Food and Nutrition Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2157-944X / 2157-9458
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,659
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Julien Adounkpe, Cyriaque Agboton, Waliou Amoussa Hounkpatin, Basile Kounouhewa, Clement Ahouannou, Brice Sinsin
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 759-773; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.127057

Abstract:
This research was conducted in the framework of the feasibility study related to FOCUSED-Benin project, the 5th work package of the YES-PV NIG BEN project financed by the German Government through its Ministry of Research and High Education (BMBF). The FOCUSED Benin project’s major objective is to protect the environment through the utilization of solar energy for drying agricultural products and table salt harvesting. Salt is important in human daily life. It is used for conservation of food, softening water, industrial processes, road de-icing, food seasoning, etc. Seawater evaporation, salt mining, and salt brine are the major sources of salt production worldwide. However, in West Africa, particularly in Benin Republic, table salt is produced using methods that negatively impact the ecology of the mangrove. This study aimed at investigating the current status of salt production in Benin Republic, its impact on the mangrove and its related health issues. Field visits, meeting with associations of women salt producers in the coastal region of the country, allowed to quantify the number of women associations dealing with salt production, their difficulties, and the impacts on the mangrove. Salt is a seasonal activity and is produced from January to May. One kilogram salt production, along with health issues reported by salt producers, requires approximately 1 kg of firewood obtained by cutting down mangrove. Salt price varies from 250CFA (€0.38) to 400FCFA (€0.61) per kg depending on the season. The women salt producers are not aware of the ecological consequences of mangrove destruction. Sources of firewood are becoming increasingly scarce and prices prohibitive. Sensitization is not efficient. An alternative method of harvesting salt by solar drying and new ideas for implementing this activity in a participatory approach was discussed with the different associations of salt producers.
Sravanthi Budaraju, P. Kumar Mallikarjunan, A. Saari Csallany
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 899-914; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.129067

Abstract:
In this study the antioxidant activity of barley malt rootlet (BMR) extracts was evaluated in heat treated corn oil up to 5 hours at 185°C frying temperature. The antioxidant activity of BMR extracts was measured at 25, 50, 100 and 150 ppm concentrations. The free and bound antioxidant phenolics were extracted from BMR using three different extraction methods. Conventional solvent extraction (CSE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and autoclave assisted pretreated solvent extraction (APSE). In the present experiment, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the various extracts were measured. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to evaluate the ability of the BMR to protect lipid peroxidation in corn oil at 185°C frying temperature. The formation of TBARS at 5 hours of heat treated corn oil has shown similar antioxidant levels in 150 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or MAE free phenolic extract added to corn oil. TBARS value for BHT was 1.896 ± 0.013 μg/mL of corn oil and for MAE was 1.896 ± 0.034 μg/mL of corn oil. The highest level of antioxidant activity was found for the free phenolic extracts. The order of inhibition of oxidation was found to be for free phenolics as follows: BHT (100 ppm) > APSE (50 ppm) > MAE (100 ppm) > CSE (100 ppm).
Sung Phil Kim, Ju Ryeong Lee, Ki Sun Kwon, Yeo Jin Jang, Jeanman Kim, Keun Hyung Yu, Sun Yeop Lee, Mendel Friedman
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 223-238; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.123018

Abstract:
Human and animal alcohol-induced hangovers are caused by adverse effects of acetaldehyde formed in vivo by the enzymatic oxidation of ethyl alcohol to acetaldehyde. This study aims to determine the effect of the combination of a bioprocessed black rice bran (BRB-F) and glutathione-enriched yeast extract (GEYE) on hangovers as tested in rats and mice. Because analysis by HPLC showed that the content of the biologically active rice bran compound γ-oryzanol as well as of the antioxidant reduced glutathione were unaffected during the preparation of tablets containing 100 mg/kg of the bran formulation, the tablets were then administered orally to rats. The results showed decreased blood concentrations of both alcohol and acetaldehyde compared to the control group. Additional behavior experiments using the Rota-rod and wire tests in mice confirmed that the food formulation relieved hangover behavior caused by alcohol. It seems that the combination of BRB-F and GEYE can effectively control hangovers in rodents caused by alcohol intake. Mechanistic aspects of the hangover and anti-hangover effects of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde are similar to browning-type reactions between the aldehyde group of glucose and proteins, the antibiotic effects of cinnamaldehyde against pathogenic bacteria, the adverse effects of the heat-induced food toxin acrylamide, and the alkali-induced formation of the unnatural amino acid lysinoalanine.
Khondoker Ziaul Islam, Abdullah Al Ahasan, Sanwar Hossain, Mohammed Hadifur Rahman, Ummey Sufia Mousumi, Asaduzzaman
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 73-89; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.121007

