Brazilian Journal of Geology
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Brazilian Journal of Geology; doi:10.5327/z23174889
Brazilian Journal of Geology, Volume 50; doi:10.1590/2317-4889202020190101
The Glória Norte Stock (GNS) is made up of predominantly porphyritic biotite- amphibole-bearing quartz monzonite, enclosing a large number of microgranular mafic enclaves (MME). The GNS MME are fine-grained rocks with rounded and ellipsoid shapes that show sharp and gradational contacts with the host rocks, suggesting they coexisted with the host monzonite as magmas. The studied amphibole crystals of the two rock types are calcic and correspond to pargasite, edenite, and magnesium-hornblende. Their compositions are influenced by substitutions involving Al3+, Na+, Fe2+, Si4+ and Mg2+ ions, reflecting the decrease in temperature and the increase in oxygen fugacity. They present low Ti and Al contents, and varied Si content (6.2-7.7 apuf). The mg# values range from 0.48-0.84. Pressures for the crystallization of the MME amphiboles vary between 2.6 and 7.8 kbar and the temperatures of solidus and liquidus were estimated between 600-659 and 887-908ºC, respectively. The early MME amphibole crystals with lower Si and Mg content were formed under high pressure (7.8 kbar) and temperature (908 °C). The presence of amphiboles with 862ºC and 5 kbar in MME and GNS reflects that the interaction between these magmas occurred at 18 km of depth.
Brazilian Journal of Geology, Volume 50; doi:10.1590/2317-4889202020190063
Alta Floresta Gold Province occurs in the center-south portion of the Amazon Craton. Trairão gold deposit, which is located in the Alta Floresta Gold Province, is hosted by 1878 to 1854 Ma arc-related granites. Two important Au deposits take place in the region, the Trairão and Chumbo Grosso, which are structurally controlled by N80°W/S80°E trending lineament and associated with quartz veins and disseminated sulfides in a strong phyllic alteration zone of the host granite. Hydrothermal monazite grains formed during the Au mineralization event occur as fine anhedral crystals filling fractures or as isolated grains associated with Ag, Au, molybdenite, barite, pyrite, galena, and sphalerite. The hydrothermal monazite grains contain very low U, relatively low Th, and moderate Nd and La contents. SHRIMP U-Th-Pb dating of these crystals yielded an age of 1798 ± 12 Ma for Trairão and 1805 ± 22 Ma for Chumbo Grosso Au-deposits, whereas magmatic zircon grains of the granitic host rocks yielded an age of 1854 ± 8 Ma. The ages obtained in this paper are similar to those reported by Assis (2015), who studied Pé Quente (Re-Os in molybdenite, 1792 ± 9 Ma and 1784 ± 11) and Francisco deposits (40Ar-39Ar ages from sericitic halo: 1779 ± 6.2 and 1777 ± 6.3 Ma). Serrato et al. (2014) acquired Re-Os dating in pyrite and molybdenite from Juruena gold deposit. The results show isochronous ages at 1786 ± 1 Ma, with a model age at 1787 ± 3.2 Ma, suggesting a major Statherian gold metallogenic event at the Alta Floresta Gold Province region. Regional fluids-flow has a close relationship with the generation and concentration of several important economic deposits in the Eastern border of Alta Floresta Gold Province, including Pé Quente, Francisco, Juruena, Chumbo Grosso, and Trairão Au-deposits.
