Environmental Economics

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1998-6041 / 1998-605X
Current Publisher: LLC CPC Business Perspectives (10.21511)
Total articles ≅ 144
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Environmental Economics, Volume 12, pp 14-31; doi:10.21511/ee.12(1).2021.02

The design, implementation, and evaluation of energy policies in combating climate change are becoming increasingly evident to strengthen economic growth driven by the agricultural sector in most developing countries. The study analyzes the direct and indirect effects of renewable energy consumption (REC) on agriculture value-added (AgVA), CO2 emissions, and trade openness in the short- and long-run in the West African countries. The second-generation panel unit root tests, the panel cointegration methods, and Panel Vector Error Correction Model are used with World Bank data from 1990 to 2015. A panel Granger causality test was also used to determine the direction of causality between variables. Findings show a unidirectional relationship between AgVA, CO2 emissions, and REC; between REC, gross fixe capital formation (GFCF) and trade openness. Moreover, the bidirectional hypothesis is verified between agricultural development and trade openness. However, the null hypothesis is found between AgVA and GFCF, on the one hand, and GFCF and CO2 emissions, on the other hand. These results suggest that fostering renewable energy policy and revisiting trade policy toward reducing environmental pollution will enable agricultural development and boost the regional economy. AcknowledgmentThe author wants to thank Dr. Moukpè GNINIGUE for his technical supports and Prof. Jean Marcelin Bosson BROU from the University of Houphouet Boigny (Cote d’Ivoire), Dr. Odzadifo K. WONYRA and Dr. Hodabalo BATAKA from the University of Kara, Dr. Koffi Massesso ADJI from the West African Sciences Services Centre on Climate Change and Land Use (University of Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar) and Essotanam MAMBA from the University of Lomé for their constructive comments on the earlier version of this manuscripts. Finally, the author is grateful to the anonymous reviewers and Editor-in-Chief of Environmental Economics, whose comments have improved this paper. However, the opinions expressed in this paper are solely those of the author.
Tarek Ghazouani
Environmental Economics, Volume 12, pp 1-13; doi:10.21511/ee.12(1).2021.01

This study explores the symmetric and asymmetric impact of real GDP per capita, FDI inflow, and crude oil price on CO2 emission in Tunisia for the 1972–2016 period. Using the cointegration tests, namely ARDL and NARDL bound test, the results show that the variables are associated in a long run relationship. Long run estimates from both approach confirms the validity of ECK hypothesis for Tunisia. Symmetric analysis reveals that economic growth and the price of crude oil adversely affect the environment, in contrast to FDI inflows that reduce CO2 emissions in the long run. Whereas the asymmetric analysis show that increase in crude oil price harm the environment and decrease in crude oil price have positive repercussions on the environment. The causality analysis suggests that a bilateral link exists between economic growth and carbon emissions and a one-way causality ranges from FDI inflows and crude oil prices to carbon emissions. Thus, some policy recommendations have been formulated to help Tunisia reduce carbon emissions and support economic development.
Ali Maalej, Alexandre Cabagnols
Environmental Economics, Volume 11, pp 133-150; doi:10.21511/ee.11(1).2020.12

This study investigates the relationship between economic growth, final consumption, investment, energy use and CO² emissions in two groups of Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries: Oil Poor Countries (OPC) and Oil Rich Countries (ORC). It is assumed and verified that the structural relationship between GDP growth, energy use and CO² emissions is different in these two groups of countries. FGLS panel estimations were carried out over the period 1974–2014. In ORC, no significant relationships are observed between energy use and GDP, whereas CO² emissions and GDP are positively linked. In OPC, there are opposite connections: a positive link between GDP and energy use, whereas the impact of CO² emissions on GDP tends to be negative. In both groups of countries, a positive and bi-directional link is observed between energy use and CO² emissions. The strength of this link is twice bigger in OPC than in ORC. This indicates that CO2 reduction policies conducted through energy use control (quantitative and qualitative) will have higher effect in OPC than in ORC. This also shows that the relationships between economic growth, energy use and CO² emissions differ noticeably and structurally between OPC and ORC. These results provide new insights into the opportunities and threats faced by CO2 reduction policies in OPCs and ORCs.
Walid Chatti
Environmental Economics, Volume 11, pp 124-132; doi:10.21511/ee.11(1).2020.11

Despite progress in reducing air pollutants in several countries, freight transport continues to have undesirable effects on environmental quality, human health, and the economy. Road freight transport, in particular, is associated with various negative externalities, including environmental and health damages, and the overexploitation of non-renewable natural resources. This paper investigates how ICTs interact with road freight transport to affect environmental quality regarding reducing CO2 emissions. The empirical strategy is focused on the yearly dataset from 2002 to 2014 in 43 countries. Using the two-step GMM techniques, the findings suggest that ICTs can decrease road freight transport’s negative impacts on environmental sustainability. Besides, the interactions of mobile phone and fixed telephone technologies with road freight transport are more efficient in reducing pollution than using internet networks. This paper underlines the importance of using ICTs to dampen road freight transport’s negative effects on environmental sustainability.
, , Kjell Bjørn Minde
Environmental Economics, Volume 11, pp 110-123; doi:10.21511/ee.11(1).2020.10

