Space and Culture, India
EISSN : 2052-8396
Current Publisher: ACCB Publishing (10.20896)
Total articles ≅ 342
Latest articles in this journal
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 117-128; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.841
While the gender gaps in elementary education in India have almost been eliminated, we obtain somewhat different picture when adjusting the gaps to the appropriate school-age children (6-14 years) and the number of the child population. We calculate gender gaps in enrolment, transition rate (from primary to upper primary level), achievement in the examination, and test scores in different subjects in the post Right to Education Act period and obtain that girls are ahead of the boys in almost all aspects. The age-adjusted gender gap in enrolment has improved, implying that over time girls are more likely to enrol in schools within the appropriate school-age. Also, fewer girls are expected to remain out of schools compared to boys within the appropriate school-age. Perhaps, this progress in enrolment has resulted in better performances of girls in transition rate, achievement in examinations and test scores in individual subjects. The rising girls’ performance on different indicators of elementary education indicates the potential impacts of female share on future labour market.
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 194-206; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.802
Migration data is a useful tool for creating a single internal economic space that is harmoniously integrated with the global economy by helping to create conditions for the growth of economic and business activity of economic entities. Migration processes, primarily labour migration, are among the significant factors affecting the socio-economic situation both in the country as a whole and in its regions. This study discusses the following issues: state regulation of migration processes; statistical analysis and interpretation of data on internal migration from labour-surplus to labour-deficient regions. In order to achieve the objectives, the study uses statistical data on the inter-regional migration in the country; World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) indicators of social welfare; International Labour Organization’s (ILO’s) unemployment assessment; the dynamics of demographic processes in society. Following the findings, the study presents recommendations on the regulation of internal migration from southern to northern regions of Kazakhstan. Thus, the research results can be implemented when developing regulatory legal acts, migration management programmes, etc. The findings of this study can be used as a basis for assessing the dynamics of the social well-being of migrants in Central Asia.
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 129-139; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.774
Sacred groves or sacred natural sites (SNS) are defined areas of land and bodies of water with considerable socio-cultural and ecological value. This study attempts to analyse SNS using the framework of commons or common-pool resources and understand the implications regarding the access to and ecological sustainability of these sacred spaces. A set of ten groves from an inventory of sacred groves reported by the Institute of Foresters Kerala were chosen using purposive sampling to cover various types of custodianship and communities in the district of Thrissur. This district houses the most famous sacred grove in Kerala and is known for consecrating sacred groves and expunging spirits. A field survey employing an observation schedule and semi-structured interviews were undertaken focusing on the biophysical, socio-cultural, and institutional aspects of the SNS. Understanding the relationship between grove ecosystems and stakeholder communities was the objective of the study. The management of SNS in the study sites does not show much evidence of collective action. There is a tendency of SNS to become 'club goods' over a period of time. Regardless of types of custodianship, SNS exhibit properties of common-pool resources from an ecological point of view. Even when customarily managed along caste lines, access was not physically restricted. Recent constructions of concrete boundaries around SNS, conversion of groves to temples, and increasing intensity and frequency of rituals have changed the socio-cultural and ecological character of these spaces. The study shows that the perspective of the commons is inadequate to capture the underlying power dynamics of institutions of SNS. Understanding the transformation of SNS from being 'open' and inclusive to closed and elitist temple spaces need a different language of political ecology.
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 211-214; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.1012
Kannur is a beautiful coastal district of Kerala, which made its way to the national headlines for its brutal political murders. The state has the highest social development parameters when compared to other states but despite this, what makes Kannur standout in terms of political happenings is a matter to be discussed.
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 140-154; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.747
Agriculture is the main economic activity in Sundarban to sustain the basic livelihood of rural people. In recent decades, the nature of agriculture mainly cropping patterns, crop productivity, and agricultural land use is gradually changing because of various natural as well as anthropogenic factors. The frequent occurrence of climatic extremes over the Bay of Bengal has been directly or indirectly affected the agricultural system of the delta. In the wake of the 2009 cyclone Aila, the crop production in Gosaba rapidly declined due to high salinity and low pH in the soil. Most of the agricultural land remains a seasonal fallow due to the shortage of freshwater during the dry season. The direction of the surface slope has been altered by the unsystematic construction of embankment and haphazard construction of closure in river channels. The saucer-shaped appearance of the island causes massive drainage congestion induced waterlogging problem in the agricultural field. Waterlogging causes crop damage and low productivity. Farmers continue to face substantial monetary loss and entrapping in poverty. To overcome these issues, climate-resilient cropping strategy, proper maintenance of the drainage system, and adaptation of modern land reshaping techniques for diversified agriculture systems are urgently needed for the profound agro-based economic future of the delta.