Brazilian Journal of Geology, Volume 50; doi:10.1590/2317-4889202020190082
Orthogneisses associated with metavolcanosedimentary successions related to the 1000 - 920 Ma Cariris Velhos event occur mainly in a ca. 700 km-long sigmoidal-shaped belt that crosscuts the Transversal Zone of the Borborema Province and extends to the fold belts located in its southern or external zone (part of the Riacho do Pontal and Sergipano orogens). Despite its importance, the tectonic setting and the role of those rocks in the geological evolution of the Borborema Province are contentious and not yet well understood. New zircon U-Pb SHRIMP data on an augen-gneiss sill of the Afeição Suite intruding mica-schists mapped as part of the Santa Filomena Complex yielded a Concordia Age of 974 ± 11 Ma, indicating that at least part of the metasedimentary rocks in the internal zone of the Riacho do Pontal Orogen are Tonian or older and possibly related to the Cariris Velhos event. Hf-in-zircon isotope data are presented for the first time for Cariris Velhos-related ortho-derived rocks of the Afeição Suite. Analyzed samples yielded εHf(t) in a narrow range between -1.51 and +2.41, with associated TDMHf of 1.6-1.4 Ga, similar to previously obtained Nd isotope data with εNd(t) = -1.0 to +3.1 and TDMNd of 1.5-1.2 Ga. A possible scenario to explain both the geochemical features and the moderately juvenile to slightly evolved, near-chondritic Hf and Nd isotope signatures is a continental arc setting, where fractionated melts produced in the supra-subduction zone mantle wedge carrying a Tonian juvenile signature became contaminated with discrete amounts of Archean-Paleoproterozoic continental crust during ascent, producing Mesoproterozoic model ages which represent the mixture of those two end-members.
Brazilian Journal of Geology, Volume 50; doi:10.1590/2317-4889202020190030
Chemical weathering and soil removal rates are responsible for the Earth’s landscape, composition of surface and groundwater, producing the soils and buffering the composition of the atmosphere. This study aimed to assess the chemical weathering and soil removal rates in the Sorocaba River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil, allowing answering the questions about the dynamics of fluvial transport of dissolved and suspended solids, the chemical weathering processes and associated atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption, and the relationship between chemical weathering and soil erosion rates. The annual specific flux of total suspended solids and total dissolved solids were 49.59 and 60.97 t/km2/yr. The chemical weathering process dominant in the Sorocaba River basin was the monosiallitization (RE = 2.4), with an associated atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption of 2.3 × 105 mol/km2/yr. The chemical weathering and soil removal rates were 7.2 and 29.8 m/Myr, respectively, indicating a soil thickness reduction. Finally, the soil removal rate in the Sorocaba River basin is almost 3-fold higher than the Cenozoic soil removal rates, being this difference related to the current land use which increased the soil removal processes.
Brazilian Journal of Geology, Volume 50; doi:10.1590/2317-4889202020190083
Brazilian Journal of Geology, Volume 50; doi:10.1590/2317-4889202020200010
Macrocryst assemblages of porphyritic alkaline dikes in the Mantiqueira range (SE Brazil) are mainly composed of clinopyroxene and olivine with different origins. Based on petrographic features, mineral chemistry, and equilibrium relationships with the host liquid, those macrocrysts are classified as xenocrysts, antecrysts, and phenocrysts. Described xenocrysts are mantle olivine, Cr-diopside cores compatible with garnet-bearing mantle facies, green-core clinopyroxene cores compatible with lower crust, and enstatite cores mantled by clinopyroxene, all reported for the first time in this region. Two contrasting types of clinopyroxene antecrysts prevail among the macrocryst cores (both occurring in the same samples and presenting corrosion and sieve textures): primitive colorless diopside and more evolved green-core clinopyroxenes. In the studied rocks, green clinopyroxene zones mantling colorless diopside cores (and vice-versa) are also found. Diopside- and green-cores antecrysts have similar compositions to those from mafic and felsic alkaline melts, respectively. Phenocrysts are mainly related to Ti-augite overgrowths, mantling all other types. Mixing-model curves between mafic and felsic alkaline equilibrium liquids calculated from clinopyroxene antecrysts indicate a hybrid origin for the host matrix. The macrocryst populations of the studied dikes are indicative of a complex plumbing system, recording several processes of an open-system magmatic evolution.