Abstract:
The complication of adulterated ingredients in processed food items is widely observed in the food industry and remains a continuous disquiet for end users. This problem may affect consumers’ spiritual beliefs, likewise with their fitness and diet. Hence commercial foods should be scrutinized for the precision of the avowed ingredients. This study is dedicated to developing a Fluorescent light Spectroscope to identify the pork adulteration. A simple way of DNA extraction process has been introduced to make the system more convenient. The spectral bands linked with pork fat (PF), beef fat (BF) and their combinations in different food formulation were skimmed, and recognized by correlating them to those spectroscopically illustrative to clean Pork or PF and other different items. Every material has the properties to absorb some light of specific wavelength, and our activity is to determine thus wavelength range at which are absorbed or make any change by the target material. The findings have revealed that spectroscopy can be used as one of the procedures to detect and quantify of pork in different foods and beverages formulation for Halal verification purposes. Special laborious procedures and equipment both are essential for the existing testing methods named RT-PCR (Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Most of the food processors and dealers are not skillful to conduct sufficient testing for their products with all these sample preparation, extraction, analysis, and obtaining results which can be overcome by our proposed setup.
Anne Matignon, Alberto Tecante
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 509-525; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.126039

Abstract:
“Pan de Muerto” is a traditional bread type, emblematic of Mexican bakery. This work’s objectives were defining its characteristics, determining the effect of fat content, fat type, and storage conditions on its staling, and examining the relative impact of these conditions on fat crystallization and starch retrogradation. Staling was evaluated via changes in Young’s modulus. Fat crystallization and starch retrogradation were studied considering the thermal and crystalline properties of unmodified and freeze-dried-defatted crumb. This bread is a hybrid of bakery and pastry products. Fat type, fat proportion, and storage conditions resulted in different staling behaviors not directly dependent on water content. Only butter crystallization depended on storage conditions. Starch retrograded over eight days of storage. The starch crystals’ properties depended on fat content, whereas storage conditions impacted the rate of retrogradation. New relations between fat content and starch retrogradation are shown.
Jacent Kamuntu Asiimwe, Joweria Nambooze, George Wilson Ssonko, James Kakande, Lilian Nyanzi, Peter Kaddu
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 494-508; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.126038

Abstract:
Introduction: Appropriate feeding and consequently good nutritional status of young children largely depends on their caregivers. Aim: The current study aimed at assessing maternal/caregivers’ current knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs regarding different aspects of infant and young child feeding in Eastern and Central Uganda. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey design with mixed methods employing both qualitative and quantitative methods was used for data collection. Results: The study participants included 556 caregivers and 572 children. Results indicate that most caregivers (77%) were knowledgeable about key infant and young child feeding practices such as breastfeeding, complementary feeding and meal frequency. However, culture and economic hardships were a major barrier to the applicability of this knowledge. Nearly all (98%) children were ever breastfed with 41% having been initiated on breast milk in the first hour after birth and 68% of all the children below 6 months exclusively breastfed. Three percent of the children aged 6 - 23 months were classified as having either Moderate (2%) or Severe (1%) Acute malnutrition. The median birth weight was 3.2 Kgs with nine percent of the children classified as underweight at birth. The majority (78%) of the children consumed foods from at least four food groups however only 44% consumed heme-rich animal flesh food such as meat, poultry, organ meats and fish, 29% consumed milk and milk products while only 11% consumed eggs. The barriers to improved nutritional status and health-seeking behaviour in children from both regions were largely similar. Some of these included cultural practices which prohibit children from eating certain foods and lack of drugs in the health facilities. Lack of male involvement was a key barrier to health-seeking behaviour and the nutritional well-being of children. Males were, however, more knowledgeable about the key childcare practices that are critical to positive outcomes because they listen to radios, have access to social media and usually congregate at bars where this information is disseminated and exchanged. Conclusion: There should be continuous sensitization of mothers on the benefits of breastfeeding with special focus on early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding as well as child feeding practices during illness. To increase protein intake in children 6 - 23 months, interventions aimed at increasing consumption of these vital nutrients such as promotion of nutrition-sensitive agricultural enterprises like rearing of small livestock and chickens should be emphasized. Consumption of these foods is critical, especially during pregnancy and infancy. Finally, male involvement in maternal and child feeding should be encouraged.
Meghana Theegala, René Adalberto Chigüila Arévalo, Valerie Viana, Douglas Olson, Kayanush Aryana
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 670-680; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.127050

