Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia

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ISSN / EISSN : 2311-2905 / 2542-0933
Total articles ≅ 572
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, , A. A. Ochkurenko, A. F. Lazarev, E. I. Solod, S. V. Donchenko, I. M. Solodilov, D. A. Ivanov, A. V. Ovcharenko, V. V. Surikov
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 27; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2021-27-2-144-155

Abstract:
Background.The combination of classical anterior and posterior approaches, as well as their modifications, is recognized as the most effective in acetabular fractures surgical treatment. The use of classical and modified approaches is accompanied by serious intra- and postoperative complications associated primarily with the duration of surgery, significant blood loss, tissue trauma, surgical site infection. The aim of review — to determine the main and most frequent complications associated with surgical approaches to the acetabulum. material and methods. Access to literature sources is carried out in the information systems and databases PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, Сochran Library, eLibrary, Wiley Online Library. Keywords: acetabular fractures, surgical treatment, approach to the acetabulum, total hip replacement. Results. The most common intraoperative complications are incorrect fragments reduction, sciatic nerve injury, less often — intraarticular implant position, damage to the superior gluteal artery and other vessels, among the early postoperative complications - wound infection, both superficial and deep, less often — venous thrombosis. Late postoperative complications are mainly represented by the development of heterotopic ossification, post-traumatic coxarthrosis, less often revealed aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, residual protrusion and secondary femoral head lesion. Conclusion. The main approach to the acetabulum are the ileo-inguinal and the Kocher-Langenbeck approach, as well as their combination. Complications were more common using two approaches, especially in cases of simultaneous use. The main intraoperative complications are the sciatic nerve and the superior gluteal artery injury with posterior approaches, the femoral lateral cutaneous nerve with expanded ilio-femoral approach, and the obturator nerve with anterior approaches.
A. Yu. Bazarov
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 27; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2021-27-2-124-131

Abstract:
Background. Currently, various algorithms of tactical classifications and treatment regimens for hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis (HVO) are proposed. However, all proposed approaches are designed for the treatment of patients in specialized multidisciplinary clinics departments, although the initial treatment often occurs in municipal polyclinics, private medical centers and district hospitals. The question is what the appropriate scope of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in institutions with different material and resource bases and how to ensure continuity according to the existing three-level system of medical care remains open. The aim of this studyis to determine the probable routing and treatment options for patients with HVO on the example of the Tyumen region, depending on the existing three-level system of providing medical care to the population. Object and Methods.The current Orders of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation and the Resolutions of the Government of the Tyumen Region were studied, on which basis a three-level system of providing medical care to the population was organized and organizations providing emergency and elective medical care to patients with HVO were identified. The volume of medical and diagnostic measures in patients with HVO in institutions of various levels, as well as their routing to the regional clinical hospital No. 2 in case of impossibility or inexpediency of providing specialized medical care at the place of primary treatment, is analyzed on the example of the Tyumen region. The clinical material is presented by 267 patients with HVO who were treated in the Tyumen regional clinical hospital No. 2 from 2006 to 2019, 78.7% of whom were treated in the profile of traumatology and orthopedics, 18.7% — neurosurgery and 2.6% — surgery. Results.The list of medical institutions that provide emergency and planned care in traumatology and orthopedics, neurosurgery in the Tyumen region is defined, depending on the level of the institution and the available material and resource base. A block diagram is proposed that determines the scope of medical and diagnostic measures in institutions of I-III levels and specialized departments of multidisciplinary clinical hospitals. The principle of determining the patient profile (surgical, orthopedic, neurosurgical) depending on the type and severity of the inflammatory lesion according to the classification E. Pola (2017) is proposed. Conclusion. The need for effective use of medical and diagnostic resources starting from level I is determined by clear routing of the patient to ensure the continuity of medical care. A full-fledged diagnosis is possible in institutions not lower than the third level with the mandatory determination of the lesion type and the severity of the inflammatory process. HVO treatment is advisable in level III institutions, specialized departments of regional clinical hospitals and federal institutions.
V. V. Grigorovskiy, N. P. Gritsay, V. N. Tsokalo, O. B. Lyutko, A. V. Grigorovskaya
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 27; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2021-27-2-99-113

