Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2455-488X
Published by: Peertechz Publications Inc. (10.17352)
Total articles ≅ 56
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Panzo Talita Ima, Góis José Carlos, Mendes José Manuel
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Volume 8, pp 076-081; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-488x.000055

Abstract:
This paper presents a case study on the environmental awareness of the students of secondary schools in Angola and analyses the environmental education programs in the two cycles. The study was carried out in the four largest provinces of Angola and the results were obtained from questionnaires to the students and interviews with the school coordinators and the waste management officers in the region. The results show that the students have moderate consumption habits of electricity and water, demonstrated by 40% of students following the appropriate attitude, and have reasonable knowledge about the scenarios that produce large environmental impact, marking 3 out of 9 options: river pollution, toxic waste in the soil and sewage discharge on the beach as the most relevant, together reaching almost 50% of the responses. However, they have a gap in knowledge about the health impact of solid waste disposal in dumps site close to urban areas, as evidenced by the high number of children and adolescents living near these areas and with some of them helping their families as waste pickers. The poor environmental education program and the nonexistence of school activities on these issues contribute for disassociate the linkage of waste disposal in dumps with diseases. As waste disposal in dumps is current in almost all provinces in Angola, except Luanda, environmental education in schools plays an important role in preparing children and adolescents to adopt practices in the future that protect the environment and contribute to the reduction of public health problems. In addition, children and adolescents can indirectly influence their parents on these issues.
Frusteri Francesco, Bonura Giuseppe, Cannilla Catia, Todaro Serena, Cajumi Alessandro
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Volume 8, pp 068-070; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-488x.000053

Abstract:
Several strategies are currently underway to investigate alternative routes to efficiently use CO2 as a carbon source for the production of alternative fuels for energy end transportation [1,2].
Anaya-Diaz Miguel, Carrion-Viramontes Francisco J, Quintana-Rodriguez Juan A, Martinez-Trujano Luis A, Machorro-Lopez Jose M
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Volume 8, pp 062-067; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-488x.000052

Abstract:
Since 2016 the Instituto Mexicano del Transporte (Mexican Transport Institute) has continuously instrumented and performed the structural monitoring of the Mezcala Bridge, which is a cable-stayed bridge located in the State of Guerrero, Mexico. In order to identify early damage, several monitoring strategies based on changes in the bridge modal parameters have been implemented. To establish the limits of the parameters, such as the natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes, it is necessary to characterize the bridge dynamic behavior through monitoring information from the last 3 years, in order to analyze statistically every parameter and simulate different real damage scenarios. Modal parameters are calculated and evaluated every week or after accidents, earthquakes, or strong winds. Applying the proposed methodology based on the Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD), the modal parameters of the Mezcala Bridge were efficiently estimated and monitored and subsequently, they could be used for finite element model development and calibration in order to evaluate the structural integrity of the bridge.
Philipoff Philip, Komitova Violeta, Mangarov Atanas, Karapetkov Stanimir, Radeva Elka, Ranguelov Boyko, Panev Simeon, Panev Blagovest, Antonova Ina, Bankova Diana, et al.
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Volume 8, pp 057-061; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-488x.000051

Abstract:
The report presents an early warning system against earthquakes of the conceptual design of the tunnels under the “Shipka” Pass. Bulgaria gives many victims on the roads - those killed in traffic crashes and accidents. In the case of tunnel facilities in seismic areas, chain accidents in tunnel pipes are particularly dangerous. Early warning systems for tunnels make it possible to immediately stop traffic by the traffic police or automatically, to include additional ventilation equipment and turn on the additional reserve lighting installations.
Danesh Majid, Bahmanyar Mohammad Ali, Emadi Seyed Mostafa
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Volume 8, pp 048-056; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-488x.000050

Abstract:
The study of silt fractions using the traditional methods, especially on large scales, is time-consuming, laborious, and costly. The present work intends to investigate the spectral behaviors of the soil silt fraction using reflectance spectroscopy technology. Accordingly, 128 soil samples were collected from 20cm of soil surface of Mazandaran province, northern Iran. First, the sample set was subdivided into calibration and validation subsets. Spectral signatures of silt components were detected utilizing the PLSR algorithm and Cross-Validation technique. The final model with 4 LFs was calibrated with these specs: Rc: 0.55, RMSEc: 8.31%, RPDc: 1.20, and RPIQc:1.71 and was eventually selected as the best model for studying the soil silt of Mazandaran province. The obtained spectral wavebands with the highest correlation coefficients (R(CCmax)) indicate the high impact as the independent predictors in the processes of modeling. Finally, the capability of the proximal sensing technology (VNIR-PS) was proved in examining the silt content of Mazandaran province. Also, the most influential spectral domains and ranges were detected and recognized. Our findings can be used as a basis for studying silt content on a large scale by applying the upscaling process via airborne/satellite hyperspectral data. Subject classification codes: Soil Conservation, Proximal Soil Sensing, Soil Spectral Modeling
Sarraj Yahya R, Bashbash Basma
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Volume 8, pp 041-047; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-488x.000049

