Pediatric Reports

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2036-749X / 2036-7503
Current Publisher: MDPI AG (10.3390)
Former Publisher: MDPI AG (10.4081) , PAGEPress Publications (10.4081)
Total articles ≅ 410
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Latest articles in this journal

Published: 12 April 2021
Pediatric Reports, Volume 13, pp 189-196; doi:10.3390/pediatric13020026

We present a case series of two patients with tracheo-oesophageal fistula with oesophageal atresia (TOF/OA), duodenal atresia (DA) and ano-rectal malformation (ARM). This constellation of abnormalities, dubbed triple atresia (TA), is a rare combination with few described cases in the literature. Here we describe our management of these cases, as well as the results of our literature review. Both of our cases had staged surgical procedures and were initially managed with thoracotomy for repair of TOF/OA on day two of life. They subsequently underwent laparotomy for management of their abdominal pathology at day five and seven of life. Both have survived the neonatal period and are awaiting definitive surgery for ARM. Literature review yielded seven cases of TA involving a TOF, DA, and ARM. Four patients underwent staged repair, while three patients underwent repair of TOF/OA, DA and colostomy for ARM at the same time. Of these three patients, two died, representing 22% of the overall cohort. Triple atresia remains a rare subset of patients suspected to have VACTERL association, however mortality may be significantly higher. Our data would suggest a staged approach to be optimal for long term survival.
Published: 12 April 2021
Pediatric Reports, Volume 13, pp 197-202; doi:10.3390/pediatric13020027

Torticollis is a clinical diagnosis with heterogeneous causes. We present an unusual case of acquired torticollis in an 8-month-old female infant with a large cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst. Symptoms resolved after surgical fenestration. Non-traumatic acquired or new-onset torticollis requires brain imaging, and posterior fossa lesions are an important entity in the differential for pediatric clinicians.
Published: 9 April 2021
Pediatric Reports, Volume 13, pp 181-188; doi:10.3390/pediatric13020025

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with various clinical manifestations, including skin lesions. In particular, during the COVID-19 pandemic lock-down period numerous chilblain-like lesions, mainly located on the feet, were observed in adolescents. The latter were often asymptomatic or associated with very mild respiratory symptoms. Here, we report three cases of acral nodular lesions in SARS-CoV-2 swab-negative adolescents with histological findings of chronic immune-mediated inflammation and immunohistochemical evidence of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins in endothelial cells and eccrine sweat glands. In one of these cases, the virus presence was confirmed by electron microscopy.
Published: 7 April 2021
Pediatric Reports, Volume 13, pp 177-180; doi:10.3390/pediatric13020024

The term exstrophy-epispadias complex refers to a group of midline defects ranging from epispadias to cloacal exstrophy. Bladder exstrophy is the most frequent malformation of this spectrum and it can present as a classical or a variant form. We report a case of a hybrid bladder exstrophy variant having some characteristics of both a duplicate bladder exstrophy and a superior vesical fistula.
Published: 7 April 2021
Pediatric Reports, Volume 13, pp 168-176; doi:10.3390/pediatric13020023

The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting healthcare services worldwide. We investigated the impact of a strict lockdown policy on the characteristics of neonatal and pediatric attendances to our pediatric emergency department (PED). The clinical features of PED visits in March–April 2020 (COVID-19) and March–April 2019 (non-COVID-19) were analyzed. During the COVID-19 lockdown period, visits reduced by 67%, from 3159 to 1039. Neonatal access decreased from 78 to 59, mainly due to fewer pathological conditions, with a complete disappearance of respiratory infections. On the other hand, minor neonatal clinical conditions rose from 44 (56.4%) to 48 (81.4%), mostly due to feeding-related issues. Communicable diseases, particularly respiratory infections and gastroenteritis, dropped from 1552 (49.1%) to 288 (27.7%). Accident-related visits also decreased during COVID-19, from 535 (16.9%) to 309 (29.7%), becoming the most common cause of PED access. Hospital admissions reduced from 266 to 109, while PICU (pediatric intensive care unit) admissions decreased from 27 to 11, with a comparable rate of 10.1% in both periods. The lockdown due to COVID-19 had a substantial impact on our PED visits, which markedly decreased, mainly due to fewer respiratory infections. Unexpectedly, neonatal visits for minor conditions did not decline, but rather slightly increased. Among the children admitted to the PICU, none had respiratory disease.
Published: 1 April 2021
Pediatric Reports, Volume 13, pp 162-167; doi:10.3390/pediatric13020022

