Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia

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ISSN / EISSN : 23112905 / 25420933
Total articles ≅ 521
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A. A. Korytkin, Ya. S. Novikova, E. A. Morozova, S. A. Gerasimov, K. A. Kovaldov, Yo. M. El Moudni
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 26; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2020-26-2-20-30

Abstract:
Employment of custom triflange acetabular components (CTAC) is one of the few options for pelvic reconstruction in the patients requiring complex acetabulum revisions with Paprosky 2 C, 3 A and 3 B defects and pelvic ring disruption.The purpose of the study was to describe the features of planning, surgical technique, and short-term treatment outcomes of the patients with significant acetabular defects, in which the revision hip arthroplasty was performed using the CTAC.Materials and Methods. A single-center analysis of a series of consecutive patients was performed: 50 complex acetabulum revisions in 47 patients (16 men and 31 women). The average age of the patients was 60±12 years (from 31 to 82; Me 62 years), the average body mass index was 29.7±6.3 kg/m2 (18.4 to 46.3; Me 29.0 kg/m).Results. The mean follow-up was 22±13 months (from 3 to 3.6 years; Me 20 months). The average Harris score increased from 27±7 (from 15 to 39; Me 27) before surgery to 64±16 (from 22 to 90; Me 67) a year after (pConclusion. Employment of the CTAC for revision hip arthroplasty in the patients with significant acetabulum defects and pelvic ring disruption allows reliable fixation of the endoprosthesis components. The STAC placement technique is more anatomical than use of structural allografts, several augments or sup-cage systems. It allows reconstruction of extensive bone defects, theoretically avoiding the long-term problems with allografts, modular trabecular components, antiprotrusion systems and cup-cage. Although, to prove this, the longer follow-up is needed.
I. I. Shubnyakov, A. Riahi, A. O. Denisov, I. E. Khujanazarov, R. M. Tikhilov
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 26; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2020-26-2-160-179

Abstract:
Background. Total hip arthroplasty is an effective type of surgery with excellent survival rates of modern implants. From the very beginning of the widespread introduction of total hip arthroplasty, the cement technique of components fixing prevailed. However, many researchers associated the development of osteolysis and the following loosening with the reaction to cement. The subsequent studies clarified the situation regarding the nature of osteolysis, but there remained the problem of insufficient stability of the cemented stems to withstand the penetration of polyethylene wear particles into the distal part of the stem with the development of loosening. An ideal endoprosthesis should ensure the normal hip biomechanics, joint painless functioning and improve the quality of life of the patient without the need for revision. The optimal results of cementless femoral stems functioning depend on the achievement of initial stability, osseointegration and equable transmission of tension onto the femur. There are many factors that influence osseointegration processes and the subsequent behavior of the implant. Understanding these factors is the key to choosing the optimal implant for a particular patient, taking into account the anatomical features of the femur.The purpose of this article is to discuss upon the literature review the application of cementless femoral components, the possible causes of failure and its prevention from the point of view of the evidence-based practice.Materials. The search was conducted in the PubMed, eLIBRARY databases and through the Web of Knowledge. Survival rates and prevalence of various implants in the structure of primary arthroplasty were estimated on the basis of annual reports of a number of national registries, as well as the hip arthroplasty registry of the Vreden National Medical Research Center of Traumatology and Orthopedics. Among the factors discussed are the properties of the components material, the form of the implants, surface properties, and the influence of the anatomical features of the femur. Additionally, the most used types of cementless femoral components were assessed.Conclusion. Cementless femoral components demonstrated the excellent long-term survival and functional results. The currently prevailing type of the prosthesis intimate attachment to the bone is the biological fixation, especially in groups of young patients. Future studies of cementless implants should necessarily take into account the patient’s age, level of activity, type of bone canal, the presence of deformities, and the friction pair used. This will make it possible to draw clearer conclusions in what clinical situation it is advisable to use the femoral components of a particular design.
I. V. Kazhanov, S. I. Mikityuk, А. V. Dol’, D. V. Ivanov, А. V. Kharlamov, А. V. Petrov, L. Yu. Kossovich, V. A. Manukovskiy
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 26; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2020-26-2-79-90

