ISSN / EISSN : 2038-9639 / 2038-9647
Published by: PAGEPress Publications (10.4081)
Total articles ≅ 6
Articles in this journal
Global Meteorology, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.4081/gm.2014.5020
It is becoming increasingly important to be able to verify the skill of precipitation forecasts, especially with the advent of high-resolution numerical weather prediction models. This study focused on assessing the skill of climate forecast system (CFS) model in predicting rainfall on seasonal time scales over East Africa region for the period January 1981 to December 2009. The rainfall seasons considered were March to May (MAM) and October to December (OND). The data used in the study included the observed seasonal rainfall totals from January 1981 to December 2009 and CFS model forecast data for the same period. The model had 15 Runs. The measure of skill employed was the categorical skill scores and included Heidke skill scores, bias, probability of detection and false alarm ratio. The results from the categorical skill scores confirmed relatively higher skills during OND season as compared to MAM. When compared with individual Runs, the mean of all the 15 Runs depicted relatively higher accuracy during OND season. Some individual Runs – 1, 7, 9 and 10 – also performed better during OND season. During MAM season, the mean of all the 15 Runs showed relatively lower accuracy in predicting rainfall. Some individual Runs – 5, 10, 12 and 14 – performed better than the mean of all the 15 Runs. The prediction of seasonal rainfall over East Africa region using CFS model depends on the season considered. During MAM, the prediction of seasonal rainfall is better as Runs are fewer, which showed relatively higher averaged skills; on the other hand, during OND the prediction of seasonal rainfall is better when using the mean of all the 15 Runs.
Global Meteorology, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.4081/gm.2014.4896
Studying the level of solar radiation is important for problems related to both environmental pollution and alternative energy development. In this work a space-time model for solar radiation in the Tyrrhenian basin is presented. Three main features of the model must be stressed because of their importance in modelling space-time variability of a phenomenon. The first and most important one is that relations between solar radiation in different sites are an outcome of the model’s estimation procedure. With this approach spatial weights are not bound to be symmetrical and proportional to distance between locations or to be constant over time. The second one is the presence of a simultaneous effect among locations as the solar radiation in one of them is a function of what simultaneously happens in all the other ones. The third main feature of the model is represented by constrained estimation on the basis of a priori knowledge about the phenomenon that allows to cope the problem of the increased number of parameters.
Global Meteorology, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.4081/gm.2014.4986
The study investigated potential of enhancing precipitation through cloud seeding during October-November-December (OND) season. Rainfall, cloud top temperature (CTT), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and wind data were used. Short-Cut Bartlett correlation, composite wind and time series analysis, and HYSPLIT backward trajectory analysis were used to achieve the objectives of study. Precipitation showed decreasing patterns with peaks between pentad 65 and 68. Delineated dry years (18) exceeded wet years (9). Low level winds were predominantly north-easterly during dry years characterized by continental trajectory. AOD values increased in all stations during dry year with aerosol load being higher in areas characterized by depressed rainfall. Pollutants suspended 1000 above mean sea level (AMSL) originated from Arabian and India subcontinent and pollutants suspended below 1000 AMSL were predominantly south easterly during wet years originated from Western Indian Ocean and characterized by maritime trajectory. Mean CTT during dry/wet years were positve over coastal areas while central, Rift-valley and Lake Victoria basin showed negative values, indicating presence of seedable conditions and thus potential cloud seeding to enhance rainfall and alleviate existing water stress.
Global Meteorology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.4081/gm.2013.e2
Examination of trend patterns of rainfall and temperature extremes over East Africa (EA) was based on graphical, regression and Mann-Kendall test approaches, while perturbations of rainfall, sunspot activity (SA) and southern oscillation index (SOI) extremes were computed using moving average methods. Annual total rainfall generally decreased with heavy and extreme precipitation rates confined within short spells during wet days. Observed maximum temperature extremes increased while minimum temperature extremes decreased with a statistically significant rise in the number of hot days and warm nights and a decrease in number of cool days and cold nights. However, space-time pattern of observed changes were not well organized. Perturbations of rainfall, SA and SOI indicated that extreme values were changing with increasing frequency and magnitude. Similarities in observed rainfall over EA illustrated the existence of homogeneous zones of climate change clustered as either coastal (with SA dominant), lake Victoria (unique to both SA and SOI), dry continental (SOI) or wet continental areas (both SA and SOI dominant).
Global Meteorology, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.4081/gm.2013.e1
Developing countries are becoming more urbanized leading to modification on climate over the cities. Proper urban atmospheric planning and management are thus fundamental for cities’ sustainability. Urban weather and climate therefore needs continuous monitoring to offer accurate, reliable and timely update of any significant changes. This study examined the long term modification of temperature by urbanization utilizing decadal population data, monthly maximum and minimum temperature and land surface albedo for forty years. The data were subjected to homogeneity test using Short-Cut Bartlett test method that showed both maximum and minimum temperature increasing, though insignificant. Urbanization is evidenced by the reducing land surface albedo and increasing population. The study revealed the influence of urbanization on urban climate. The increase in temperatures is harmful to human comfort. Practical approaches, such as increasing the urban forest cover and a proper planning of the cities, have been suggested to help prevent further modification of weather and urban climate by urbanization. The findings of this work are thus important for multi-sectoral use in the Kenyan cities.
Global Meteorology, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.4081/gm.2012.e1
Simple soil-vegetation-transfer (SVAT) and energy balance models were used to estimate the surface turbulent fluxes (i.e. sensible and latent heat fluxes) over a complex olive grove using thermal infra-red surface temperature (TIRST). This approach used a dual source SVAT model to calculate the sensible heat fluxes from radiometric surface temperature. These fluxes were then used together with the estimates of the available energy also derived from TIRST to estimate the latent heat flux by applying the first law of thermodynamics i.e. the conservation of energy principle. The data used to validate this approach were collected over an irrigated olive grove site located in central Morocco near Marrakech. Mass and energy fluxes, as well as micrometeorological parameters, were continuously measured during the year 2003. The comparison between estimated and measured daily sensible heat fluxes yielded an acceptable agreement in spite of the complexity of the study surface with a correlation coefficient (R2=0.86) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 28 Wm-2. For the latent heat fluxes, the statistical result for the comparison between estimated and measured daily values showed a larger scatter than that revealed for the sensible heat fluxes (R2=0.75; RMSE=31.42 Wm-2). However, the correspondence is to be considered acceptable given the difficulty in estimating latent heat flux over such a complex field. Therefore, it can be concluded that, in spite of the simplicity of the proposed approach, it can be considered a suitable tool for estimating the turbulent fluxes using TIRST over complex surfaces.