Abstract:
Consumption of flaxseed provides health benefits. Bile tolerance allows survival of probiotics in the intestinal tract. The objective was to determine whether or not flaxseed enhances bile tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) LA-K, Lactobacillus delbruekii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) LB-12, and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus (S. thermophilus) ST-M5. Control and experimental (62 g flaxseed/L) broths containing 0.3% oxgall were prepared for each culture, sterilized, cooled, inoculated, and plated for 8 h. Growth of each microorganism in both the control and experimental broths was evaluated by the slope of the regression line of its log count versus time after inoculation. Flaxseed significantly enhanced growth of L. acidophilus but not L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus over 8 h compared to its corresponding control. Therefore, flaxseed improved the bile tolerance of L. acidophilus but not of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus.
Alexis Dufrene, Dasom Park, Douglas Olson, Kayanush Aryana
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 681-692; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.127051

Abstract:
Greek yogurt has become much more popular within the last 15 to 20 years. The by-product of Greek yogurt manufacture is acid whey. Although acid whey has been considered a waste product, researchers are exploring various uses of this whey. Since the health benefits of consuming probiotics are widely known, one may propose adding probiotics to acid whey to form a probiotic beverage. Typically, probiotic bacteria do not thrive in acidic conditions. It would be beneficial to determine if the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus can survive in these acidic conditions. The objectives were to determine the growth of L. acidophilus in acid whey resulting from manufacturing Greek yogurt and to study any changes in apparent viscosity, pH, and titratable acidity over 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. Plain yogurt was manufactured, and whey was separated from plain yogurt to yield Greek yogurt and acid whey. Acid whey was batch pasteurized, cooled, sweetened, flavored with pineapple flavoring, inoculated with L. acidophilus, and stored at 4°C for 4 weeks. The log L. acidophilus counts progressively decreased from 7.84 immediately after manufacture to 2.06 at week 4. There were no significant changes in pH and titratable acidity of the pineapple-flavored probiotic acid whey over 4 weeks of storage, indicating product stability over shelf life. Viscosity changed over the storage time with minimum values at week 2 and maximum values at week 4. Although the counts declined over 4 weeks of storage, some L. acidophilus survived in the pineapple-flavored acid whey.
Styliani Ziaka, Tânia Amorim, Maria Vliora, Paraskevi Gkiata, Konstantinos Mantzios, Georgia Ntina, Eirini K.Kydonaki, Vasileios Gkizlis, Yiannis Koutedakis
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 659-669; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.127049

Abstract:
Introduction: Naturally based treatments for osteoporosis are currently limited. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain whether bovine colostrum supplementation can improve bone health in humans. Methods: In total 63 individuals volunteered in a 4-month supplementation project. They were stratified into three groups: 1) healthy post-menopausal women (n = 24); 2) individuals with osteopenia (n = 25); 3) people with osteoporosis (n = 14). Participants of each group were randomly assigned into two experimental sub-groups: a) the bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation (200 mL/day; 5 days/week); b) the placebo sub-group. Before and after the 4-month supplementation, blood samples were obtained and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured. Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on three different anatomical sites: lumbar spine (LS), left femur neck (FN), and left forearm (Arm). Bone health markers (bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide (CTX-I), deoxypyridinoline (DPD)) as well as immunological markers (interleukin 6 (IL6) and immunoglobulin E (IgE)), were assessed in blood serum with enzyme immunoassays, at baseline and 4-months after BC supplementation. Results: No significant changes were found in bone densitometry factors (p > 0.05), for all studied blood parameters and their calculated effect sizes. Conclusions: It is concluded that, as studied herein, BC does not seem to affect human bone health. This pilot study though warrant the need for further research into the efficacy of BC in patients with osteoporosis.
Rodica Siminiuc, Dinu Țurcanu
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 703-718; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.127053

Abstract:
Recent studies have shown that food systems fail to provide a healthy diet and are unfair and ecologically unsustainable. Sustainable food production will require multidisciplinary approaches, in which human, animal, and environmental health, are inextricably linked. There are various researches that make edible spontaneous herbs (ESP) the protagonists of a new trend in food approach, focused more on health, food safety, and connection with nature. The research consisted of the analysis and capitalization of (ESH) from the territory of the Republic of Moldova (RM) by reviewing their traditional use in local gastronomy and describing the nutritional characteristics. Ethnographic research techniques, such as conversations and interviews, were used to identify knowledge about the use of ESH in the RM. The use, phytochemical profile, and curative effects of the analyzed ESH were taken from the online database Plants For A Future (PFAF) and the phytochemical and ethnobotanical database of the US Department of Agriculture and Agricultural Research. The analysis of the specialized literature on ESH consumption in the world showed that their culinary application in the RM could still be diversified. Some of their properties could possibly be used in the design of new products for people with special diets.
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