Abstract:
Relevance. Currently, the stability of various options for the fixation of sacral fractures by the finite element method has not been sufficiently studied.Purpose — the biomechanical characteristics of two variants of internal fixation of unilateral sacral fractures by various implants and the localization of the line of its fracture with respect to the articular facet of the L5-S1 vertebrae were studied.Materials and Methods. Using the finite element method, we studied the biomechanical characteristics of two options for fixing a one-sided longitudinal fracture of the sacrum with different localization of the line of its fracture: outside, inside and directly on the joint facet L5-S1. Two fixation options are considered: cannulated sacroiliac screws and a similar option in combination with a bilateral lumbar-pelvic transpedicular system.Results. The stresses in implants and bone under compression load and torso forward or backward are almost the same in all models. In the model of fixation with a sacroiliac screw of a one-sided longitudinal sacral fracture, the line of which passes through the articular process S1 of the vertebra (Isler II type), the greatest stress in the screws under compression load and bending moment was 619.7 MPa, which exceeds the yield strength of the titanium alloy and can damage the implants. In all models where the transpedicular system additionally acted as fixing structures, a decrease of 42–77% of maximum displacements was noted, by 28–79% of equivalent stresses in implants under all types of loads, while the equivalent stresses in the bone structures did not differ significantly. In models where the transpedicular system was additionally applied, a decrease of 42–77% of maximum displacements was noted, by 28-79% of stresses in implants under all types of loads, while the stresses in the bones did not differ much.Conclusion. In all cases of localization of the line of unilateral fracture of the sacrum, the use of a transpedicular system in combination with sacroiliac screws is more stable from the point of view of biomechanics. The most unstable is a one-sided longitudinal fracture of the sacrum passing through the facet L5-S1.
S. V. Kolesov, А. И. Казьмин, I. V. Skorina, V. V. Shvets, M. L. Sazhnev, A. A. Panteleev, V. S. Pereverzev, Д. А. Колбовский
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 26; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2020-26-2-139-147

Abstract:
The choice of an implant for vertebra body defect replacement in corpectomy for traumatic lesions remains a point of discussion among spinal surgeons. Nanostructured carbon cages are promising for use in spinal surgery.The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and degree of cage subsidence in the patients with traumatic lesions of the cervical spine undergone a single-level anterior corpectomy in the subaxial part of the cervical spine with reconstruction using a carbon or titanium cage. Materials and Methods. A prospective study included 47 patients undergone a single-level corpectomy of the cervical spine due to traumatic injury. Two groups were formed by adaptive randomization: group I with the patients with carbon cages (n = 23), and group II with the patients with titanium cages (n = 24). The evaluation of cages subsidence and stability was carried by X-rays and CT before and after surgery. The quality of life before and after the surgery was evaluated using NDI and VAS questionnaires.Results. According to the questionnaires, the absolute majority of the patients in both groups showed a statistically significant improvement of quality of life in the postoperative period (pConclusion. The outcomes of carbon nanostructure cages placement as bodyreplacing implants in the cervical spine were not inferior to the outcomes of titanium mesh cages using. In group I, the carbon cages subsidence was significantly lower than in group II with titanium cages. The bone block was not formed in the case of carbon cages. It is worth noting that the carbon structure of the cages allowed the radiological diagnostics of the operated segment without artifacts formation.
V. A. Bazlov, T. Z. Mamuladze, O. I. Golenkov, M. V. Efimenko, A. A. Pronskikh, K. N. Kharitonov, A. A. Panchenko, V. V. Pavlov
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 26; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2020-26-2-60-70

