Food and Nutrition Sciences
Latest articles in this journal
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 107-114; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.122009
Background: Campylobacter contamination in poultry and poultry product has been reported worldwide. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry feces using selective enrichment Bolton broth and multiplex PCR. Method: Two methods were used in this study: the first was direct plating of poultry feces into mCCDA agar plates. The second, three antibiotics were used at different concentrations to add in Bolton broth supplemented. These antibiotics were Rifampicin (Oxoid, Nepean, Ontario) with 10 mg/L, colistin (Oxoid, Nepean, Ontario) with 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL; trimethoprim (Oxoid, Nepean, Ontario) with 10 mg/L. The colonies with typical campylobacter morphology on blood agar (little, red and ring colonies) were further identified to the species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The addition of colistin (2 mg/mL) to the Bolton broth with selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of Campylobacter strains. Out of the 52 feces samples, 18 (34.61%) were positive for campylobacter and direct plating on mCCDA 11 (21.15%) campylobacter strains (p campylobacter strains detected belonged to Campylobacter coli and 1 (5.55%) strain to Campylobacter jejuni. Conclusion: Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from animal feces samples, this study shows that antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of Campylobacter from poultry feces.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 13-27; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.121002
Research on the effect of the nitrogen application rate on the balance of the nitrogen utilization, yield and quality of rice is common in South China but is relatively lacking in Northeast China, especially in the Liaohe Delta. In this study, Yanfeng 47 rice was planted in Panjin city, China, to explore the effect of six nitrogen rates (0, 160, 210, 260, 315 and 420 kg N/ha) on the nitrogen use efficiency, rice quality and grain yield of rice plants. The results showed that the application of an appropriate nitrogen rate (210-260 kg N/ha) remarkably increased the nitrogen use efficiency of rice plants, grain yield, rice milling quality and nutritional quality and resulted in a moderate rice eating quality. Although low nitrogen rates (160 kg N/ha) maintained a high rice eating quality, they decreased grain yield and other rice qualities, and excessive nitrogen (315 kg N/ha) increased rice appearance quality but significantly reduced the nitrogen use efficiency (p by an environmentally friendly method and guarantee rice with high quality and yield, the recommended nitrogen application rate is 210 kg N/ha.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 124-137; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.122011
Purpose: This review of the literature intends to provide readers an understanding of the prophylactic and antidotal usefulness of selenium (Se) for mercury (Hg) toxicity. We will provide an explanation of Hg and Se interactions for potential remediation options to contaminated ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach: In this mini-review, we discuss mechanistic aspects between Hg and Se, the implication for health outcomes, and its usefulness in the ecological recovery of Hg contaminated areas. Findings: Mercury has a strong affinity for Se, resulting in Se-dependent enzymes and proteins’ deactivation with devastating consequences to the host. It is likely that Hg’s toxicity results in Se deficiency. Selenium compounds can have prophylactic or antidotal effects to prevent or reverse the adverse toxicity action of Hg exposure. Current research indicates that the chemical interactions between Hg and Se are unique. The Hg capturing capacity of Se is a million times higher than sulfur compounds and results in inactive complexes. Practical implications: Future work can target engineering methods for technologies that can reduce the toxicity of Hg in the environment. Originality/value: The unique interactions between the elements are that Hg can compromise Se dependent enzymes; however, pharmacologic doses of Se can prevent or modulate the toxic effects of Hg. Paper type: Literature review.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 332-341; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123026
This study was designed to bridge gap in nutritionally skewed available biscuits and the high volume of agricultural waste generated by investigating the quality of biscuits prepared from wheat base, supplemented with waste from watermelon rinds and orange pomace as possible nutritious alternatives. Biscuit samples were respectively produced from blends of wheat, watermelon rind and orange pomace in the following ratio 100:0:0; 90:5:5; 80:10:10; 70:15:15 and 60:20:20, labelled samples A, B, C, D and E. Functional, proximate, mineral and sensory properties of the formulated biscuit samples were carried out using standard analytical procedures. The results showed that proximate composition of samples B - E significantly increased (p There were also significant increases (p < 0.05) in mineral contents of supplemented samples compared to control. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that wheat flour can be substituted with watermelon rind and orange pomace flours up to 10% without adversely affecting the overall quality attributes of the biscuits. These results indicate the robustness of food value addition as an effective means of improving nutritional quality of biscuits while contributing to waste management in the agricultural value chain.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 319-331; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123025
