Investment Management and Financial Innovations
ISSN / EISSN : 18104967 / 18129358
Current Publisher: LLC CPC Business Perspectives (10.21511)
Total articles ≅ 493
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 18 February 2020
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 77-84; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(1).2020.07
Abstract:The advent of globalization has spurred the level of foreign direct investment (FDI), which has increased the employment level and economic growth in countries around the world. This scenario has also been debated in the extant literature. It is on this backdrop that this study was inspired to examine the relationship between FDI and the level of employment in Nigeria. The article uses the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) and the Johansen co-integration econometric approach on the data, which were sourced from the World Development Indicators (WDI) of the World Bank and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin. The investigation period covered thirty-two years (1985–2017). Also, the authors adopted the theory of absorptive capacity as the baseline for the model. Results obtained from the study showed that foreign direct investment is statistically significant and positively related to the employment level in Nigeria. These findings imply that a 1 unit increase in the inflow of foreign direct investment to the Nigerian economy is capable of increasing the level of employment by about 0.97 units. Therefore, based on findings, the study is concluded by recommendations that the Nigerian economy should become viable through effective trade policies and programs, which are capable of attracting foreign direct investment into the Nigerian economy for employment creation. Acknowledgment(s) The publication support received from Covenant University Centre for Research, Innovation and Discovery (CUCRID) is appreciated
Published: 14 February 2020
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 64-76; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(1).2020.06
Abstract:Several contributions in the literature argue that a significant in-sample risk reduction can be obtained by investing in a relatively small number of assets in an investment universe. Furthermore, selecting small portfolios seems to yield good out-of-sample performances in practice. This analysis provides further evidence that an appropriate preselection of the assets in a market can lead to an improvement in portfolio performance. For preselection, this paper investigates the eﬀectiveness of a minimum variance approach and that of an innovative index (the new Altman Z-score) based on the creditworthiness of the companies. Diﬀerent classes of portfolio models are examined on real-world data by applying both the minimum variance and the Z-score preselection methods. Preliminary results indicate that the new Altman Z-score preselection provides encouraging out-of-sample performances with respect to those obtained with the minimum variance approach.
Published: 12 February 2020
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 49-63; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(1).2020.05
Abstract:The main purpose of this study is to introduce an integrated approach to the methodology of assessing the level of fiscal policy decentralization. It is proposed to evaluate the fiscal policy decentralization of the state according to three functional components: decentralization of the process of local budget revenues formation (includes five indicators); decentralization of local budget structure (includes six indicators); decentralization of intergovernmental budgetary relations (includes five indicators). The expediency of forming an integral indicator of the level of fiscal policy decentralization as the geometric mean of three sub-indexes formed by its main functional components is substantiated. It has been proved that the level of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine decreased at the end of 2017, compared to 2004, but was medium with acceptable risks of fiscal policy modernization. Instead, in 2014, the lowest numerical value of the decentralization level was recorded, which corresponded to the critical level of the integral indicator with significant obstacles to the modernization of fiscal policy. The results obtained confirm the feasibility of implementing the decentralization reform in Ukraine, which started in 2014, and demonstrate its effectiveness.
Published: 11 February 2020
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 35-48; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(1).2020.04
Abstract:This study came to inspect a new approach to the government debt security assessment based on the systematization of indicators in terms of four directions: solvency, liquidity, domestic indebtedness, and external indebtedness. The proposed methodology considers the weaknesses, which negatively affect the level of government debt security. It was established that in 2014−2016 the level of security at emerging markets was the worst. The main reason was insufficient solvency. Also, the obtained results showed that the general assessment of domestic indebtedness in recent years had a more dangerous level than the external one. In addition, it was revealed that similar problems with the level of debt burden are also presented in the EU countries since the value of the analyzed indicator – general government debt to GDP – exceeds 60%. It is recommended to consider the experience of debt management reform of new members of the EU and, at the same time, post-socialist countries by other emerging economies.