Abstract:
3D imaging tools significantly expand the ability to assess the bone tissue condition, both in terms of its qualitative properties and in terms of accurate determination of bone defect geometry and volume.The purpose of the study was to determine the 3D imaging potential for the preoperative planning and correction of surgical tactics in hip arthroplasty.Materials and Methods. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative planning of 110 primary and revision hip arthroplasties with 3D imaging was performed. The following specialized software were employed: RadiAnt DICOM Viewer file converter — for 3D models production; 3D/CAD designers — for volumetric models processing and correction; InVesalius 3.0 program — for bone density evaluation by the Hounsfield scale; K-Pacs — for viewing MSCT and X-ray images. All patients underwent pelvic bones radiography in the front and anterior-lateral planes. Post-traumatic acetabular deformity was described in accordance with the X-ray picture in each individual clinical case. For revision arthroplasty, the acetabular defect was determined according to the W.G. Paprosky classification. In 36 patients (32.7%), the acetabulum defect was the result of trauma. In 74 patients (67.3%), the cause of surgery was endoprosthesis components loosening.Results. In 80% of cases (88 patients), the analysis of the 3D model did not change the surgical tactics determined in the preoperative planning using pelvic radiographs; in 20% of cases (22 patients), the use of 3D imaging revealed new circumstances and changed the surgical tactics.Conclusion. In standard cases, it is possible to use the traditional preoperative planning using radiographs in several planes. In primary hip arthroplasty in the patients with post-traumatic deformity, including a false joint of acetabulum bottom or 2 to 3 degree osteopenia, it is advisable to perform 3D imaging. In the case of revision arthroplasty, 3D visualization is indicated in acetabulum Paprosky IIIA, IIIB defects with pelvic discontinuity.
Ya. A. Rukin, A. V. Lychagin, V. Yu. Murylev, A. V. Garkavi, D. A. Tarasov, M. P. Elizarov
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 26; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2020-26-2-50-59

Abstract:
Relevance. The altered hip anatomy makes total hip arthroplasty in patients with hip dysplasia a difficult and non-standard task. The acetabulum is deformed with femoral head in subluxation or dislocation. The most important task of surgery is to restore the anatomical position of the hip center of rotation.The study purpose — to evaluate the early results of hip arthroplasty with individual augments in the patients with hip dysplasia.Materials and Methods. Since 2017, nine patients with hip dysplasia have undergone surgery using individually printed augments. All patients were women with average age 51.3±14.5 years (23 to 67). The mean follow-up was 14.3±5.2 months (8 to 20). Patients were evaluated using follow-up X-rays, a visual analogue scale (VAS), Harris Hip Score (HHS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC).Results. There was no a single case of endoprosthesis dislocation, loosening of components, prosthetic infection or revision surgery in the analyzed group of patients. The planned sizes of the acetabular components were equal to the placed in 7 cases (77.8%). In two cases (22.2%), the acetabular components were 2 mm larger because the surgeon wanted a greater degree of press-fit fixation. The restoration of the anatomical position of the acetabular component was noted. Before the surgery, the femoral head was on average 22.7±11.7 mm (10 to 43 mm) higher. After the surgery, the level of the acetabular component was on average only 0.75±2.1 mm (1.7 to 5 mm), p = 0.008. Also, there were a decrease in pain and quality of life improvement by VAS from 6.78±1.39 before surgery to 2.22±1.09 at follow-up (p = 0.007), HHS increase from 30.5±18. 1 to 77.59±14.26 (p = 0.008), and WOMAC decrease from 73.3±14.1 to 18.22±8.2 (p = 0.008).Conclusion. The individually printed augments have shown high efficacy for restoration of the anatomical center of rotation and good early results in the patients with hip dysplasia undergone hip arthroplasty.
R. M. Tikhilov, A. A. Dzhavadov, A. N. Kovalenko, A. O. Denisov, A. S. Demin, A. G. Vahramyan, I. I. Shubnyakov
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 26; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2020-26-2-31-49

Abstract:
The purposes of the retrospective cohort study were: 1) to determine the severity of defects in the acetabulum and the probable causes of their formation in patients who underwent revision hip arthroplasty (RHA), as well as an assessment of factors that exacerbate the severity of the defects; 2) identifying the proportion of severe defects in the overall structure of acetabular revisions and determining the effectiveness of using serial implants in comparison with individual constructions made by 3D printing; 3) the rationale for rational indications for the use of individual constructions.Materials and Methods. The structure and reasons for the formation of bone defects in the acetabulum were evaluated in 726 cases of revisions performed from 2004 to 2018. In addition, the results of revision operations in a group of patients with severe defects (type 3 according to Paprosky and pelvic discontinuity) were evaluated.Results. The most frequent cause of defect formation was iatrogenic (53.2%), and the share of severe defects was 39.5% (287 observations). A factor aggravating the severity of the defect is the lack of its limitation by the support bone. The results of RHA in patients with severe defects were assessed in 186 cases out of 287 (64.8%). In 73 (39.2%) cases, individual constructions were used, the average follow-up was 26 months. (from 12 to 50), and in 113 (60.8%) cases, serial implants were used, the average follow-up period was 62 months. (12 to 186). Individual constructions were more often implanted in patients with 3B acetabular defects (pConclusion. In case of RHA in patients with severe acetabular defects, individual implants, in comparison with serials, demonstrate better survival with an average follow-up of 26 months and due to design features, they can count on great long-term effectiveness. This study needs to be continued to increase follow-up.
И. Г. Беленький
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 26; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2020-26-2-15-19