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Background. Knowledge about the pathological processes in the tissues of the limb is necessary for the targeted optimization of their course, the expectation of certain treatment results. The aim of the study was to determine the ratio of different severity cases and the correlation between individual clinical, laboratory and morphometric indicators of the tissues state in patients with trophic disorders in the extremity. Materials and Methods.The material was fragments of the lower leg tissues (bones, soft tissues, skin) of 38 patients with chronic post-traumatic osteomyelitis. Gradation morphometric indicators reflecting the tissues state in the lesion focuses were used. Frequency analysis of semiquantitative indicators and correlation analysis of the relationships between clinical, laboratory and morphometric indicators with the evaluation of the association coefficient were carried out. Results.Trophic disorders in the limb tissues (bones, soft tissues, muscles, skin), observed in patients with lower leg bones post-traumatic osteomyelitis, do not represent a group of well-defined pathological processes. They form a complex of dyscirculatory, ischemic, necrotic, dystrophic, atrophic, inflammatory, reparative and regenerative changes, which are combined in tissues in different proportions. This involves the use of a number of quantitative and semi-quantitative, gradation indicators: clinical, laboratory, and pathomorphological. Pathomorphological changes in the lesions in patients with chronic posttraumatic osteomyelitis of the lower leg bones with clinical signs of trophic disorders do not differ qualitatively from the changes usually detected in chronic post-traumatic osteomyelitis. In the bones, the most frequent are destructive focuses with a predominance of exudative and productive inflammation of high activity, sequestration and osteonecrosis. In paraossal soft tissues, more common are focuses, in which mature fibrous tissue and productive inflammation of low activity predominate. In the skin near the chronic post-traumatic osteomyelitis focuses, there is dermis fibrosis and productive inflammation of low activity. Conclusion. A number of correlations between clinical and laboratory parameters, on the one hand, and morphological parameters, on the other, have been established. The closest and most stable connections for different sites are the following indicators: blood leukocytes (negative dependence for affected bone, soft tissue and skin tissues), ESR (positive dependence for soft tissues), C-reactive protein (positive dependence for soft tissues and skin), agglutination with a polyvalent strain of Staphylococcus aureus (negative dependence for affected bones and skin).
A. A. Korytkin, S. A. Gerasimov, K. A. Kovaldov, A. A. Pronskikh, A. V. Novikov, E. A. Morozova
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 27; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2021-27-2-132-143

Abstract:
Introduction. Main objective of total hip replacement (THR) is fast recovery of hip joint function and patient’s return to daily routines. Use of minimally invasive approaches (MIA) may help achieving set objective. The purpose of the study was to analyze and compare MIA in THR. Materials and methods. Databases of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar and E-library were searched for the period since 2000 to 2020. 55 scientific articles were selected for the analysis. Publications contain results of studies of MIA, such as Direct Anterior Approach (DAA), Micro-Hip (MH), Röttinger (R), Mini-posterior (MP), Direct Superior Approach (DSA), SuperCap (SC), PATH (P), SuperPATH (SP). The initial data were combined and underwent statistical processing. Results. A comparative analysis of MIA couldn’t identify superiority of any approach. Blood loss, length of hospital stay, functional outcomes (Harris Hip Score) at 3 and 12 months didn’t differ between the groups. Significant differences were found in the operation time between DSA and SP. Acetabular inclination was different between some approaches. Cup inclination in R and DSA, cup anteversion in DAA, MH and SP slightly exceeded Lewinnek's «safe zone». Recurrent dislocation, periprosthetic fractures, damage to the lateral cutaneous nerve are the most frequent postoperative complications. Conclusion: THR can be done using a variety of surgical approaches. The choice of approach relies on surgeon’s experience and personal preferences. Minimally invasive approaches have the advantage of short-term recovery due to the preservation of soft tissues.
S. S. Asachuk, O. S. Yakovleva, A. F. Martsinkevich, Е. A. Karpenkа
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 27; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2021-27-2-65-74