Published: 10 February 2020
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 24-34; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(1).2020.03
Abstract:This paper examines momentum and contrarian effects in the Ukrainian stock market after one-day abnormal returns. To do this, UX futures data over the period 2010–2018 are used. The following hypotheses are tested: H1) hourly returns on overreaction days differ from hourly returns on normal days, H2) there are price patterns on overreaction days, and H3) to test these hypotheses, visual inspection and average analysis are used, as well as t-tests, cumulative abnormal returns, and trading simulation approaches. The results suggest that there are statistically significant differences between intraday dynamics during the usual days and the overreactions day. There is a strong momentum effect present on the day of overreaction: prices tend to change only in the direction of the overreaction during the whole day. The fact of the overreaction becomes clear after 13:00-14:00. This gives a lot of time to explore the momentum effect in the day of overreaction. On the day after the overreaction, prices tend to go in the opposite direction: contrarian pattern is detected, which is in line with the overreaction hypothesis. Based on detected price patterns, rules of trading and trading strategies for the Ukrainian stock market are developed. Momentum Strategy (based on price patterns on the day of overreaction) generates several successful trades; close to with 90%, and their number being is profitable (trading results differ from the random ones – confirmed by t-tests). Contrarian Strategy (based on price patterns on the day after the overreaction) demonstrates low efficiency, and results do not differ from random trading.
Published: 6 February 2020
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 15-23; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(1).2020.02
Abstract:Issuing bonds is one of the alternative ways for non-financial companies to get money from the public besides borrowing money from banks. Compared with getting money banks, obtaining money from the bond market is slightly economical because the companies are not essential to borne the intermediation cost anymore. As a consequence, the companies in the bond market will get the assessment from the appointed agency. Furthermore, the rating of bonds will determine their reputation. Mentioning the literature review, the bond ratings are affected by the features of the supervisory board: size, independence, and audit committee. Therefore, this research intends to attain two goals. Firstly, it aims to prove and analyze the impact of the supervisory board size and independence, as well as the audit committee size on the company’s possibility to get a high bond rating with profitability as the control variable. Secondly, it intends to know the accuracy rate of grouping the company bond ratings through the classification matrix.The population originates from the non-financial companies. The total samples are determined by the Slovin formula with a boundary of the fault of 10%. Based on this formula, the total samples are 36 companies. Furthermore, they are randomly grabbed from the population. The ordered probit regression model and the classification matrix are utilized to analyze the data. Based on the data analysis, this research finds out that the supervisory board size and independence, the audit committee size, and profitability positively affect the bond ratings. It means that the number of the commissioner board and the members of the audit committee have to be added until achieving the maximum level to monitor the performance of the directors so that the company can reach a high bond rating. To sum up, board governance is effective in improving the company’s bond rating.
Published: 22 January 2020
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 1-14; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(1).2020.01
Abstract:The impact of financial risks on share prices concerns investors, company executives and accounting standards developers. Investors need this information in delineating their equity valuation models while company executives need the information to make appropriate capital structure decisions. Accounting standards developers use this information in their policy to make accounting standards contemporary. The authors examine the link between relative and absolute financial risks and share prices using a dynamic panel of non-financial listed companies on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange after dollarization. Equity investors incurred losses before dollarization, which prompted this investigation into the sphere of financial risks in order to explain share price movements so that investors can use it to minimize losses in the future. Absolute financial risk is measured by the total debt, while debt/equity ratio measures relative financial risk. Market capitalization as a proxy for equity and debt is measured by total liabilities. An average debt/equity ratio greater or equal to one qualifies a firm into the high-risk category while ratios below one imply low-risk firms. Results from two-step System Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) show negative and significant connection between relative risk and share prices across risk categories. The impact of absolute risk on share prices differs by risk category. Firm managers are advised to keep total liabilities below market capitalization in order to enjoy the benefits of low-risk categorization. Debt ratio is a reasonable indicator of value and investors can use it in equity valuation. Mandatory reporting of debt ratios should be considered by accounting standards developers.