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 168-182; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.768
The study is an attempt to analyse the socio-economic consequences of Sino-Indian war of 1962 on the ethnic communities of North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA), the present state of Arunachal Pradesh, geospatially located in North-East India. A careful analysis of the pre-independent history of the region suggests that both Ahoms and British rulers followed a policy of non-interference in the region as it was predominantly a tribal area. After independence, the Indian Government also followed the policy of minimal governance. The vital issues of infrastructure were also not given much emphasis until the war of 1962. As the Government realised the strategic importance of the state, a significant change in government policy can be witnessed. Apart from initiating development in infrastructure of the state, efforts were also made to nationalise the frontier. The present research aims to document the socio-economic changes brought by the war, using a critical analysis of a wide range of sources.
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 183-193; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.690
Odisha’s economy is predominantly agriculture driven. Exports from the mining industries remained a significant source of foreign exchange. However, over a period, aquaculture exports have also emerged as a lucrative possibility. It is a perfectly suitable sector considering the long coastline, rivers and water bodies, and labour intensive nature of the industry. From an individual or community level of operation, aquaculture developed the characteristics of the industry in the early 1970s. This descriptive research paper investigates the history of the aquaculture industry in Odisha over the past 50 years. The aquaculture industry in Odisha started two decades later than Kerala (another southern state of India), in the form of an experiential learning and opportunity-seeking process by the early players. The subsequent dominance of local players, consolidation, and expansion of the export market proves the natural resource advantage of the State. The study emphasises the contribution of the sector to the state economy. The adoption of healthy consumption habits, large untapped Indian market, value and values-addition in the product, and evolving traceability requirements for exports are some of the significant challenges facing the industry. Despite being an important sector for the State, this sector has not received due attention from academic research. Technology adoption practices, productivity improvement, internal competitions, development of industry structure, and role of policy could be some areas for future research.
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 36-46; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1046
Nipah virus, the consecutive 2018 and 2019 floods, the internal social, economic, and political struggles have had a significant impact on the lives of people in Kerala, India. While the state of Kerala was trying to get back to some form of stability, Covid-19 slams into, in an unprecedented way, drastically disrupting the lives of many. It has shaken the interconnectedness and interdependence of families and placed communities in a state of fear, anxiety, and uncertainty. This article is about the vulnerabilities, experiences, voices, and untold stories of courage and resilience among people in Kerala. Authors present a reflective analysis of the multidimensional impact of Covid-19 on the ordinary lives of the people of Kerala. The deleterious impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the entire humanity reckons the attention of governments, economists, educators, social scientists, medical and allied professionals, including social workers, to make concerted efforts to preserve and promote human well-being. Taking into consideration the structural inequalities in society, the present paper utilises a critical social work theoretical lens to analyse how it has impacted the well-being of people, especially the marginalised and vulnerable communities in Kerala.
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 207-210; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1077
Pulla, V., Bhattacharyya, R., & Bhatt, S. (eds). Discrimination, Challenge and Response-People of North East India, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, 203 pp., ISBN 978-3-030-46250-5, eBook:£87.50; Hardcover: £109.99
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 4-24; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1008
The COVID-19 pandemic, from its beginning in India on 30 January 2020, has caused over 3.7 million cases of illness and claimed over 66 thousand deaths as of 1 September2020. The large metropolitan cities have been the major hotspots of COVID-19 pandemic. The peculiar urbanisation patterns are crucial in spreading COVID-19 in India. This study attempts to highlight how urbanisation patterns increase the vulnerability of COVID-19 spread in India. The higher density, urban sprawl and associated intra-urban commuting, large slum population, inadequate water, sanitation and housing conditions along with homelessness are found to catalyse the vulnerability of COVID-19 spread in urban areas. The existing public health infrastructure in the country is found to be inadequate with respect to the increasing demand. Efforts to contain the spread are being made; nonetheless, the rapid increase in the cases of illness and deaths from COVID-19 has inflated the challenges for administration and citizens. Rapid enhancement in health infrastructure and health personnel must be made along with strict adherence to the measures of quarantine, social distancing and hygiene for the citizens are of utmost response to the decrease the spread.