Herpes zoster is a relatively rare infectious disease in the pediatric population, as compared with adults, which is due to the reactivation of latent Varicella−Zoster virus. We report a 7-year-old child without any history of varicella, who first experienced skin pain and later presented skin lesions in dermatomal distribution. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with herpes zoster. We aim to emphasize that herpes zoster could occur in immunocompetent children and may be due to the reactivation of the vaccine strain or previous subclinical infection.
Published: 22 March 2021
Pediatric Reports, Volume 13, pp 135-141; doi:10.3390/pediatric13010020

The attention and the intervention of psychology in the field of pediatrics, especially regarding mothers and childcare, whether in a hospital or not, is extremely longstanding
Published: 22 March 2021
Pediatric Reports, Volume 13, pp 142-161; doi:10.3390/pediatric13010021

This study provides a descriptive analysis of the Lègami/Legàmi service, a free psychological support service in maternal and childcare, offered through the internet and by telephone that was initiated by the Italian Society of Pediatric Psychology (S.I.P.Ped.) during the COVID-19 medical emergency as an act of solidarity, first independently, and then in collaboration with the Italian Ministry of Health. This paper presents findings related to the “universe” of people who called the toll-free service, from the sociocultural characteristics of the users to the information collected by the professionals during the psychological pathways until human satisfaction was achieved. We provide a retrospective description of an experience that took place between April and June 2020, and which involved users of the maternal-infant area calling from the whole Italy. (1) Methods: The aims of this study were to investigate the configuration of the indicators identified and to detect the possible correlations between them in the sample. There were 193 users who took advantage of the Service, 160 of whom continued beyond the reception service; it is this group that we report the findings from here. The tool used was a form reporting access to care and interventions, and the resulting data underwent a content analysis and the indicators were subject to non-parametric statistical analysis to analyze differences and relationships. (2) Results: There were many correlations among the indicators that revealed a high prevalence of calls due to personal motivations and requests for support, which later allowed users to gain a greater understanding of the underlying problems they were facing. The professionals running the service noticed a prevalence of weaknesses attributable to the negative emotions of its users, alongside a presence of cognitive and relational resources. The professionals’ interventions, which can be characterized by a prevalence of social support, psychological rehabilitation, and psychoeducation, achieved outcomes of redefining users’ relationships with themselves and others. All of the service’s users have expressed a high level of satisfaction with it. (3) Discussion: Our results revealed the protective and transformative effects of the service for its users and the underlying importance of having an easily accessible psychological support system in place during emergencies, like the recent pandemic. In conditions like these, the great value of a remote support service should be noted, and despite its limitations, assures its own efficacy when a medical emergency precludes closer in-person forms of psychological assistance.
Published: 16 March 2021
Pediatric Reports, Volume 13, pp 131-134; doi:10.3390/pediatric13010019

Meyerson phenomenon, also known as “halo-eczema,” has been widely described over melanocytic and non-melanocytic lesions. However, its appearance over vascular anomalies is rarely observed and could lead to diagnostic errors. A case study of five patients aged between four months and two years is reported. These patients developed unique erythematous and pruritic scaly patches, being diagnosed and treated as fungal infections. Due to the lack of response to the treatment, they were referred to the pediatric dermatology practice, where the diagnosis of Meyerson phenomenon over capillary malformations was made. Topical treatment with corticosteroids led to improvement in all cases. Although Meyerson phenomenon developing over vascular anomalies is a rare condition, it is important for pediatricians and dermatologists to assess it as a part of the differential diagnosis when treating a patient with skin lesions. Recognizing this phenomenon will prevent diagnostic and therapeutic errors.
Published: 8 March 2021
Pediatric Reports, Volume 13, pp 125-130; doi:10.3390/pediatric13010018

Despite the extensive information regarding hemophilia’s hemorrhagic complications, the literature on cancer in hemophilia is scarce, especially in pediatric patients. Many uncertainties remain concerning diagnosis and workup. We report a rare case of two severe diseases (neuroblastoma and hemophilia A (HA)) concomitantly present in the same pediatric patient. We highlight that the diagnosis of severe HA did not have a negative impact on the patient’s oncologic course. This case also illustrates the significance of the cooperation among different specialties and hospitals when caring for the same patient.
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