Published: 27 December 2019
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 16, pp 382-394; doi:10.21511/imfi.16(4).2019.32
Abstract:Investing in recreation and wellness in transitional economies requires updating an inclusive approach and adjusting national regional policies. The article aims to provide the game and theoretical decision-making modeling regarding the direction of capital investment in the development of inclusive wellness and recreation in the regions of Ukraine. Considering this, a comparative analysis of relevant indicators, above all, the self-assessment level of population health, has been conducted. The “game against nature” method allows formalizing the social and market contradictions of regional development of wellness and recreation. Using Ukraine as an example, the analysis of the payoff matrix by decision-making criteria such as the Bayes-Laplace’s criterion, the Savage’s criterion, the Wald’s criterion and the Hurwitz’s criteria, establishes the priority areas for investment: the maximum investment amount is for the middle-income regions and the minimum – for the high-income regions. However, there is a significant disparity in investment in health and recreation across regions. The situation requires a transformation of the target function: from providing social subsidies to maximizing person’s well-being in the physical, mental, social and financial aspects. In the absence of inclusive economic institutions, it is proposed to equalize the weight of the “investment in health” and “investment in recreation” factors and redistribute the total volume of capital investment in regions with relatively low solvency and population health indicators.
Published: 26 December 2019
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 16, pp 352-365; doi:10.21511/imfi.16(4).2019.30
Abstract:Foundations, methodological and empirical possibilities of measurement and analysis in the performance of financial investments within investment funds have been developed since they were once introduced in the 1970s, thus establishing a path of growing acceptance in financial markets and universities’ academies. The first approaches over the efficiency of these funds, considering their stochastic implications, occurred in the late 1990s and have evolved with the help of SFA – Stochastic Frontier Analysis, although it still needs more careful verification. This article measured and analyzed the stochastic frontier of efficiency over 33 different Brazilian investment funds from 2012 to 2015. For doing so, Battese and Coelli’s (1995) specifications was used. It shows the effects of inefficiencies, which are defined as explicit functions of specific factors in the context of panel data funds. They are estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Sharpe ratios (SR) were also calculated for comparative purposes. Based on these two indicators (SFA and SR), the most recommendable funds to invest and the ones in which the application should not be performed were identified. Such procedures have stimulated the necessary and promising studies, as well as future researches, which, in turn, may establish new methodological formulation as an efficient and effective instrument to choose the best and the safest funds to invest.
Published: 26 December 2019
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 16, pp 366-381; doi:10.21511/imfi.16(4).2019.31
Abstract:Successful crisis resolution of the enterprise depends heavily on its timely detection, which is facilitated by the use of forecasting models. This allows understanding the scale of the problems in a timely manner and developing the appropriate measures, applying various financial mechanisms to prevent it, and in case of occurrence, reducing the amount of losses. In this context, it is important to choose the most optimal informational model that would provide the most objective forecasts, considering the financial activity peculiarities of the analyzed enterprise. Given a wide list of models that predict the financial crisis, there is a need to analyze and select the most accurate model for enterprises in the real economy. Ten Ukrainian machine builders are used to assess the bankruptcy probability using the most popular models; a taxonomic analysis was carried out, which allows systematizing a large amount of data and analyzing their impact on enterprise development. An integral index was determined, which allowed predicting the financial performance dynamics. For each enterprise, ten indicators were used characterizing their financial state for the period 2014–2018. It is substantiated that the selected models differ from each other by the set of initial data and the number of coefficients from four to seven. It is also determined that the efficient use of studied models is quite different; so when choosing a model to predict the bankruptcy probability, it is necessary to consider the peculiarities of the enterprise’s production activity, the accuracy in creating the financial statements and many other factors, including the presence of company’s shares in circulation at the stock market. It is worthwhile to use a taxonomic analysis to make a comprehensive comparison of the enterprise financial state and to substantiate the final choice of the bankruptcy forecasting model.