market, investors face risk from country-specific factors and factors, which are common to all countries, but price only the later, as country-specific risk is diversifiable. The aim of this study is two-fold, firstly, investigating the superiority of the Fama-French three-factor model over Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and later using the superior model to test for integration of Indian and US equity markets (a proxy for global markets). Based on a sample of Bombay Stock Exchange 500 non-financial companies for the period 2003–2019, the data suggest the superiority of Fama-French three-factor model over CAPM. Using the Non-Linear Seemingly Unrelated Regression technique, the first half of the sample period (2003–2010) shows evidence of market segmentation; however, the second sub-period (2011–2019) shows weak signs of market integration, which is supported by the Johansen test of cointegration, suggesting that Indian market is gradually getting integrated with global markets.
Liudmyla Prymostka, Іryna Krasnova, Ganna Kulish, Andrii Nikitin, Valentyna Shevaldina
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 101-112; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(2).2020.09

Abstract:
This study is devoted to assessing the level of individual segments interconnectedness within the financial market of Ukraine (FMU) and their dynamics in uncertain conditions. The methodology of the systematic approach is used to investigate the dynamic relationship between individual segments of the financial market of Ukraine, namely credit (deposit-credit) market, stock market (market of securities), government securities market, currency market, and interbank market. The study of financial market dynamics focuses on the description of the price indicators of individual market segments, which are monitored using time series analysis and statistical methods. The results of the time series assessment revealed the fractal characteristics of the Ukrainian financial market as a measure of sustainability (namely inertia). It is revealed that all segments of the financial market, except credit, are characterized by persistence. It is established that the development of market segments is uneven and is characterized as bifurcation. The credit segment is addicted to insider behavior and has the highest risk concentration. It is revealed that the foreign exchange market is still in crisis. The results of modeling the correlation relationships between market segments have shown that, in the presence of such relationships, they differ in the strength and nature of the interaction. They are volatile, unstable, and situational, dependent on external conditions. The credit market has a relationship with other segments, not significantly strong but stable. The results of the analysis indicate the dynamic development of segments within the Ukrainian financial market in the presence of interconnections between them. AcknowledgmentThe study was conducted within the framework of the State Budget of the Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman on the topic “Innovative development of banking activities in the integrated financial environment” (state registration number 0117U001178).  
Hakki Ozturk, Tolun A. Karabulut
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 76-87; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(2).2020.07

Abstract:
This study focuses on the relationship between financial ratios and the technology and telecommunication stock returns listed on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. Since technology and telecommunication sector has become an important part of the Turkish economy and is attractive for investors and shareholders, the results play a critical role for all stakeholders. This academic work aims to determine, through the application of panel data analysis, using both the Parks-Kmenta estimator and the Two-way Mixed Effects Model, whether the Price-to-Sales, Earnings per Share (EPS), Debt-to-Equity, and EBITDA Margin financial ratios affect the returns of technology and telecommunication stock returns listed on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. According to empirical findings, Earnings per Share (EPS), EBITDA Margin, and Price-to-Sales ratios have statistically significant effects on technology and telecommunication companies’ stock returns. Higher EPS and EBITDA Margin ratios generate higher returns for the next quarters, and lower Price-to-Sales ratios lead to higher returns for the following periods. Furthermore, the results obtained using the Two-way Mixed Effects Model show that the Debt-to-Equity ratio is negatively related to stock returns.
Perdana Wahyu Santosa, Martua Eliakim Tambunan, Eva Rohima Kumullah
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 88-100; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(2).2020.08

Abstract:
Financial performance and corporate governance play an important role in financial distress in the mining sector, which is one of the most significant contributors to the Indonesian economy. This study aims to analyze the effect of corporate characteristics on financial distress (FD), which is moderated by corporate governance (audit quality), and uses the controlling variables (inflation rate and GDP). The study uses data from audited financial statements from mining sector in the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2013–2018. Since the dependent variable (FD) is dichotomous, this study used a binary logistic regression model, as it is the case in many studies regarding the probability of bankruptcy filing. In line with the current study and some previous studies, leverage, efficiency (activity), market-to-book value, audit quality, and GDP affect the probability of financial distress significantly. Only liquidity and inflation do not impact FD. Besides, the moderating audit quality weakens the effect of liquidity and PBV; otherwise, it strengthens leverage and efficiency in predicting financial distress. As for managerial implications, this study concludes that corporate performance, corporate governance, and macro-risk factors affect the probability of financial distress. The authors suggest that mining firms need to pay attention to corporate governance and should watch the economic condition for business sustainability.
Elsayed A. H. Elamir
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 51-68; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(2).2020.05

