Food and Nutrition Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 2157-944X / 2157-9458
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,751
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James Halbin Kouadio
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 13, pp 41-54; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2022.131005

Abstract:
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi that colonize a wide range of crops, including cereals and oilseeds, both in the field and after harvest, especially during storage. Several studies carried out on the occurrence of mycotoxins in crops and their derived products such as maize, peanuts, rice and attieke (cassava product), reported substantial levels of Aflatoxins (AFs), Fumonisins (FBs), Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Zearalenone (ZEA). The aim of the present study was to analyze findings available on Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins occurrence in maize, peanuts, rice and attieke in order to assess the exposure level and cancers risk in the Ivorian population. References and publications related to OTA in C?te d’Ivoire were searched and selected. Medline/PubMed, Elsevier Bibliographic Databases, BioInfoBank Library, DOAJ (Directory of Open Acess Journal), Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences and https://medwelljournals.com/home.php were used as databases. Data available showed Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of AFs and OTA were above of their Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) as recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Experts Committee on Food Additives through rice, maize, peanut and attieke consumption in C?te d’Ivoire. In addition, there is a veritable incidence of cancers with the abundant and frequent consumption of foods maize, rice, peanuts and attieke. However, maize and rice seemed to be sources of FBs and ZEA exposure in the population. In brief, there is a need to improve postharvest practices and to institutional strengthening for foods check.
Fatou Corka Kane, Djimadoum Kimassoum, Simo Fredy Brice, Moundipa F. Paul, Wilfred F. Mbacham
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 13, pp 493-503; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2022.135037

Abstract:
The antioxidant property of Moringa oleifera leaves and Pleurotus ostreatus on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in thirty adult male and female wistar rats. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant property of M. oleifera and P. ostreatus mixture in specific proportions in wistar rats. Material and Methods: The mushroom species and M. oleifera leaves were cultivated at the biotechnology laboratory of the University Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal. Oxidative stress in rats was induced by swimming. The dietary supplement was composed of a mixture of powders of Moringa oleifera and Pleurotus ostreatus in 2:1 ratio. Three groups received different doses of dietary supplements 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg, with one group being the stressed and the other the control group. Parameters in serum such as serum glutamyl oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase, albumin, Testosterone, creatinine, and, oxidative stress parameters (catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results: Results showed that the dietary supplement has an effect on oxidative stress because it increases the activity of catalase and the level of cellular glutathione in rats. The 500 mg/kg dose would be the most appropriate dose for stressful conditions. The 1000 mg/kg dose would be the most appropriate dose for liver damage. Conclusion: This study shows that the antioxidant properties of M. oleifera leaves and Pleurotus ostreatus are demonstrated by their ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity. The dietary supplement of M. oleifera leaves and P. ostreatus powders mixture could be good in stressful conditions.
Hiroshi Mori
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 13, pp 85-96; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2022.131009

Abstract:
The Dutch have been the world tallest since the 1980s but plateaued in height for the past few decades. A century and a half ago, young men at 20 in the Netherlands were 165 cm in mean height, as tall as men in France and Portugal. They grew to 178 cm, as tall as Norwegian in 1960, and 183 cm in mean height in the 1990s and levelled off. It is most likely that the Dutch may have nearly attained genetic potential as a human being. The statue is a net measure that captures the supply of inputs to health. Based on the changes in per capita supply of protein from animal products, FAOSTAT, the Dutch seem to have reached the highest level in per capita supply of animal protein. Increases in the supply of protein, however, do not result in increasing human height, if consumption of other “essential nutrients” is insufficient (Blum, 2013; Mori, 2018)[1][2]. With the close case studies of Japan and South Korea in respect of food consumption specifically by children in growing ages, the author suspects that children in the Netherlands may have been insufficient in the supply of vegetables, “essential nutrients” on the top of animal products.
Teif A. Najm, Marie K. Walsh
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 13, pp 238-251; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2022.133020

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to characterize lipases from two thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus stearothermophilus (GS) and Anoxybacillus flavithermus (AF) in heat treated cell lysates. The pH optimum, pH stability, temperature stability and substrate kinetics and specificity of the lipases were determined. Optimum activity of the lipase from GS (LGS) was observed at pH 7.5, and the optimum activity of the lipase from AF (LAF) was at pH 8.0. LGS was stable up to 70°C after 12 hrs while LAF was stable up to 90°C after 12 hrs. Both enzymes were stable at a pH range of 6 to 8 over 12 h at 4°C. LGS had a highest Vmax value of 22 mM·min-1·mg-1 with p-nitrophenyl acetate while the lowest Km was 0.8 mM with p-nitrophenyl laurate. The highest Vmax of LAF was 2.5 mM·min-1·mg-1 with p-nitrophenyl myristate, and the lowest Km was 0.4 mM with p-nitrophenyl octanoate. LGS preferentially hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl acetate and p-nitrophenyl octanoate while LAF preferentially hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl myristate and p-nitrophenyldodecanoate. Lipases from both GS and AF showed characteristics that would be beneficial in food processing.
Heba Althubaiti
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 13, pp 124-135; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2022.132012