Abstract:
Background.Osteoporosis is the fourth most common disease after cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes. All these diseases have common pathogenetic mechanisms associated with impaired cholesterol metabolism. In recent decades, the use of the key enzyme of cholesterol synthesis inhibitors — statins, which can stimulate osteogenesis, has become widespread. However, statins affect the production of the vitamin D active form by reducing the production of testosterone and thus reducing the activity of 1α-hydroxylase. The combined use of statins and α-calcidol (α-C) for the osteoporosis prevention seems promising. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of long-term atorvastatin (ATV) and α-C administration on morphometric growth parameters and bone vascularization in the experiment. Materials and Methods. The experiment was conducted for three months on 120 laboratory male rats, which were injected daily intragastrically with ATV and α-C. After 90 days of the experiment, the animals were decapitated under ether anesthesia. For the study, the right femur and jawbone were taken from the animals. The rat bone sections were impregnated with silver, decalcified, and the histosections were stained according to van Gieson. The distribution of the studied features was evaluated according to the Shapiro-Wilk test. The differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results.It was found that ATV, both separately and together with α-C, increased the size of the newly formed bone in the endoostal and periosteal zones of the femur by 64.8; 40.4 and 15.8; 29.1%, respectively. The combined use of ATV and α-C had a positive effect on the growth of blood vessels in the femur (+23.4%). ATV increased the size of the newly formed bone from the periodontal and vestibular surfaces of the lower jaw by 18.3 and 29.5%, respectively. α-C potentiated the effect of ATV on the size of the newly formed bone tissue in the periodontal and vestibular growth zones of the mandibular bone by 10.1 and 15.0%, respectively. As for the number of vessels in the jawbone tissue, thanks to ATV, it increased by 17.2%, α-C had no effect. Conclusion. ATV increases the thickness of the newly formed bone layer in the growth areas of the femur and jawbone and increases the number of vessels in the jawbone. α-calcidol increases the number of vessels in the bone tissue of the femur and potentiates the effect of ATV on the jawbone growth zones. The combined use of ATV and α-C shows that they positively complement each other.
, С. Хужамурот Угли Исоков, А. Хужумурат Кизи Исокова
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 27; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2021-27-2-75-80

Abstract:
Background. Achieving a durable connection between the lacerated tendon ends is difficult. The outcome of treatment depends on many factors. Several authors consider the properties of the surgical needle used for suturing the tendon to be important. The aim of the study— to compare the strength of the tendon suture applied with the conventional cutting edge and reverse cutting edge surgical needles in the experiment. Materials and Methods.We used porcine tendons for the experiment. The tendon fragments were divided into 2 groups of 20 tendons each. On all 40 tendons, the same type of “injury” of the tendon was simulated — using a scalpel. In the first group, the interrupted suture of the tendon was applied with a cutting edge surgical needle, in the second group — reverse cutting edge. Laboratory tests of the tendon sutures strength were performed on the improvised stand. Results.In the first (suture made with a cutting needle edge), diastasis of 2 mm was determined at an average load of 1219.5 g (m = ±76.56, where «m» is the representativeness error). Complete suture failure occurred at an average load of 1770.8 g (m = ±100.02). In this group, the thread rupture was not recorded. In the second group (a suture made with a reverse cutting edge needle), diastasis occurs with an average load of 1754.75 g (m = ±77.32). Complete suture failure occurred at an average load of 2571.25 (at m= ± 103.78). In three cases, the thread ruptured. In the second group (reverse cutting edge needle), the tendon suture strength was statistically significantly higher than in the first group. Conclusion. The tendon suture strength depends on the surgical needle properties. In tendons reconstruction the reverse cutting edge needle use is more preferable compared to the conventional cutting edge needle use.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 27; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2021-27-2-34-43