Abstract:
The regression tree approach is an effective and easy to interpret technique where it utilizes a recursive binary partitioning algorithm that divides the sample into partitioning variables with the strongest correlation to the response variable. Earnings per share can be considered as one of the main factors in making the investment decision. This study aims to build a predictive model for earnings per share in the context of the Middle East and North African countries (MENA) . The sample of the study consists of sixty-three banks, which were chosen from eight countries, with a total of six-hundred thirty observations. The simple regression, regression tree, and its pruned regression tree, conditional inference tree, and cubist regression are used to build the predictive model for earnings per share that depends on total assets, total liability, bank book value, stock volatility, age of the bank, and net cash. The results show that the cubist regression is outperforming other approaches where it improves root mean square error for the predictive model by approximately double in comparison with other methods. More interesting results are obtained from the important scores, where it shows that the total assets of the bank, bank book value, and total liability have the biggest impact on the prediction of earnings per share. Also, the cubist regression gives an improvement in R-squared over other methods by at least 30% and 23% using training and testing data, respectively.
Ferina Marimuthu
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 40-50; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(2).2020.04

Abstract:
This study aimed to examine whether government financial assistance influences the financial performance of state-owned enterprises. Commercial state-owned enterprises in South Africa that are listed under the Public Financial Management Act during the post-apartheid era from 1995 to 2017 were sampled. Government guarantees were measured as a dummy variable, while financial performance was measured by accounting measure: return on assets (ROA). Endogeneity issues were addressed, and data analysis was performed on an unbalanced panel using the two-step system GMM. The empirical evidence indicated that support by the government in the form of guarantees and subsidies has a significant negative effect on the financial performance of state-owned enterprises. This is an indication that continued government bailouts to poor performing state-owned enterprises exacerbates their poor financial performance and encourages these enterprises to become too reliant on government assistance, burdening the national fiscus. AcknowledgmentsThe author gratefully acknowledges the National Research Foundation of South Africa for the research grant and Dr Farai Kwenda for his supervision during the study.
Nisa Vinodkumar, Hadeel Khalid AlJasser
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 69-75; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(2).2020.06

Abstract:
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is strongly committed to stimulating savings culture in the local community by providing financial literacy in financial planning, investments, and budgeting. Inculcating the savings and investment behavior among the people will help materialize one of the elements of Saudi Vision 2030. Tadawul, being the most liquid stock market in the Middle East and North Africa, offers investors the ability to grow their capital with confidence through facilitating trading in different securities such as equities, debt instruments, and Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs). There is a great scope for investors to invest in the companies listed in Tadawul All Share Index (TASI) due to its strong economic fundamentals. The present study aims to apply the CAPM in Tadawul listed stocks, which will help in understanding the systematic and unsystematic risk associated with stocks, understanding their actual and theoretical return on stocks. The methodology adopted is the analysis of secondary data for all listed stocks in Tadawul using the Bloomberg terminal. The financial valuation includes elements like beta, alpha, correlation and standard deviation, expected return and actual return. The practical value obtained from the study will help investors go for undervalued stocks with lower beta, higher expected annual return, and lower systematic risks. Thus, the result shows the predicting power in KSA market and the scope for long-term investments by the investors to boost their savings and investment behavior and materialize one element of Vision 2030. AcknowledgmentThis research was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research at Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University through the Fast-Track Research Funding Program.
Volodymyr Nusinov, Liudmyla Burkova, Natalia Shura
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 26-39; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(2).2020.03

Abstract:
The development of a global economy is impossible without economic ups and downs, which disrupt economic stability. The growth of the crisis in Ukrainian companies is no exception. In world practice, there are many methods for estimating the possibility of companies’ bankruptcy. At the same time, there are no methodological approaches to setting up the possible commencement of company’s liquidation during its bankruptcy. The article aims to develop a methodology for estimating the possibility of company’s liquidation due to the introduction of its bankruptcy procedure and to determine the financial potential of the company based on the Ukrainian economy. Statistical surveys about the activities of Ukrainian companies were conducted. Using a discriminant analysis, a four-factor model for estimating the possibility of companies’ liquidation undergoing bankruptcy was developed. An appropriate scale has been constructed to interpret the values obtained using the collective expert estimation method. The matrix method was applied to construct matrices of pairwise comparison for the results of qualitative assessment.It has been proposed to assess the liquidation of a company by determining the conditional probability of such liquidation. A matrix of the pairwise comparison of the qualitative assessment results has been constructed for the company’s bankruptcy procedure commencement probability and that for the company’s liquidation procedure commencement. It has been substantiated that the level of the company’s financial potential is the reverse indicator of the probability value for the bankruptcy and the liquidation of that company. Matrices have been constructed that qualitatively assess probabilistic level of the financial potential both for the companies at the bankruptcy stage and for those whose bankruptcy procedure has not yet begun. The results of the testing confirm the correctness of the proposed methods and the expediency of their application.
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