Food and Nutrition Sciences
ISSN / EISSN : 2157-944X / 2157-9458
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,595
Latest articles in this journal
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 1-12; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.121001
Walnut meal is a nutrient-rich product and has a high nutritional value. Walnut meal is a product that can be used in food technology, in order to improve the nutritional quality, expand the range of confectionery products, and replaces the walnut kernel. Due to the dark color, the use of the walnut meal in the preparation of pastries would have a negative effect on the appearance of some final products and the whitening process would allow its use without negatively influencing the final product. The aim of the research is to whiten Juglans regial L. walnut meal as a valuable nutritious raw material. Hydrogen peroxide was used to bleach the walnut meal, and the pH, concentration of the whitening agent and the concentration of the meal were used as variable parameters of the bleaching process. The color descriptors (Whitening index, Saturation index, Total color difference, Browning index) were calculated to establish the optimal whitening conditions of the walnut meal. The obtained results showed that an alkaline medium, with the hydrogen peroxide concentration of 10% and 2.5% meal concentration allows obtaining the best color parameters in terms of Lightness (82.20) and Whitening Index (71.20). In addition, the study of walnut meal quality in terms of peroxide value evolution showed that the treatment with hydrogen peroxide does not affect in any way the value of the peroxide index of the lipids. The highest peroxide value (4.91 mmol/g oil) was recorded for the sample bleached in a 10% Hydrogen peroxide solution, with a pH of 10 against the 4.71 mmol/g oil for the unbleached sample.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 13-27; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.121002
Research on the effect of the nitrogen application rate on the balance of the nitrogen utilization, yield and quality of rice is common in South China but is relatively lacking in Northeast China, especially in the Liaohe Delta. In this study, Yanfeng 47 rice was planted in Panjin city, China, to explore the effect of six nitrogen rates (0, 160, 210, 260, 315 and 420 kg N/ha) on the nitrogen use efficiency, rice quality and grain yield of rice plants. The results showed that the application of an appropriate nitrogen rate (210-260 kg N/ha) remarkably increased the nitrogen use efficiency of rice plants, grain yield, rice milling quality and nutritional quality and resulted in a moderate rice eating quality. Although low nitrogen rates (160 kg N/ha) maintained a high rice eating quality, they decreased grain yield and other rice qualities, and excessive nitrogen (315 kg N/ha) increased rice appearance quality but significantly reduced the nitrogen use efficiency (p by an environmentally friendly method and guarantee rice with high quality and yield, the recommended nitrogen application rate is 210 kg N/ha.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 1-7; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.111001
The demand for tomato paste is daily used over the year with the fact that it is abundant in certain seasons and scarce during other season. Many methods are used to preserve the juice or the paste through drying and with addition of preservative. Tomato grows under ambient conditions or in green houses at a temperature of 20°C - 27°C with high contents of vitamins A and B, potassium, iron, and phosphors. Tomato is a source of fiber; it doesn’t contain sodium salt, fats, or cholesterol; in fact it is the cheapest food of the poor common people. Tomato while waiting for processing to paste deteriorates rather quickly, and shall be thoroughly rinsed with sterilized clean water using rotary washers. The washed tomato is inspected, sorted, and chopped. The tomato liquor is processed through an extraction unit where the juice is separated away from outer skin, seeds and fibers. To avoid oxidation and foaming the tomato liquor is deaerated; the juice is deaerated by taking the vacuum as soon as it is formed. A double-effect evaporator is used to concentrate the tomato liquor under partial vacuum of 0.5 atmospheres; this is important to minimize heat damage, oxidation and dark color. The tomato paste is then sterilized with small amount of non-harmful preservatives and then canned, labeled and sent to store. To achieve the international standard specifications and metrology organization a control system is developed, tuned and analyzed for stability conditions. It is recommended that a tomato production plant has to be constructed in countries like Sudan and other countries with similar weather conditions.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 52-62; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.111006
The purpose of this article is to compare the quality of three edible oils derived from palm oil in Daloa’s city. The methodological approach of the article includes, on the one hand, a field survey determining the most used oils and the number of frying carried out by the attieké-fish sellers. On the other hand, the physico-chemical parameters (refractive index, iodine index, saponification index, acid index and peroxide index) of these oils were determined. As a result, the most used oils are A, B and C and are heated at least 3 times by the attieké-fish sellers. After repeated heating, the values of the peroxide, saponification, refraction, iodine indices of oils A and B do not match those of the codex with the exception of the acid value. For oil C, only the acid and iodine indices correspond to the codex standards. Overall, the results of the study clearly show that the repeated heating of these oils has an influence on the different physico-chemical properties studied.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 40-51; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.111005