Abstract:
Introduction: There is a lack of the awareness in the fruit and vegetable (F & V) recommendation among Saudi society. Although the known facts of the benefits of F & V on health, information on Saudi society following the advised recommendation whether by WHO or local are still unknown. Aim: This cross-sectional study aims to examine the perception of F & V intake among students at Umm Al-Qura University and to assess if they follow these recommendations of F & V locally and internationally. Method: Students from Umm Al-Qura University participated in this study (n = 98, age between 18 - 55). All data were collected using short online survey via Online survey—Survey Monkey in 2019. Result: 55% students were not aware of these recommendations whereas 45% were aware of WHO recommendation. The majority of students 53% have less than two portions a day of F & V. Only 14% have between two to four portions a day. 32% do not eat any portion of F & V daily. 59%, 14%, 5% of students believe that they should have five, seven, more than seven portions a day for being healthy respectively. Maintaining health, reducing the risk for chronic disease and providing essential vitamins and minerals to the body were all reasons why students believe that they should have F & V everyday by 71%. Busy lifestyle, F & V cost, lack of the awareness about the health benefits, dislike of the taste, some F & V spoiled easily were all factors affecting eating F & V daily. Conclusion: University students need educational and nutritional campaigns to spread the awareness about the health benefits of F & V. Most importantly the ministry of health should support those campaigns to increase students’ awareness and build a healthy society with a good habit.
Landing Ndiaye, Mohamed Mahamoud Charahabil, Lahat Niang, Abdoulaye Diouf, Khemes Marie Odile Thiocone, Nicolas Cyrille Ayessou, Malainy Diatta
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 13, pp 439-452; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2022.134032

Abstract:
In Africa, the number of undernourished people is increasing at an alarming rate. However, fruits play an important role in humans, especially as a source of vitamins and minerals. In Senegal, there is research on the nut, but no attention given to the cashew apple. The present study contributes to the evaluation of the physicochemical and biochemical properties of cashew apple juice from the eco-geographical area of Casamance, in southern Senegal. The plant material consists of cashew apples collected in June 2021 from 120 cashew trees. Three batches were constituted for this purpose, taking into account the colour of the apples (red, yellow, and orange). AFNOR standardised methods were used for the physicochemical and biochemical characterisation of cashew apple juice. The dry extract, dry matter, and ash content of the red, yellow, and orange varieties ranged from 14 to 14.70 °Brix; 12.96% to 14.17%, and 0.24 to 0.35 g/100g respectively. The multivariate analysis of variance by permutation allowed us to identify two groups of cashew apples. The first group, consisting of orange cashew apples, had the best nutritional quality and was very rich in total minerals (0.35 g/100g) and reducing sugars (18.69 mg/100g). The second group, made up of red and yellow apples, is particularly rich in protein (0.52 g/100ml) and antioxidants (43.28% in IP). Antioxidant power is positively correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.99). Cashew co-products have a high nutritional value and a considerable economic issue.
Christopher Coleman, Jessica Kiel, Chad LaCalamita, Nicholas Frye, Lindsey Provelengios
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 13, pp 453-462; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2022.135033

Abstract:
Background: Maintenance of lost weight is a challenging aspect of weight management, therefore, an online survey of OPTAVIA (“the Program”) coaches and clients was conducted to understand the habits of successful maintainers. Methods: Coaches and clients who lost ≥ 10% body weight on the Program, had been trying to maintain their weight loss for ≥1 year, and maintained > 75% of their weight loss during that time were identified. Mean ± SD were calculated for continuous variables and categorical variables were quantified using frequencies and percentages. Results: The analysis included 590 respondents (342 coaches, 248 clients; 84% female, 52.6 ± 11.9 years). Average weight loss was 23.7% ± 8.6%; average time in maintenance was 24.5 ± 15.8 months. The most common maintenance strategies included self-monitoring, leveraging habits learned during weight loss, food-related strategies, physical activity, establishing a healthy environment, and becoming a coach. Coaches identified several beneficial factors: higher accountability, increased self-awareness, paying it forward, aligning maintenance with their identity as a coach, being a role model, and engagement with the Program. Conclusions: Successful coaches and clients use behaviors consistent with existing literature combined with several unique to the Program. The novel insights from this research rest primarily on the strategy of becoming a coach to help maintain weight loss.
Irene R. Oyim, Joseph O. Anyango, Mary N. Omwamba
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 13, pp 511-525; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2022.136039