In tropical Africa, mushrooms play an important role for people in rural areas as a source of food, medicine and income. In order to promote the mycology sector in Côte d’Ivoire, a study was carried out on the determination of the biochemical parameters of the mushroom Lentinus brunneofloccosus pegler and Auricularia auricularia judae found in the localities of Daloa and Yamoussoukro. The samples were purchased in the markets of Daloa and Yamoussoukro. The dry matter, ash and lipid contents were determined by the AOAC method. Those of proteins, total sugars, reducing sugars were carried out respectively by the methods of Kjeldahl, Bernfeld and Dubois, and six minerals (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and sodium) were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The results showed that the ash (3.46 - 7.74%) and protein (6.10 - 12.40%) levels were high, but the lipid contents (4% to 6.60%), total sugars (1.34 - 5.16%) and reducing sugars (0.01 to 0.27%) are low. The major minerals are calcium (898 to 1006 mg/100g), potassium (1182 to 2433 mg/100g) and phosphorus (2091 - 4375 mg/100g). Magnesium (270 - 433 mg/100g) is represented in average proportion. Iron (2.83 to 46.17 mg/100g) and sodium (4.87 to 5.99 mg/100g) are in low amounts. The mushrooms Lentinus brunneofloccosus pegler and Auricularia auricularia judae are low in fat, high in ash, and are good sources of protein and minerals.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 343-351; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.124027
Sensory analysis tools are the classic means for guaranteeing sensory quality, assessing acceptability, and recognizing faults in food products. Powerful sensory analysis techniques, were applied to evaluate Homemade Complementary Food (HCF) using milk combination of plant and animal origin. An experimental but descriptive method of research was used with Mubi as the study area. Milk from animal, (cow and goat) as well as milk from plant origin (soya beans milk,) was used. Milk from animal source was pasteurized using Vat pasteurization process (FDA, 2015) while quality soya beans milk was used to prepare milk of plant origin. Blended banana was also used as part of the home made complementary food alongside milk on a 50:50 ratio. A 15 member trained panel made up of mothers with children under the age of 5 years and currently breast feeding were the respondents, a sensory evaluation sheet based on the 9-point hedonic scale was used for scoring. Proximate analysis of sample was done using standard methods, AOAC (2000). Data was analyzed statistically using means and standard deviation. Results showed that sample B4 (a combination of cow, goat, and soya beans milk + blended banana slurry) had the best sensory attributes of appearance (8.00 ±1.32), taste (7.44 ± 1.01) and overall acceptability (8.00 ± 1.22), while sample B5 (goat milk + blended banana slurry) had the best sensory attributes of colour (8.00 ± 0.71) and aroma (7.78 ± 0.83). The proximate composition showed that the home made complementary food contained protein above (10.97 ± 0.00) from complementary food, this is far above the recommended 6.2 g/day, required for children 23 months and below assuming the child has an average breast milk intake daily, and fat (2.76 ± 0.00) from complementary foods, was within the recommendation range, required for children age between 9 - 11 months, also assuming the child is on average breast milk intake daily. These results can be of significant benefits in research, and in food processing industries, globally. Further research in other regions is needed to compare the obtained results in terms of its variance.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 277-289; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123022
Food based approach can prove effective in improving access and availability of nutrients from foods required for daily life where most of the people depend on agriculture for their livelihood. A study on feasibility of Farming Systems for Nutrition (FSN) approach was undertaken from 2013 to 2018 in a few villages of Koraput district, Odisha state and Wardha district, Maharashtra state in India. Interventions were done to increase crop diversity, intercropping of pulses and cereals, promotion of seasonal vegetables and fruits along with nutrition awareness. The endline survey showed increase in production diversity leading to improved household dietary diversity. This paper demonstrates the impact of FSN interventions on household nutrient intake. The results show that the intake of nutrients like protein, vitamin C, iron and calcium increased significantly in Koraput and all the nutrients including energy and vitamin A increased significantly in Wardha. The evidence shows that Farming System for Nutrition approach improves individual nutrient intake which in the long run can address the problem of undernutrition.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 418-428; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.125032