Abstract:
The traffic safety system in Palestine needs major improvements. Traffic accident data in Gaza Strip are collected from crash reports recorded by the local Police. In many cases, roads are constructed without proper consideration of children’s needs. However, children and young kids use the roads as pedestrians, bicyclists, and occupants of vehicles. Moreover, they might choose to play on the road. This paper aims to investigate the situation of traffic safety of children in the Gaza Strip and to recommend measures to reduce their risk. This research is based on accident statistics recorded in the period between 2008 and 2018. Analysis was carried out to determine critical locations that have a high number of accidents, focusing on accidents that resulted in casualties and fatalities of children. Results show that the highest rate of children fatalities in the Gaza Strip was on Arterial Roads. According to the data collected in 2016, 2017, and 2018, the percentage of road traffic deaths of children are 60%, 68% and 59% respectively, which is higher than the average rate of child mortality in the world (52%) according to the world organization statistics. Gaza city has the largest number of children fatalities caused by road accidents in the Gaza Strip. This might be due to the high population density and heavy traffic. In order to reduce road accidents for children, it is necessary to control the speed of vehicles at school zones and to provide more safety measures for children on the roads, including illuminated pedestrian crossings for children. It is very important to provide children at schools and kindergartens with proper training on how to cross the street. It is also helpful to teach them some important traffic signs.
Abdullahi Muhammed Gambo, Ojobo Henry, Sani Mustapha, Naibi Ahmad Usman, Chukwuma-Uchegbu Miriam Ijeoma, Aliero Muhammad Saidu
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Volume 8, pp 031-040; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-488x.000048

Abstract:
Technological advances have assisted in the development of modern software tools which can be used to assess and improve the energy efficiency of a building at the early stage of conceptual design. However, this study aims at validating the accuracy of one of the paramount building simulation software Integrated Environmental Solutions - Virtual Environment (IES-VE), widely used today. The methodology of this study involves physical measurements and simulation exercises. A longitudinal physical measurement was carried out using HOBO ware U-12 in 5 different points of the room space from 18th October to 4th December 2016. But, for validation, a critical atmospheric day (21st November 2016) was selected for the comparison. The room air temperature was first measured before comparing it to the simulated air temperature obtained from IES. After several analyses, the comparison of the measured room air temperature and simulation results showed similarity, discrepancy, closeness, significance, and accuracy. The investigation findings revealed a percentage discrepancy of 11.03%, which is less than the threshold of 20% between the measured and simulated air temperature of the case study model. Other findings show that: R2 = 0.98, MBE = 0.8, °C and RMSE = 1.70°C are all within the acceptable values of significance between the two data. These results signify that IES-VE is valid, accurate, and applicable for this study’s further Building Performance Simulation (BPS)
Aliero Muhammad Saidu, Nasiru Salihu, Ojobo Henry, Dodo Yakubu Aminu
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Volume 8, pp 018-030; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-488x.000047

Abstract:
This study assessed the performance of residential property investment returns. To ascertain the awareness, use, and gender inequality in the usage of residential performance data by investors. The paper focuses on risk-return features of the tenement, two and three-bedroom property for investment purposes, in order to improve the understanding of the property market mechanism in Kano metropolis, Nigeria. Unraveling empirically risk-return features of residential property in the metropolitan area is unclear hence the speculative decision on residential investment is widespread. Quantitative research was employed using a questionnaire survey to obtain primary data on annual rental and capital values of residential properties from branch managers of estate firms. This data was afterward transformed into total returns and put to Phillip-Perron unit root test (stationarity). The study utilized both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques for analysis. Findings from the study show that total returns for residential property range from 6.99% to 14.44% with risk-return ranging from 20.92% to 51.54% within the property market, Badawa/GRA property has the lowest risk features hence the most secured location for residential investment, the paper also unveils that gender inequity in the usage of residential property investment performance data is high against women. It is on these findings that the study recommended Badawi/GRA property market for risk-averse investors, persistent sensitization program and incentives (reduction in service charge) targeting women in the property market is encouraged.
Chukwuma-Uchegbu Miriam Ijeoma, Aliero Muhammad Saidu
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Volume 8, pp 012-017; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-488x.000046

Abstract:
This paper aims to evaluate the nature of post-occupancy modifications of selected income housing estates in Nigeria. The research adopts both the quantitative and qualitative approaches and is essentially survey-based. Therefore, the research population is all housing units of low-income public housing estates in Owerri Metropolis. A simple random technique was further adopted to select five low-income housing estates within the low-income group for this study. Participants of this study were further sampled and selected based on the following requirements and eligibility criteria - they must be residents in the residential estates under study; they must be household heads (or their representatives) of the buildings in the selected housing estates and the building must have been in existence for over ten years (which is enough time for modification to have taken place). The data were collected through the use of a structured questionnaire and field observations, and analysis of this data relied on the computer-based statistical software called STATA 13.0. Results were presented and discussed, pinpointing the nature of post-occupancy modifications in the five selected low-income housing estates. The results further show various kinds of modifications (addition of rooms, alteration of site arrangement, alteration of fence design, alteration of roofing pattern, addition of shop spaces, change of use, and outright total modification) have taken place across the five housing estates studied.
Farea Tareq Gaber, Kandar Mohd Zin, Baba-Girei Zulai Jarmai, Shamang Kasham Jummai, Lukman Lukman Muazu, Aliero Muhammad Saidu
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Volume 8, pp 004-011; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-488x.000045

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic caused devastation to society in 2020, forcing people all across the world to alter their lifestyles. During the pandemic, people spent more time at home, and this shift in occupancy can directly influence building energy usage. COVID-19 lockdowns hastened the transition to telework, which many predict will continue. Changes in energy usage during lockdown are thus a significant source for forecasting future energy consumption in buildings. This study aims to measure the effects of the COVID-19 lockout on home energy usage. The energy usage of a seven residential building complex in Johor Bahru, Malaysia before, during, and after the first lockdown phase was compared and analyzed. It was discovered that the initial two months in the lockdown period are the most severe energy consumption due to the tight lockdown measures implemented as reflected in energy consumption patterns. Overall energy consumption for all candidate appliances increased during and after lockdown. Still, the more significant change was that consumption occurred during the daytime rather than focused in the evening as before the lockdown. The findings provide insight into the effect of a lockdown on customer energy costs and how energy utilities may be approached during such an event.
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