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of baking conditions of partially-dried potato slices (PDPS) prior baking on the quality attributes of the resultant baked potato chips. Baking experiment was conducted at power levels of 80 and 100 Watts for different baking times according to microwave power used. Texture, color measurements and sensory evaluation were carried out on resultant baked potato chips. The results showed that partially drying step (even to 40% moisture content) prior microwave baking resulted in marked crispiness as well as brilliant yellow in resultant potato chips. The optimum conditions for the best quality of partially-dried potato chips were microwave cooking at power level of 100 Watts for 100 seconds.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 98-112; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.112009
Bovine mastitis affects the udder health and thus causing significant economic losses. Probiotic products based on the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to limit pathogens multiplication and pre-infection risks can be an interesting alternative to post infection allopathic treatment with antibiotics. Lactococcus lactis is one of the most important bacteria used in dairy technology. In this work, a total of 21 Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis strains, 20 from goat milk whey and one strain from cow milk were used to evaluate their antibacterial activity against four pathogenic germs responsible for mastitis: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae. The nisin-producing cow milk strain was active against St. uberis and Str. Agalactiae using the well diffusion method. For the strains isolated from goat milk whey, no antimicrobial effect was observed against these pathogens. However, a different approach based on the growth of pathogenic bacteria interacting with the Lactococcus lactis strains in a minimum medium was used to study the barrier effect of LAB. The Lactococcus lactis strains S1 and S2 from goat milk whey depleted the growth of Sa. aureus, St. uberis and E. coli during 8 h and stopped the development of St. agalactiae.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 123-152; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.112011
Fish farming in Brazil has been growing, and a new branch that has been taking up space and evolving, every year, as a source of leisure, is fish-pay. Despite being a leisure practice, this type of fish farming has contributed to the development of Brazilian aquaculture. With the growth of aquaculture in the country, concerns about the quality of the product arise, both financially and microbiologically. Aquaculture has caused some environmental problems, such as the increase in the population growth of bacteria specific to the aquatic environment and the possible proliferation of microorganisms resistant to antibiotics due to the indiscriminate use of these drugs in nurseries. Inadequate water quality conditions can contaminate fish and favor the development of diarrheal infections due to the microbiological load present in the fish. This article aims to review the literature covering the general characteristics of fish, including aspects of nutritional importance, and mechanisms of deterioration and analysis of freshness.
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 113-122; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.112010
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 186-193; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.113014
Food safety is a fundamental requirement in mass catering, as large numbers of meals are served each day to potentially vulnerable consumers, such as children. Food Business Operators implement plans for the microbiological monitoring of the meals prepared and served in the catering sector, and for the swab-sampling of surfaces. From January 2018 to June 2019, our laboratory analyzed both food and swab samples from four catering facilities. Considering the EFSA 2018 data, we specifically focused on samples analyzed for Bacillus cereus. Our data substantially showed episodic contamination due to a piece of equipment that is not usually subjected to microbiological control, thus suggesting that every aspect should be scrutinized in order to identify critical points. While Bacillus cereus is widespread in nature and common in soil, it is adapted for growth in the intestinal tracts of insects and mammals. It is often present in a variety of foods, and may cause an emetic or a diarrheal type of food-associated illness. B. cereus produces several toxins. Multiplex PCR enables seven toxin genes to be detected (hblC, hblD, hblA, nheA, nheB, nheC and cytK).
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 172-185; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.113013
Background: No research has been done for the determination of plasma levels of tryptophan metabolites in patients of monopolar and bipolar depression. Methods: Ultra high-speed liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry has been used for the simultaneous determination of plasma levels of tryptophan metabolites in depressive patients. Results: No significant age and gender differences were shown in monopolar depressive patients and some differences were shown in bipolar patients. The administration of drugs such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers do not seem to have affected the results. Conclusion: In patients of major monopolar depression age and gender differences of plasma levels of tryptophan metabolites disappear although significant differences are observed in healthy volunteers. Some differences of age and gender differences were shown between monopolar and bipolar depressive patients.