Abstract:
Like most roots and tubers, taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms have a short shelf-life due to the high moisture content, which aggravates their post-harvest losses. They also contain high amounts of calcium oxalates, limiting their use in food applications. To help add value and diversify the use of taro corms as well as curb food losses, various strategies have been proposed, such processing of the corms into flour. This study aimed at evaluating the total oxalate content and techno-functional properties of taro flour as affected by the pre-gelatinization conditions (i.e., method and time). Pre-gelatinized taro flour was prepared by subjecting peeled and cleaned taro corms to roasting (190°C), boiling (100°C), and steaming (100°C) for 10 min, 20 min and 30 min, respectively, for each method, followed by drying at 55°C and milling. Generally, all the properties of flour were significantly affected by the pre-gelatinization conditions (P 0.05). The total oxalate content of the pre-gelatinized taro flour ranged from 33.26 to 76.90 mg/100g. Pre-gelatinization by boiling significantly reduced the oxalate content (56.7%), while roasting resulted in the least reduction (36.2%). The flour colour i.e. L*, hue, and chroma ranged from 38.47° - 70.30°, 42.64° - 69.43°, and 7.78° - 10.58°, respectively. Roasting resulted in flour with the largest L* (70.30°) and hue angle (69.43°). Boiling also resulted in flour with the highest bulk density (BD) (0.86 g/cm3) and the lowest water solubility index (WSI) (9.39%). Steamed flour had the highest water absorption index (WAI) (3.81 g/g), water holding capacity (WHC) (4.59 g/g), and swelling capacity (SC) (4.86 g/g). This study shows that pre-gelatinization (i.e. by boiling, steaming or roasting) significantly affects the total oxalate content and techno-functional properties of taro flour, which in turn influences its use in other food applications thus increasing the utilization and production of taro simultaneously.
Soyogu Yamashita, Mariko Oe, Mamoru Kimura, Yohei Okuyama, Satoshi Seino, Daichi Kajiyama, Ryosuke Matsuoka, Yasunobu Masuda, Keiichi Tsukinoki
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 13, pp 541-557; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2022.136041

Abstract:
It is known that the consumption of bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has beneficial effects on human immune function. Most of them are Gram-positive bacteria, and there are few reports on Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the effects of intake of Gluconacetobacter hansenii GK-1 (GK-1), Gram-negative acetic acid bacteria, for 12 weeks on physical condition and immune indices. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 100 healthy adults. The subjects were randomized into the GK-1 and the placebo groups. The diary-administered physical condition survey was conducted during the study period. The evaluation of salivary sIgA levels, NK-cell activity, and serum IFN-γ levels and quality of life survey was conducted before, in 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after the start of ingestion. Based on the physical condition survey, the cumulative onset-days of symptoms were significantly suppressed in the GK-1 group compared to the placebo group regarding the evaluation of 13 symptoms related to immunity, every 3 weeks. Additionally, salivary sIgA levels per hour were significantly increased in the GK-1 group compared with the placebo group at 6 and 12 weeks. Despite no significant differences in the NK-cell activity, serum IFN-γ levels or quality of life survey between the groups. Serum IFN-γ levels in the GK-1 group were significantly elevated at 12 weeks after the start of ingestion compared with those before ingestion. In conclusion, intake of GK-1 was shown to increase salivary sIgA levels and improve physical condition. This suggested that oral intake of GK-1 may help maintain the immune system.
Sujan Acharya, Brian A. Nummer
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 13, pp 638-648; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2022.137047

Abstract:
This study examined the survival of acid-adapted E. coli O157 in kombucha during fermentation and refrigerated kombucha mixed with fruit juices. Acidic and non-acidic kombucha mixes were fermented at 25°C using a commercially available starter culture and inoculated with a 5-strain mixture of acid-adapted E. coli O157. There was >5-log reduction in the pathogen count for both starter mixes within 7 days of fermentation. For the kombucha-juice blends at refrigerated temperature, 14 ml of lemon, apple, orange, and mango juices were mixed with 186 ml kombucha separately. The treatments were inoculated with a 5-strain mixture of acid-adapted E. coli O157 and incubated at 5°C for 14 days. >5-log reduction in the pathogen count was observed in lemon, control, and mango juice blend after 1, 3, and 14 days, respectively. The total reduction in pathogen count in the apple and orange juice blend after 14 days was 4.43 and 4.12 log CFU/ml, respectively. The inability of the kombucha fruit blend to cause a 5-log reduction of E. coli O157 suggests the need for following strict hygienic and good sanitation practices during blending and bottling for home fermenters and an approved HACCP plan for foodservice operators to ensure product safety.
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