Abstract:
Background. Despite the success in the treatment of children with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) as a result of the widespread of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cells transplantation, orthopedic manifestations continue to be a significant problem, while the pathology of the upper limbs in children with MPS is not sufficiently represented in the literature. The aim of this studywas to analyze orthopedic and neurological manifestations in the upper extremities of children with mucopolysaccharidosis based on a sequential case series. Materials and Methods. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of clinical and radiological involvement of the upper extremities in 49 patients with MPS. Results. The most common complaints reated to the upper extremities were difficulties in the daily activities (dressing, self-care, playing), impairment of the fine motor skills, and muscle weakness. The most frequent clinical manifestations related to the upper extremities were limited active shoulder abduction, impaired hand grip, flexion contractures of the elbow joint, ulnar deviation of the hand. All patients with MPS types I, II, and VI had limited active and passive extension and flexion of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. In patients with MPS IV, hypermobility of the hand joints prevailed. We noticed minimal presence of typical clinical manifestations related to compression of the median nerve secific for carpal tunnel syndrome. The majority of patients showed a decrease in tendon and periosteal reflexes. The most pronounced decrease in muscle strength was observed in to extensors (elbow, fingers) and shoulder abductors, which may contribute to the predominant formation of a flexion pattern of contractures. On radiographs of the hand, the “melting sugar” symptom and shortening of the metacarpal bones were observed in most patients. Conclusion.Clinical and radiological manifestations related to the upper extremities take place in all types of the mPS, and lead to functional disorders that complicate daily life and self-care. Upper limb pathology in children with MPS requires earlier detection and more active treatment after comprehensive risk assessment.
, E. M. Gordina, M. A. Markov, A. V. Afanasyev, V. A. Artyukh, K. V. Malafeev,
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 27; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2021-27-2-54-64

Abstract:
Background.Local prevention of periprosthetic infection and treatment of infectious complications after various joints arthroplasties includes the use of polymethylmethacrylate-based spacers impregnated with antimicrobial agents. At the same time, the added components are able to change the bone cement characteristics and have variable antimicrobial effect duration. The aim of the studywas to evaluate the duration of antimicrobial activity and the effect on the MRSA ATCC 43300 biofilm formation on bone cement samples with gentamycin impregnated with vancomycin and/or highly dispersed silver. Materials and Methods.Samples were made from bone cement DePuy CMW 1 Gentamicin and mixed with vancomycin and/or highly dispersed silver. The elemental composition was studied by scanning electron microscopy and micro-x-ray spectral analysis. The study of the antimicrobial activity duration was performed by daily applying an incubation solution with samples to the bacterial lawn surface. The effect on biofilm formation was evaluated by immersing the test samples in LB-broth with MRSA. Results.The control samples did not have antimicrobial activity (AMA) against MRSA ATCC 43300. Test samples, additionally containing 10 wt.% of vancomycin was effective for 9 days. When adding highly dispersed silver, the lengthening of the samples activity time was recorded. So, when applying 2.5 wt.% of highly dispersed silver, the duration of AMA was 21 days, and when increased to 10 wt.% — 34 days. Energydispersion analysis of the sample surface with 10 wt.% of vancomycin and highly dispersed silver showed that the skeletal structure type contains matrix component based on barium sulfate with silver inclusions. During the study of the samples effect on a typical strain biofilm formation, no statistically significant differences were found between the optical density of gentian violet extracts in the negative control and in the medium with MRSA. Conclusion. The vancomycin with highly dispersed silver combination prolonged the antimicrobial activity of the samples against MRSA ATCC 43300 and effectively prevented the formation of microbial biofilms on its surface. Despite the fact that the conditions of the conducted experiment in vitro are not identical to the conditions of bone cement antimicrobial spacers clinical use, our results indicate the need to use spacers with a known duration of antimicrobial activity and to comply with the terms of temporary structures replacement.
V. A. Artyukh, , A. A. Boyarov, Ju. V. Muravyova, A. A. Kochish
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 27; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2021-27-2-9-22