Camels’ milk (CM) and goats’ milk (GM) are rich in nutrients and vitamins necessary for the health of humans and have therapeutic properties as they are rich in antioxidants and have a protective role against free radicals that have harmful effects on human health. Date palm (DP), camels’ milk and goats’ milk have been reported to be used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases in Arab countries. This study was designed to mix date palm with camels’ milk and goats’. Eight formulations of both camels’ milk and goats’ were made from different percentages of date palm. These formulations were added at ratios of 0 (control), 10%, 20% and 30% (w/v) to camels’ milk and goats’ and the effect of this date palm on the composition and texture properties of the fermented obtained products were followed. It has been found that pH, protein, fat decreased and total solid, carbohydrate, ash, viscosity, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants increased with the increase of the added percentage of date palm compared to control. Microbial counts of the fermented camels’ milk (FCM) and goats’ milk (FGM) increased significantly (P improved the composition, viscosity, microbiological quality of fermented camels’ and goats’ milk with nutritional functional values and acceptable sensory attributes.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 352-371; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.124028
This study aimed at improving the antioxidant capacity of fermented camel milk using some single strains of Lactobacillus (Lb. helveticus B-734, Lb. casei subsp. casei B-1922, Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei B-4560, Lb. rhamnosus B-1445 or Lb. rhamnosus B-442), as well as evaluating the acceptability of the final products. The acidity, proteolysis degree, antioxidant activity, viscosity and organoleptic properties of fermented milk were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4°C. Total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH radical scavenging activity, Ferrous ion chelating ability (FCA) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine the antioxidant activity of fermented milks. The results indicated that fermented milks differed significantly (P Lb. helveticus had the highest proteolysis degree, while samples with commercial starter culture (control) showed the lowest degree of proteolysis. Fermented milks containing Lactobacillus strains showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to those samples containing commercial starter culture. By the end of storage, there was a significant improvement (P Lb. paracasei, Lb. rhamnosus B-442 or commercial starter culture had the highest FCA values, while Lb. rhamnosus B-1445 samples recorded the highest value at the end of storage. Lb. helveticus samples had the highest TPC and FRAP values (P 0.0001) between the proteolysis degree and the values of FRAP and TPC. Samples containing Lb. rhamnosus B-442, Lb. rhamnosus B-1445 or commercial starter culture received the highest taste and overall acceptability scores while Lb. helveticus samples were the lowest. It is recommended to use Lb. rhamnosus B-442 and Lb. rhamnosus B-1445 for producing fermented camel milk with high antioxidant activity and acceptability.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 206-221; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.122017
The partial replacement of durum wheat semolina with local flours such as soybeans and yam reduces the dependence of durum wheat semolina for the production of pasta. The main objective of this study is to develop yam flour (A) from Dioscorea alata in the manufacture of pasta made with durum wheat semolina (B) and soy flour (C) (raw materials). The methodology adopted consists first of all in the characterization of yam, soybean and durum wheat semolina. An experimental design was developed to bring out the balanced mixing plan in well-defined proportions with ten (10) tests. Chemical and functional analyzes were carried out on the pastes obtained from these formulations. The functional properties allowed us to determine the optimal mixing plan using a mathematical model. The sensory properties of the optimal compound dough were estimated in comparison with the control doughs. The results on the chemical properties of raw materials A, B and C obtained on the water content vary from 10.29% to 12.29%; those of ashes vary from 0.91% to 5.74% and those of proteins vary from 3.24% to 20.17%. The results of the chemical and functional parameters of compound pasta gave very diverse values. We find that the water content, the ash content, the protein content and the acidity rate of the series of 10 tests are respectively from 6.60% to 14.97%, from 0.97% to 1.67%, from 7.15% to 12.10% and from 1.35% to 3.60%. Regarding the optimal cooking time for this series of 10 tests, it varies from 15 min to 20 min with a swelling index which is between 59.70% and 107.12%. Statistical tests (test F) from the different models indicate that the main regression effects are not significant with a p-value probability greater than 0.05. The models obtained were significant with a good value for the coefficient of determination R2. The sensory test approved that optimal compound pasta has good overall acceptability compared to 100% durum wheat pasta. The 20.40% yam flour mixture (102.020 g); 55.19% of durum wheat semolina (275.982 g) and 24.39% of soy flour (121.998 g) has good potential in the preparation of compound pasta.