Investment Management and Financial Innovations

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1810-4967 / 1812-9358
Current Publisher: LLC CPC Business Perspectives (10.21511)
Total articles ≅ 591
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Latest articles in this journal

Trust Chireka
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 102-110; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(4).2020.10

The resource-based view theory suggests that as firms’ resource bases differ along the corporate life cycle, even corporate policies such as cash holdings vary along the life cycle. This study seeks to understand the effect of firm’s life cycle on corporate cash holding behavior. Previous literature has sought to investigate the firm and institutional determinants of corporate cash holdings. Using the resource-based view theory, this study investigates whether corporate life cycle can be another determinant of corporate cash holdings. A panel data analysis of a sample of 112 Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) listed firms from 2011 to 2018 is utilized to determine if firm’s life cycle does influence cash holding behavior. Dickinson’s cash flow analysis is used to proxy life cycle stages and control other known determinants of corporate cash holdings such as firm size, leverage, profitability, dividend payments, and growth opportunities. Contrary to other studies, this study finds no significant relationship between life cycle stages and corporate cash holdings, suggesting that corporate cash holdings for South African firms are driven by other factors other than life cycle resource allocations. However, it is found that prior year cash balances, firm size, and profitability have significant positive relationships with cash holdings. It is also found that liquid asset substitutes, leverage, and investment opportunities exert a significant and negative influence on corporate cash holdings.
Jan Mammen
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 94-101; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(4).2020.09

The influence of corporate diversification on firm value is an important field in strategy research. Studies in strategic management and finance research have analyzed value creation through product and geographic diversification from a shareholder’s perspective. This study completes this picture by analyzing the bondholders’ perspective. It is suggested that product diversification creates value for bondholders, while geographic diversification destroys bondholder value. The hypotheses are tested on a sample of S&P 1,200 firms in 2001–2011 using a fixed-effects panel model. Drawing on prior research, bondholder value creation is measured using the Merton model. The empirical results support the hypothesis that bondholders gain value through product diversification but lose value through geographic diversification. Considering prior research results, these results show that product diversification is preferable for bondholders, while geographic diversification is preferable from a shareholder’s perspective. The opposite effects of both diversification strategies on shareholders, respectively, bondholders offer an important new perspective on corporate diversification. The results show that firms with a high level of corporate debt should struggle to justify a strategy involving geographic dispersion of activities and support a more diversified product portfolio strategy. This study also offers several avenues for investigating the bondholder’s perspective on corporate diversification in more detail.
Misheck Mutize, Virimai V. Mugobo
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 85-93; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(4).2020.08

Interest in the relationship between credit rating and economic growth is growing as emerging economies increasingly integrate into international financial markets. Without credit ratings, developing economies would not have been able to successfully issue their sovereign bonds to support economic growth. Therefore, this paper examines a causality relationship between Standard & Poor’s long-term foreign currency sovereign credit ratings and economic growth in 19 Sub-Saharan countries over the period from 2003 to 2018. The results of the Granger causality tests show a unidirectional causality from sovereign credit ratings to economic growth, not vice versa. This implies that economic growth is not significant in determining sovereign credit ratings. It can thus be concluded from these findings that sovereign credit ratings are proactive actions by rating agencies that are relevant in determining future economic growth. Thus, investors benefit from utilizing credit ratings to prevent inherent information asymmetry in fundamental economic factors. Therefore, it is important for policy makers to pay attention to sovereign credit ratings when formulating macroeconomic policies.
Abdul Rahman, Raj Bahadur Sharma
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 76-84; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(4).2020.07

A firm with proper cash flow management can increase its financial performance, while improper management might lead to financial failure. Therefore, it is significant for a firm to manage cash inflows and outflows properly. The current study investigates the effect of cash flow from operations (CFOs) on the financial performance of insurance and manufacturing companies in Saudi Arabia. The data were extracted from companies’ annual reports by considering Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE) as dependent variables, CFOs as an explanatory variable, firm size (SIZE) and Leverage (LEV) as control variables, and an industry dummy. The results report a positive and significant association between financial performance (ROA and ROE) and operating cash flows (CFOs), and a negative association for SIZE and LEV. Therefore, the study concludes that the firms’ operating cash flows in the insurance and manufacturing sectors in Saudi Arabia affect financial performance.
Nguyễn Thị Nhung, Nguyen Nhu Ngan, Tran Thi Hong, Nguyen Dinh Cuong
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 61-75; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(4).2020.06

In July 2018, the Vietnam Commodity Exchange (VNX) was transferred into the Mercantile Exchange of Vietnam (MXV) to hedge price risks through futures on international commodity exchanges. This research aimed to verify the efficiency of futures on ICE EU and ICE US under the perspective of hedging for Vietnamese coffee, determine optimal hedging ratios and the optimal number of each futures contract, and investigate the feasibility of introducing domestic commodity exchanges in Vietnam. Using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), the results show that (1) Robusta futures with expiration dates of January, March, May, and July on ICE EU are efficient hedging tools, but the adverse result is justified for Arabica futures on ICE US; (2) Robusta futures with the expiration date of January are the best in terms of risk management for Vietnamese coffee market; (3) optimal hedge ratio of Robusta futures of around 34% is much lower than ratios showed by previous researches; (4) in the short term, introducing coffee futures into the domestic commodity exchanges is still not feasible in the short term, but should be considered in the long term in Vietnam. This is the first study providing empirical evidence about the hedging role of futures contracts on ICE EU and ICE US, contributing to enrich the existing empirical evidence on the hedging role of futures for the agricultural sector.
Alberto Antonio Agudelo Aguirre, Ricardo Alfredo Rojas Medina, Néstor Darío Duque Méndez
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 44-60; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(4).2020.05