Brazilian Journal of Geology, Volume 50; doi:10.1590/2317-4889202020190058
The objective of this work was to evaluate the paleodepositional conditions and potential for the hydrocarbons generation of the outcropping shales in the Southern Compartment of the Recôncavo Basin, indicative of the Candeias and Maracangalha Formations (Lower Cretaceous), from the organic geochemical characterization and analysis of palinofacies. For this, 23 samples of outcrops were collected near the cities of Santo Amaro, São Francisco do Conde and Simões Filho, State of Bahia, Brazil. All samples were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), total sulfur, insoluble residue, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, whole oil chromatography, stable isotopes of oxygen, organic and inorganic carbon, saturated biomarkers and palynofacies, performed at the Center of Excellence in Geochemistry of the Institute of Geosciences of the Universidade Federal da Bahia (Lepetro), Brazil. The parameters provided by the geochemical analyzes indicate significant differences between the outcrops under study, mainly regarding the quantity and the quality of the organic matter, thus configuring a difference in the conditions of production and preservation of the organic matter during the time of deposition of the shales. There are layers rich in organic carbon, containing well-preserved type I kerogen, indicating anoxic depositional conditions. In contrast, poor layers of organic content, containing residual kerogen (type IV), occur, reflecting oxidizing conditions of the depositional environment. The observed differences suggest that the variability of the geochemical properties of the organic matter reflects the climatic variations occurred during the deposition of the sediments of the Candeias and Maracangalha Formations. As a consequence, there are levels with potential for generation and levels with no potential for hydrocarbon generation.
Brazilian Journal of Geology, Volume 50; doi:10.1590/2317-4889202020190117
Fracturing analysis of low-permeability rocks as reservoir analogs have increased in recent years. The main mechanism involved in the development of secondary porosity in low-permeability, fine-grained limestones of the Irati Formation is fracturing. In these rocks, oil accumulates along fracture planes, vuggy porosity, microfractures, breccias, as well as bedding discontinuities. Joints represent the central element for oil migration and the connection between accumulation sites. Joints are unevenly distributed across the succession of rock types, where carbonate rocks have a much denser array of joints than shales and siltstones. From a mechanical stratigraphy point of view, limestones have a brittle behavior and constitute mechanical units. Ductile shale and siltstone are mechanical interfaces capable of blocking joint propagation. Joints running NW-SE are more effective in trespassing the mechanical interface and are, therefore, more persistent. Joints running NE-SW are less persistent because the ductile behavior of the first two shale beds above the limestone blocks their propagation. The spatial arrangement of regional NW-SE and NE-SW joints promoted reservoir connection, allowing oil migration and accumulation. The joints and oil migration (at least three phases) developed as a consequence of the Gondwana Breakup and are also associated with local pressure gradients.
Brazilian Journal of Geology, Volume 50; doi:10.1590/2317-4889202020190093
The Pedra Branca suite (2.75 Ga) is located in the Canãa dos Carajás domain in the southeastern Amazonia Craton. It diverges from typical TTG in mineralogical and geochemical terms, by the presence of hornblende and clinopyroxene and because it has a high content of HFSE (Zr, Y, Ti, and Nb). It belongs to the low-K subalkaline series, which varies from metaluminous to peraluminous, and are mostly calc and ferroan granitoids. Amphibole is calcic and classified as ferroan-edenite, and hastingsite. Plagioclase is mainly oligoclase. The Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios found in the amphiboles indicate that these granitoids were formed under high to moderate fO2 conditions. Geobarometric calculations suggest pressures between 9.3 and 71 Kbar for the origin and 4.8-53.4 Kbar for the emplacement. Geothermometric calculations suggest initial crystallization temperatures between 945 and 862°C, and the water content in the magma is estimated to be higher than 4 wt%. The magma source was defined as tholeiitic continental gabbro melted in an extensional setting (Carajás Rift) with geochemical features similar to diabase from Nova Canadá (PA). The Pedra Branca magma was originated by partial melting (~28%), leaving a residue with plagioclase (An40), hornblende, clinopyroxene, and may or may not have magnetite.