Abstract:
Background. Chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains the one among the most severe complications of total hip arthroplasty. Presence of sinus tract assosiated with polymicrobial infection development, complexity of bacteriological diagnostics and damage of soft tissues lead to constrictions of one-stage revision hip arthroplasty (RHA). The aim of this studywas to assess the influence of draining sinus tract on the outcomes of one-stage RHA in patients with chronic hip PJI. Materials and Methods.A prospective cohort comparative study included 78 patients who underwent one-stage RHA in 2017-2020. Two groups were formed: 48 (61.54%) patients without sinus tract (WST) and 30 (38.45%) patients with sinus tract (ST). Results. The presence of a sinus tract significantly increased the duration of a one-stage RHA in groups of ST and WST (230 and 197.5 min respectively, p = 0.02), as well as blood loss (850 ml and 700 ml, respectively, p = 0.046). Sinus tract was a reliable symptom of soft tissue local infectious inflammation (86.67%, p = 0.00031), fasciitis (36.67%, p = 0.012), purulent cavity (66.67%, p = 0.00027). The structure of the pathogens was comparable. Monobacterial infections predominated in the WST group (82.98%) and in the ST group (77.78%, p = 0.08). In most cases staphylococci were isolated. The median follow-up was 20 months for both groups. The PJI was healed in 93.0% (n = 28) patients in WST group and 82.2% (n = 43) in ST PJI (p>0.05). Postoperative evaluation in the WST and ST groups: HHS 92 and 90 points (p = 0.79), EQ-5D-5L – 0.82 and 0.78 points (p = 0.84) respectively. The proportion of patients who were indicated revision surgery with no PJI association in the ST group exceeded this indicator more than twice according to the WST group — 25 and 11.62%, respectively (p>0.05). Conclusion.As a result of the study, there was no statistically significant difference between the outcomes of one-stage RHA in patients with and without sinus tract. Factors such as the anamnesis morbi, the soft tissues condition at the surgical site and the pathogenic microflora characteristics should be taken into account in order to achieve favourable outcomes of surgical treatment.
P. A. Berezin, ,
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia, Volume 27; doi:10.21823/2311-2905-2021-27-2-156-169

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Traumatic hip dislocations occupy the fourth place among dislocations of various localizations and, as a rule, are the result of exposure to a high-energy traumatic agent. Such injuries are more often observed in young and middle-aged males. The main cause of hip dislocations is road accidents. The femoral head is more often dislocated posteriorly, but anterior dislocations are not casuistic and account for approximately 10%. Hip dislocations are often combined with acetabular fractures, while their fairly clear clinical picture in the presence of fractures can be leveled. Traumatic hip dislocations require urgent diagnosis and treatment. After the clinical examination of the patient, an x-ray of the pelvis and hip joints are performed. Radiographic diagnosis of hip dislocation remains relevant, but modern imaging methods allows to study the hip joint in more detail and identify concomitant injuries. The main treatment for hip dislocation is closed reduction. Early dislocation reduction and the absence of damage to the structures forming the hip joint are important for the treatment results prognosis. The further patient management tactics after the dislocation reduction is determined by the results of stress tests and the CT data. When confirming the instability and associated injuries of the hip joint anatomical structures, surgical treatment is indicated. Among the complications of hip dislocation: sciatic nerve damage, post-traumatic coxarthrosis, the femoral head avascular necrosis, heterotopic ossification. Current literature data indicates the importance of early diagnosis of dislocation-associated injuries of the hip joint and periarticular tissues. Early and comprehensive repair of all existing injuries is crucial for favorable outcomes. A number of therapeutic and diagnostic methods, primarily arthroscopy, show optimistic results, but need further study.
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