The implementation of tools such as Genetic Algorithms has not been exploited for asset price prediction despite their power, robustness, and potential application in the stock market. This paper aims to fill the gap existing in the literature on the use of Genetic Algorithms for predicting asset pricing of investment strategies into stock markets and investigate its advantages over its peers Buy & Hold and traditional technical analysis. The Genetic Algorithms strategy applied to the MACD was carried out in two different validation periods and sought to optimize the parameters that generate the buy-sell signals. The performance between the machine learning-based approach, technical analysis with the MACD and B&H was compared. The results suggest that it is possible to find optimal values of the technical indicator parameters that result in a higher return on investment through Genetic Algorithms, beating the traditional technical analysis and B&H by around 4%. This study offers a new insight for practitioners, traders, and finance researchers to take advantage of Genetic Algorithms for trading rules application in forecasting financial asset returns under a more efficient and robust methodology based on historical data analysis.
Yujin Kim, Jiyeun Hong
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 33-43; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(4).2020.04

The topic of gender diversity in the workforce has received an increasing amount of attention and even resulted in developing a new term, sheconomy, which describes an economy in which women are the main economic players. This study examines the relationship between female workforce participation and corporate bond credit ratings. Using an ordered logit regression model and a sample of listed companies on the Korea Exchange, the results show that the higher the number and proportion of women in the workforce (based on female directors and female employees), the higher the credit rating. However, for chaebol companies, where female directors’ positive role is limited by chaebol owners, a negative (–) moderating effect is observed in the relationship between female workforce participation and credit ratings. Besides, female directors who are members of the owner’s family and were appointed as a means of succession negatively affect a company’s value. The findings contribute to accounting and finance research on the relationship between governance and credit ratings in terms of gender diversity. Policy implications regarding the recent system changes in Korea, including introducing a gender quota system, can be derived from the study.
Tran Quoc Thinh, Ly Hoang Anh, Nguyen Ngoc Khanh Dung
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 25-32; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(4).2020.03

In the context of integration, the capital market has important implications for strengthening economic resources for development. This becomes even more important as the derivative securities market has recently emerged in some countries. It is an opportunity for countries to approach many capital sources, especially foreign capital. The objective of this paper is to identify factors affecting the development of Vietnamese derivative financial markets. The paper uses exploratory factor analysis and ordinary least squares to test the model. A survey sample includes 152 managers and experts of Vietnamese derivative securities companies in 2019. The results show that the International integration factor has the same direction, while the Legal environment factor has an adverse impact on the development of the Vietnamese derivative securities market. Therefore, Vietnamese regulatory bodies should amend some laws to create stability in the legal corridor, and state management agencies in the country need the orientation and the international integration strategy to attract financial resources for the development of Vietnam’s economy.
Turki Alshammari
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 14-24; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(4).2020.02

This study aims to examine the connection between cash level and corporate performance, as well as the cash level determinants for all nonfinancial firms in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. The empirical analysis employs numerous statistical techniques such as panel regression models and the Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM). The main result of the study confirms a positive relationship between the cash level and both the corporate performance and the firm value, which signifies the role of cash in supporting the corporate productive activities in times of rare cash. The results also show that large firms, especially those with less leverage, experience better corporate performance. Additionally, the results demonstrate that when using different levels of cash holdings as well as different levels of firm size, both the magnitude and the significant positive effect of the cash level on corporate performance and firm value are not altered. For the determinants of the cash level, the results confirm that the most important variables are product competition, free cash flow, corporate liquidity, capital expenditures, and financial constraints. The results do not confirm that the amount of dividend paid has a significant influence on the cash level. All results are robust to the various econometric specifications employed in this study. AcknowledgmentThis study is supported by Kuwait University research sector, grant number IF-03/18.
Tram Thi Xuan Huong, My-Linh Thi Nguyen, Nguyen Thi Kim Lien
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 17, pp 1-13; doi:10.21511/imfi.17(4).2020.01

Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows to Vietnam have increased significantly in recent years. Theoretically, capital inflows will put pressure on the overvaluation of local currencies in countries, despite different exchange rate mechanisms. So, the problem facing the Vietnamese government is the need to examine the relationship between the exchange rate and FDI in order to develop effective policies. This study examined the relationship between the exchange rate and FDI in Vietnam in the period of 2005–2019 using the VAR (vector autoregression) model based on quarterly frequency data. The new points of this study are: (i) using the real effective exchange rate (REER) of the Vietnamese currency with 143 major trading partners of Vietnam; and (ii) adding two control variables into the VAR model to examine the relationship between the exchange rate and FDI in Vietnam – a case study for developing countries. The findings show that, firstly, there is a positive causal relationship between FDI and Vietnam’s real effective exchange rate. Secondly, trade openness has a positive impact on FDI and REER in Vietnam. Thirdly, economic growth has an impact on REER, but no statistically significant impact on FDI was found. The findings can provide useful information to help policymakers plan and make decisions on future policies and support further research studies.
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