Scholars warn that wealth leads to unsustainable environmental development. However, over the last decades, studies have shown an increase in environmental degradation at the initial stage of economic growth, and then a decline when economic growth reaches a certain level. This first acceleration and then deceleration create an inverted U-shaped curve between pollution and economic growth, called the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Environmental degradation can be measured by different factors. This paper deals with two of them, i.e. energy consumption and energy intensity (EI). The latter is measured as the ratio between energy consumption and GDP. The relationship of energy consumption and intensity to economic growth can serve as a tool for examining whether an EKC exists. The paper presents continuous series of energy consumption energy intensity and gross domestic product for the Norwegian mainland economy 1835–2019. The series are used to examine the possible existence of relative and absolute environmental Kuznets curves (EKC). Time series are established using available data and annual figures for 1835–2019, which are presented for the first time. They depict a development that, first, reflects an almost constant downward trend in EI, and, second, the existence of EKCs. The paper also proposes a polynomial regression model to discuss the relationship between environmental degradation as measured by energy consumption and intensity on the one hand, and economic growth on the other. It is concluded that there are both relative and absolute EKC-relations between environmental degradation and economic growth, with 1975 as relative and 2002 as absolute turning point.
Victoriia Dergachova, Serhii Smerichevskyi, , Svitlana Smerichevska
Environmental Economics, Volume 11, pp 96-109; doi:10.21511/ee.11(1).2020.09

Utilization of modern technologies in food production causes several negative consequences having a long-term impact on public health due to the consumption of food containing components of inorganic origin. This circumstance requires the formation and development of the market of organic food in Ukraine. The paper aims to substantiate the possibility of using economic and organizational tools to rationalize environmentally friendly food consumption and eliminate their negative consequences for the region’s population. The study’s basis is the classical provisions of modern economic theory, environmental economics, and the concept of socio-ethical marketing. Based on the analysis of official statistics, the parameters and opportunities for the growth of the organic food products market in Ukraine by region are determined. The conformity of the product offer of ecologically clean products to different consumer segments in the region is revealed according to the criteria that characterize the groups of goods according to the degree of their ecological purity compared to the price parameter, frequency of purchase, and place of purchase. The priorities for the gradual expansion of the organic food market in the region have been determined with an emphasis on its expansion by attracting new consumer segments. The need for additional organizational measures in the region, aimed at both non-commercial and commercial promotion of healthy lifestyles and proper nutrition, is argued, which increases consumers’ involvement in these processes and increases awareness and interest in regular consumption of organic food.
Mathieu Juliot Mpabe Bodjongo
Environmental Economics, Volume 11, pp 82-95; doi:10.21511/ee.11(1).2020.08

The noise pollution is negative externalities having harmful effects on the individual’s well-being. This paper examines the effect of noise pollution regulations emitted by revival churches (RC) on surrounding populations’ well-being. The analysis focuses on a field survey sample of 726 individuals not belonging to RC and residing in the towns of Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon. Drawing inspirations from the theoretical and empirical literature, the econometric results obtained with the nested logit model reveal that setting up a control plan against noise pollution produced by RC allows an increase in individuals’ well-being not belonging to RC. These surrounding populations are ready to pay USD 0.889 for the “the regulation of church service opening hours,” USD 0.831 for “the building of sound-proof places of worship,” and USD 0.466 for “the sensitization of RC’s officials on the bad effects of the noise pollution they produce.” To reduce noise pollution, public authorities must not close the places of worship belonging to RCs.
Denizhan Guven, , Gülgün Kayakutlu
Environmental Economics, Volume 11, pp 67-81; doi:10.21511/ee.11(1).2020.07

This paper aims to analyze the impact of energy consumption, economic structure, and manufacturing output on the CO2 emissions of East European countries by applying the Structural Time Series Model (STSM). Several explanatory factors are used to construct the model using annual data of the 1990–2017 period. The factors are: total primary energy supply, GDP per capita and manufacturing value added, and, finally, a stochastic Underlying Emission Trend (UET). The significant effects of all variables on CO2 emissions are detected. Based on the estimated functions, CO2 emissions of Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, Russia, Serbia, and Hungary will decrease, by 2027, to 53.2 Mt, 103.2 Mt, 36.1 Mt, 1528.2 Mt, 36 Mt, and 36.1 Mt, respectively. Distinct from other countries, CO2 emissions of Poland will extend to 312.2 Mt in 2027 due to the very high share of fossil-based supply (i.e., coal and oil) in Poland. The results also indicate that the most forceful factor in CO2 emissions is the total primary energy supply. Furthermore, for Poland, Romania, Hungary, and Belarus, the long-term impact of economic growth on CO2 emissions is negative, while it is positive for Russia, Ukraine, and Serbia. The highest long-term manufacturing value-added elasticity of CO2 emissions is calculated for Serbia and Belarus.
Environmental Economics, Volume 11, pp 65-66; doi:10.21511/ee.11(1).2020.06

Amira Lajmi, Gilles Paché
Environmental Economics, Volume 11, pp 54-64; doi:10.21511/ee.11(1).2020.05

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting is of high importance for firms that wish to communicate their environmental and social actions to stakeholders and society at large. Of course, the credibility of CSR reporting affects considerably the market reaction to the information provided. Although research on environmental and social reporting is important, empirical evidence regarding the relevance of environmental and social disclosure to firms’ market values is scarce. This paper specifically analyzes the moderating role of external CSR assurance on the relationship between voluntary environmental and social reporting and firm market value. A content analysis index is then developed based on disclosure items specified in the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines. Using hand-collected data on a sample of French companies, the authors find that CSR assurance has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between high environmental and social reporting and firms’ market value, raising questions about the role of external assurance in assessing CSR reporting credibility. AcknowledgmentThe authors sincerely thank three anonymous reviewers of Environmental Economics for their insightful comments on a previous version of the paper.
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