Abstract:
The sequence of systemic measures to combat the COVID-19 pandemic in Russia is described. Some other countries experience of providing the specialized trauma care in a pandemic has been summarized. Almost everywhere, strict measures of infection prevention and treatment were introduced in stages. To date, there are the following generally accepted measures: discontinuation of planned surgeries, screening of emergency patients on COVID-19 with the subsequent separation of patient flows, the maximum reduction of hospital stay length. The special attention should be paid to personal protective equipment. The organizational and medical measures necessary for prevention of such pandemics in the future are described, namely equipping sanitary triage posts, creating a stock of personal protective equipment and disinfectants, developing a plan for transforming general hospitals into hospitals for infectious patients with the allocation of a primary patient reception post and their subsequent distribution into the green or red zones. The importance of pre-operative bed day reduction, telemedicine technologies and the need of healthcare financing increase to solve the tasks are substantiated.
A. P. Sereda, S. M. Smetanin
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 26; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2020-26-2-180-200

Abstract:
One of hip arthroplasty complications is dislocation of the endoprosthesis head. In the vast majority of cases, the cause of dislocation is multifactorial. That is why only a thorough analysis of the patient’s peculiarities, surgery and rehabilitation will help to avoid the relapse. This review analyzed the risk factors of dislocation and treatment tactics. Risk factors associated with the patient include: old age, male gender, obesity, concomitant diseases, low level of preoperative physical activity, low compliance and a some others. The problem of the biomechanical ratio in the segment “spine – pelvis – lower limb” deserves special attention. Besides, there are risk factors associated with the surgeon: access option; type, fixation and position of endoprosthesis components, experience and surgical technique of a orthopedic surgeon. The strategy of dislocations rate reduction is based on a detailed study of dislocation causes and their elimination, and adequate surgery planning. The treatment of a patient with dislocation should take into account the multifactorial etiology of the condition.
T. A. Kulyaba, N. N. Kornilov, A. V. Kazemirskiy, G. Yu. Bovkis, D. V. Stafeev, A. A. Cherny, I. I. Croitoru, A. I. Petukhov
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 26; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2020-26-2-148-159

Abstract:
Relevance. To compensate the extensive (AORI type III) bone defects, metal cones/ sleeves or massive allografts are used. In the absence of metaepiphyses, structural allografts or megaprostheses are usually used for tumor lesions of the bones. The aim of the study was to show the possibility of replacing extensive type III defects of the femur and tibia, covering the metaphysical and diaphyseal zones, with double tantalum cones.Materials and Methods. The study included 13 patients undergone revision knee arthroplasty in 2015–2019. During the surgery, the primary fixation of the femoral or tibial component was achieved by the tight fit diaphyseal cone placement. The additional fixation is сarried out by cementing of the metaphyseal cone to the diaphyseal cone and the further osseointegration with the remaining bone of the metadiaphyseal zone. Fixation of the endoprosthesis component to the cones and to the bone is achived by use of the bone cement.Results. The short-term outcomes of this technique in revision knee arthroplasty were evaluated in all patients. The results were evaluated as good if the primary stable fixation and the correct endoprosthesis components placement were achieved, the limb support ability and the knee function were restored, and there were no complications in the immediate postoperative period. In a year, one patient developed a relapse of infection in the operated knee. The endoprosthesis was removed and followed by knee arthrodesis after sanitation of the infection focus. Functional and radiological results one year after surgery were studied in 4 patients. The average functional scores were: by KSS 81 (good) and by WOMAC — 25 points (also good). On the control radiographs, the position of the components remained correct and stable with osseointegration of the cones in the metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas of the femur and tibia. In the remaining 8 patients, the time after surgery was less than a year. Their follow-up yet continued.Conclusion. Thus, the tantalum cones technique is a reliable way to reconstruct extended metadiaphyseal defects in revision knee arthroplasty in the short-term prospect. The method can be considered as an alternative to megaprostheses, structural allografts, and individually made cones. But the long-term results of its application are still requiri ng further study.
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